Health and environmental effects of battery electric cars

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
The Tesla Model Y was the world's top selling electric car in 2022.[1]

Usage of electric cars damage people’s health and the environment less than similar sized internal combustion engine cars. While aspects of their production can induce similar, less or different environmental impacts, they produce little or no tailpipe emissions, and reduce dependence on petroleum, greenhouse gas emissions, and deaths from air pollution.[2] Electric motors are significantly more efficient than internal combustion engines and thus, even accounting for typical power plant efficiencies and distribution losses,[3] less energy is required to operate an electric vehicle. Manufacturing batteries for electric cars requires additional resources and energy, so they may have a larger environmental footprint in the production phase.[4][5] Electric vehicles also generate different impacts in their operation and maintenance. Electric vehicles are typically heavier and could produce more tire and road dust air pollution, but their regenerative braking could reduce such particulate pollution from brakes.[6] Electric vehicles are mechanically simpler, which reduces the use and disposal of engine oil.

Comparison with fossil-fueled cars[edit]

Although all cars have effects on other people, battery electric cars have major environmental benefits over conventional internal combustion engine vehicles, such as:

  • Elimination of harmful tailpipe pollutants such as various oxides of nitrogen, which kill thousands of people every year[7]
  • Less CO2 emissions than fossil-fuelled cars, thus limiting climate change[8]
  • As almost all electric cars have regenerative braking brake pads can be used less frequently than in non-electric cars, and may thus sometimes produce less particulate pollution than brakes in non-electric cars.[9][10] Also, some electric cars may have a combination of drum brakes and disc brakes, and drum brakes are known to cause less particulate emissions than disc brakes.[11] Under the provisionally agreed Euro 7 standard electric cars have a lower limit of brake particulates.[12][13]

Electric cars may have some disadvantages, such as:

  • Possible increased tire pollution compared to fossil-fueled cars. This is sometimes caused by the fact that most electric cars have a heavy battery, which means the car's tires are subjected to more wear.[14][15] Devices to capture tyre particulates are being developed,[16][17] and under Euro 7 all new cars will have to meet the same tyre particulate limit.[18]
  • If electric cars are bigger than fossil fuel cars there may be more road dust pollution. However as of 2024 more research on road dust air pollution is needed.[2]

Materials extraction impact[edit]

Raw materials[edit]

Electric cars use far less raw materials than conventional petrol/gasoline cars, according to Transport & Environment. This difference is chiefly due to fuel consumption: the petrol or diesel that is burned during the average lifetime of a car would fill a stack of oil barrels 90 metres high, and weights between 300-400 times more than the total quantity of battery metals lost with an electric car (at around 30 kilograms, these metals would fit into the size of a football).

Plug-in hybrids and electric cars run off lithium-ion batteries and rare-earth element electric motors. Electric vehicles use much more lithium carbonate equivalent in their batteries compared to the 7g (0.25 oz) for a smartphone or the 30 g (1.1 oz) used by tablets or computers. As of 2016, a hybrid electric passenger car might use 5 kg (11 lb) of lithium carbonate equivalent, while one of Tesla's high performance electric cars could use as much as 80 kg (180 lb) of lithium carbonate equivalent. [19]

Most electric vehicles use permanent magnet motors as they are more efficient than induction motors. These permanent magnets use neodymium and praseodymium which can be dirty and difficult to produce.

The demand for lithium used by the batteries and rare-earth elements (such as neodymium, boron, and cobalt[20]) used by the electric motors, is expected to grow significantly due to the future sales increase of plug-in electric vehicles.

In 2022 the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change said (with medium confidence) "Emerging national strategies on critical minerals and the requirements from major vehicle manufacturers are leading to new, more geographically diverse mines. The standardisation of battery modules and packaging within and across vehicle platforms, as well as increased focus on design for recyclability are important. Given the high degree of potential recyclability of lithium-ion batteries, a nearly closed-loop system in the future could mitigate concerns about critical mineral issues."[21]: 142 


The Salar de Uyuni in Bolivia is one of the largest known lithium reserves in the world.[22][23]

The main deposits of lithium are found in China and throughout the Andes mountain chain in South America. In 2008 Chile was the leading lithium metal producer with almost 30%, followed by China, Argentina, and Australia.[24][25] Lithium recovered from brine, such as in Nevada[26][27] and Cornwall, is much more environmentally friendly.[28]

