A view from the citadel, overlooking Entrevaux
|• Mayor (2008–2014)||Gilbert Laurent|
|Area1||60.37 km2 (23.31 sq mi)|
|• Density||15/km2 (40/sq mi)|
|INSEE/Postal code||04076 / 04320|
|Elevation||414–1,541 m (1,358–5,056 ft)
(avg. 472 m or 1,549 ft)
1 French Land Register data, which excludes lakes, ponds, glaciers > 1 km² (0.386 sq mi or 247 acres) and river estuaries.2 Population without double counting: residents of multiple communes (e.g., students and military personnel) only counted once.
Following incursions of Saracens and the razing of the old town of Glandèves, the more defensible site of mediaeval Entrevaux was founded in the 11th century on the rocky spur in an angle of the river; the oldest recorded name is Interrivos and dates from 1040.
Between 1481 and 1487, Provence became a part of France.
In 1536, Entrevaux fell to the troops of Charles V, Holy Roman Emperor, betrayed by its lord Jacques Glandeves; half the population was massacred (coll.). The remaining population staged an uprising, cutting the throat of the governor, and offered the town to the French Dauphin, King François I. In recognition of this, Entrevaux was given the Charter of Avignon and declared a royal town of France and its inhabitants exempt from taxation (Le Monti).
In the 16th century, the old cathedral of Glandèves was finally abandoned as the official bishop's seat and a new cathedral, dedicated to the Assumption of the Virgin Mary, was constructed in Entrevaux.
In 1658 a bridge guarded by towers and a portcullis was constructed over the Var; this is the modern Porte Royale. In 1690 the military architect Vauban drew up plans to further fortify the town, due to its strategic position guarding the valley of the Var and on the border with Savoy. Although not completed in full, the citadel perched high above the town was strengthened, particularly on the more accessible side closest to the hilltops, and a protected walkway constructed up the side of the mountain from the town. Two small forts were provided to protect the town, and its two main gates - now called the Porte d'Italie and the Porte de France - strengthened.
Entrevaux was briefly besieged in June 1707 by the Savoyards under Chevalier Blaignac, but resisted and was relieved by the French forces.
The citadel was last used during World War I as a prison for German officers.
Entrevaux features a pilgrimage of St John on the weekend closest to 24 June, and an annual medieval festival on the weekend closest to 15 August (Le Monti). It houses a motorcycle museum with a working collection of early, mostly European models. Outside the city walls, a working 19th-century oil mill is still in production and can be visited.
Entrevaux may be reached by the mountain train from Nice to Digne-les-Bains run by the Chemins de Fer de Provence. In summer, a restored 19th century steam train runs between Annot and Puget-Théniers.
- Plan et Historique d'Entrevaux. Entrevaux, Tourist Information leaflet.
- Le Monti (1990) Entrevaux, Cité Vauban. Nice, IM4.
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