Envelope journalism

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Envelope journalism (also envelopmental journalism,[1] red envelope journalism,[2] white envelope journalism,[2] Ch'ongi,[2] wartawan amplop[3]) is a colloquial term for the practice of bribing corrupt journalists for favorable media coverage.

The term brown envelope journalism is common in English-speaking countries; other envelope colors are more commonly used in Asia, the Philippines,[1] China,[2] Korea,[2] India, and Indonesia.[3]

The term arose from the envelopes used to hold cash bribes, given ostensibly as tokens of appreciation for attending a press conference.[1]

More recently, the term ATM journalism has arisen, to indicate the change to electronic transfer of bribes to journalists' bank accounts.[1]


  1. ^ a b c d A Question Of Influence
  2. ^ a b c d e Brislin, Tom. "An Update on Journalism Ethics in Asia: Values and Practices as Context for Meaning in Japan, China and Korea". University of Hawaii.
  3. ^ a b "Indonesia and Envelope Journalism". Archived from the original on 2015-09-25. Retrieved 2012-08-15.