Nearly half the world's known reserves are located in Bolivia,[24][22] and according to the US Geological Survey, Bolivia's Salar de Uyuni desert has 5.4 million tons of lithium.[22][26] Other important reserves are located in Chile,[29] China, and Brazil.[24][26]

According to a 2020 study balancing lithium supply and demand for the rest of the century needs good recycling systems, vehicle-to-grid integration, and lower lithium intensity of transportation.[30]

Rare-earth elements[edit]

Evolution of global rare-earth oxides production by country (1950–2000

Electric motor manufactured for plug-in electric cars and hybrid electric vehicles use rare earth elements. The demand for heavy metals, and other specific elements (such as neodymium, boron and cobalt) required for the batteries and powertrain is expected to grow significantly due to the future sales increase of plug-in electric vehicles in the mid and long term.[31][24] It is estimated that there are sufficient lithium reserves to power 4 billion electric cars.[32][33]

China has 48% of the world's reserves of rare-earth elements,[34] the United States has 13%, and Russia, Australia, and Canada have significant deposits. Until the 1980s, the U.S. led the world in rare-earth production, but since the mid-1990s China has controlled the world market for these elements. The mines in Bayan Obo near Baotou, Inner Mongolia, are currently the largest source of rare-earth metals and are 80% of China's production.[35]

Manufacturing impact[edit]

Electric cars also have impacts arising from the manufacturing of the vehicle.[36][37] The manufacturing of the battery results in significant environmental impact,[citation needed] as it requires copper and aluminum for its anode and cathode. Since battery packs are heavy, manufacturers work to lighten the rest of the vehicle. As a result, electric car components contain many lightweight materials that require a lot of energy to produce and process, such as aluminium and carbon-fiber-reinforced polymers.[38]

The manufacturing of electric vehicle motors also results in environmental impacts. Electric cars can utilize two types of motors: permanent magnet motors (like the one found in the Mercedes EQA), and induction motors (like the one found on the Tesla Model 3). Induction motors do not use magnets, but permanent magnet motors do. The magnets found in permanent magnet motors used in electric vehicles contain rare-earth metals to increase the power output of these motors.[39] The mining and processing of metals such as lithium, copper, and nickel requires significant  energy and can release toxic compounds into the surrounding area. Local populations may be exposed to toxic substances through air and groundwater contamination.[40]

Several reports have found that hybrid electric vehicles, plug-in hybrids and all-electric cars generate more carbon emissions during their production than current internal combustion engine vehicles but still have a lower overall carbon footprint over the full life cycle.[41] The initial higher carbon footprint is due mainly to battery production,[42] which may double the production carbon footprint as of 2023 but this varies a lot by country and is forecast to decrease rapidly during the decade.[43]

Consumer use impacts[edit]

Air pollution and carbon emissions[edit]

Compared to conventional internal combustion engine automobiles, electric cars reduce local air pollution, especially in cities,[44] as they do not emit harmful tailpipe pollutants such as particulates (soot), volatile organic compounds, hydrocarbons, carbon monoxide, ozone, lead, and various oxides of nitrogen. Some of the environmental impact may instead be shifted to the site of the generation plants, depending on the method by which the electricity used to recharge the batteries is generated. This shift of environmental impact from the vehicle itself (in the case of internal combustion engine vehicles) to the source of electricity (in the case of electric vehicles) is referred to as the long tailpipe of electric vehicles. This impact, however, is still less than that of traditional vehicles, as the large size of power plants allow them to generate less emissions per unit power than internal combustion engines, and electricity generation continues to become greener as renewables such as wind, solar and nuclear power become more widespread. By 2050, carbon emissions reduced by the use of electric cars can save over 1163 lives annually and over $12.61 billion in health benefits in many major U.S. metropolitan cities such as Los Angeles and New York City.[45]

The specific emission intensity of generating electric power varies significantly with respect to location and time, depending on current demand and availability of renewable sources (See List of renewable energy topics by country and territory). The phase-out of fossil fuels and coal and transition to renewable and low-carbon power sources will make electricity generation greener, which will reduce the impact of electric vehicles that use that electricity.


The operation of any car results in non-exhaust emissions such as brake dust, airborne road dust, and tire erosion, which contribute to particulate matter in the air.[46] Particulate matter is dangerous for respiratory health.[47][48] In the UK non-tailpipe particulate emissions from all types of vehicles (including electric vehicles) may be responsible for between 7,000 and 8,000 premature deaths a year.[46]

Lower operational impacts and maintenance needs[edit]

Battery electric vehicles have lower maintenance costs compared to internal combustion vehicles since electronic systems break down much less often than the mechanical systems in conventional vehicles, and the fewer mechanical systems onboard last longer due to the better use of the electric engine. Electric cars do not require oil changes and other routine maintenance checks.[49][50]

Internal combustion engines are relatively inefficient at converting on-board fuel energy to propulsion as most of the energy is wasted as heat, and the rest while the engine is idling. Electric motors, on the other hand, are more efficient at converting stored energy into driving a vehicle. Electric drive vehicles do not consume energy while at rest or coasting, and modern plug-in cars can capture and reuse as much as one fifth of the energy normally lost during braking through regenerative braking.[49][50] Typically, conventional gasoline engines effectively use only 15% of the fuel energy content to move the vehicle or to power accessories, and diesel engines can reach on-board efficiencies of 20%, while electric drive vehicles typically have on-board efficiencies of around 80%.[49]

Low repairability[edit]

Electric vehicle batteries are easily totalled.[51][52]




Like internal combustion engine cars, most electric cars, as of 2023, contain lead–acid batteries which are used to power the vehicle's auxiliary electrical systems.[53] In some countries lead acid batteries are not recycled safely.[54][55]


Current retirement criteria for lithium-ion batteries in electric vehicles cite 80% capacity for end-of-first-life, and 65% capacity for end-of-second-life.[56] The first-life defines the lifespan of the battery's intended use, while the second-life defines the lifespan of the battery's subsequent use-case. Lithium-ion batteries from cars can sometimes be re-used for a second-life in factories[57] or as stationary batteries.[58] Some electric vehicle manufacturers, such as Tesla, claim that a lithium-ion battery that no longer fulfills the requirements of its intended use can be serviced by them directly, thereby lengthening its first-life.[59] Reused electric vehicle batteries can potentially supply 60-100% of the grid-scale lithium-ion energy storage by 2030.[60] The carbon footprint of an electric vehicle lithium-ion battery can be reduced by up to 17% if reused rather than immediately retired.[56] After retirement, direct recycling processes allow reuse of cathode mixtures, which removes processing steps required for manufacturing them. When this is infeasible, individual materials can be obtained through pyrometallurgy and hydrometallurgy. When lithium-ion batteries are recycled, if they are not handled properly, the harmful substances inside will cause secondary[clarification needed] pollution to the environment.[61] These same processes can also endanger workers and damage their health.[62] Lithium-ion batteries, when disposed of in household trash, can present fire hazards in transport and in landfills, resulting in trash fires that can destroy other recyclable materials and create increased carbon dioxide and particulate matter emissions.[63] Vehicle fires cause local pollution.[64]


Electric motors are an essential component of electric cars that convert electrical energy into mechanical energy to move the wheels, where neodymium magnets are commonly used in the manufacturing process.[65] There is currently no cost-effective way for the industry to recycle electric motors due to the complicated extraction process of these magnets.[66] Many electric motors end up in the landfill or are shredded because there is no viable recycle or disposal alternative.[66]

Two primary efforts to remedy this dilemma include the DEMETER project and a joint venture between Nissan Motors and Waseda University to lessen the environment impact of electric motors.[66][67] The DEMETER project was a research initiative between the European Union and private entities, which culminated in the development of a recyclable electric motor designed by French company Valeo.[67] Nissan and Waseda identified and refined a new process for extracting rare-earth magnets for re-use in the manufacturing of new electric vehicle motors.[67]

See also[edit]


  1. ^ Pontes, José (2022-03-05). "Best-selling Electric Cars (Globally) in January 2022". CleanTechnica. Retrieved 2022-04-08.
  2. ^ a b Ritchie, Hannah. "Do electric vehicles reduce air pollution?". Retrieved 2024-01-27.
  3. ^ "All-Electric Vehicles". Retrieved 2019-11-08.
  4. ^ Michalek; Chester; Jaramillo; Samaras; Shiau; Lave (2011). "Valuation of plug-in vehicle life cycle air emissions and oil displacement benefits". Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences. 108 (40): 16554–16558. Bibcode:2011PNAS..10816554M. doi:10.1073/pnas.1104473108. PMC 3189019. PMID 21949359. S2CID 6979825.
  5. ^ Tessum; Hill; Marshall (2014). "Life cycle air quality impacts of conventional and alternative light-duty transportation in the United States". Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences. 111 (52): 18490–18495. Bibcode:2014PNAS..11118490T. doi:10.1073/pnas.1406853111. PMC 4284558. PMID 25512510.
  6. ^ Ben Webster (29 July 2019). "Electric cars are a threat to clean air, claims Chris Boardman". The Times. Retrieved 3 August 2019. The government's air quality expert group said this month that particles from tyres, brakes and road surfaces made up about two-thirds of all particulate matter from road transport and would continue to increase even as more cars were run on electric power.
  7. ^ Association, New Scientist and Press. "Diesel fumes lead to thousands more deaths than thought". New Scientist. Retrieved 2020-10-12.
  8. ^ "Supporting the global shift to electric mobility". UNEP - UN Environment Programme. 2024-01-26. Retrieved 2024-01-27.
  9. ^ Carrington, Damian (August 4, 2017). "Electric cars are not the answer to air pollution, says top UK adviser". The Guardian. Retrieved September 1, 2019 – via
  10. ^ Loeb, Josh (March 10, 2017). "Particle pollution from electric cars could be worse than from diesel ones". Retrieved September 1, 2019.
  11. ^ Geylin, Mike (2022-06-09). "Corrosion, Emissions and the Return of Drum Brakes?". The BRAKE Report. Retrieved 2022-12-05.
  12. ^ Prez, Matt de. "EU strikes provisional deal over Euro 7 emissions limits".
  13. ^ "Euro 7: Deal on new EU rules to reduce road transport emissions | News | European Parliament". 2023-12-18. Retrieved 2024-01-05. The deal sets brake particles emissions limits (PM10) for cars and vans (3mg/km for pure electric vehicles; 7mg/km for most internal combustion engine (ICE), hybrid electric and fuel cell vehicles and 11mg/km for large ICE vans).
  14. ^ "Electric vehicle tires: a lesser-known pollution headache – DW – 07/12/2023".
  15. ^ Hawkins, Andrew J. (22 May 2023). "An auto CEO came very close to saying the right thing about heavy EV batteries". The Verge.
  16. ^ "When Driving, Tires Emit Pollution. And EVs Make the Problem Worse". 2022-09-02. Retrieved 2022-12-05.
  17. ^ "FEATURE: The engineers fighting deadly air pollution with an ingenious car add-on". Retrieved 2022-12-05.
  18. ^ Fischer-Lauder, Hannah (2023-12-20). "Euro 7: EU Agrees on New Rules to Curb Road Transport Emissions". Impakter. Retrieved 2024-01-27.
  19. ^ Hiscock, Geoff (2015-11-18). "Electric vehicles, storage units drive prices up". The Nikkei. Retrieved 2016-02-29.
  20. ^ "Reporters - Energy transition: The dark side of the electric car battery cobalt rush". France 24. 7 July 2023.
  21. ^ IPCC: Climate Change 2022, Mitigation of Climate Change, Summary for Policymakers (PDF). (Report). Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change. 4 April 2022. Archived from the original (PDF) on 2022-08-07. Retrieved 2004-04-22.
  22. ^ a b c Simon Romero (2009-02-02). "In Bolivia, Untapped Bounty Meets Nationalism". New York Times. Retrieved 2010-02-28.
  23. ^ "Página sobre el Salar (Spanish)". Archived from the original on 2011-03-23. Retrieved 2010-11-27.
  24. ^ a b c d Clifford Krauss (2009-03-09). "The Lithium Chase". The New York Times. Retrieved 2010-03-10.
  25. ^ Brendan I. Koerner (2008-10-30). "The Saudi Arabia of Lithium". Forbes. Retrieved 2011-05-12. Published on Forbes Magazine dated November 24, 2008.
  26. ^ a b c "USGS Mineral Commodities Summaries 2009" (PDF). U. S. Geological Survey. January 2009. Retrieved 2010-03-07. See page 95.
  27. ^ Hammond, C. R. (2000). The Elements, in Handbook of Chemistry and Physics 81st edition. CRC press. ISBN 978-0-8493-0481-1.
  28. ^ Early, Catherine. "The new 'gold rush' for green lithium". Retrieved 2021-01-13.
  29. ^ Riofrancos, Thea (14 June 2021). "The rush to 'go electric' comes with a hidden cost: destructive lithium mining" – via The Guardian.
  30. ^ Greim, Peter; Solomon, A. A.; Breyer, Christian (2020-09-11). "Assessment of lithium criticality in the global energy transition and addressing policy gaps in transportation". Nature Communications. 11 (1): 4570. Bibcode:2020NatCo..11.4570G. doi:10.1038/s41467-020-18402-y. ISSN 2041-1723. PMC 7486911. PMID 32917866.
  31. ^ Irving Mintzer (2009). David B. Sandalow (ed.). Chapter 6: Look Before You Leap: Exploring the Implications of Advanced Vehicles for Import Dependence and Passerger Safety (PDF). The Brookings Institution. pp. 107–126. ISBN 978-0-8157-0305-1. in "Plug-in Electric Vehicles: What Role for Washington?"
  32. ^ "Learn About Lithium – In 10 Bullet Points". ElectroVelocity. 2010-12-13. Retrieved 2011-01-03.
  33. ^ Smith, Michael (2009-12-07). "Lithium for 4.8 Billion Electric Cars Lets Bolivia Upset Market". Bloomberg. Retrieved 2011-01-03.
  34. ^ "Not So "Green" Technology: The Complicated Legacy of Rare Earth Mining". Harvard International Review. 12 August 2021.
  35. ^ Tim Folger (June 2011). "Rare Earth Elements: The Secret Ingredients of Everything". National Geographic. Archived from the original on May 22, 2011. Retrieved 2011-06-12.
  36. ^ Notter, Dominic A.; Gauch, Marcel; Widmer, Rolf; Wäger, Patrick; Stamp, Anna; Zah, Rainer; Althaus, Hans-Jörg (2010-09-01). "Contribution of Li-Ion Batteries to the Environmental Impact of Electric Vehicles". Environmental Science & Technology. 44 (17): 6550–6556. Bibcode:2010EnST...44.6550N. doi:10.1021/es903729a. ISSN 0013-936X. PMID 20695466.
  37. ^ Notter, Dominic A.; Kouravelou, Katerina; Karachalios, Theodoros; Daletou, Maria K.; Haberland, Nara Tudela (2015). "Life cycle assessment of PEM FC applications: electric mobility and μ-CHP". Energy Environ. Sci. 8 (7): 1969–1985. doi:10.1039/c5ee01082a.
  38. ^ RecycleNation. "Is Carbon Fiber Better for the Environment than Steel? – RecycleNation". Retrieved 2022-04-06.
  39. ^ Hanejko, Fran. "Permanent Magnet vs Induction Motor: Torque, Losses, Material". Retrieved 2022-04-06.
  40. ^ "Lithium Extraction Environmental Impact · Eco Jungle". Eco Jungle. 2021-12-31. Retrieved 2022-04-06.
  41. ^ "France Prohibits Electric Vehicle Greenwashing In 2023".
  42. ^ Buekers, J; Van Holderbeke, M; Bierkens, J; Int Panis, L (2014). "Health and environmental benefits related to electric vehicle introduction in EU countries". Transportation Research Part D: Transport and Environment. 33: 26–38. doi:10.1016/j.trd.2014.09.002. S2CID 110866624.
  43. ^ "The race to decarbonize electric-vehicle batteries | McKinsey". Retrieved 2024-01-28.
  44. ^ "Zeroing in on Healthy Air report". Retrieved 2022-04-06.
  45. ^ Pan, Shuai; Yu, Wendi; Fulton, Lewis M.; Jung, Jia; Choi, Yunsoo; Gao, H. Oliver (2023-03-01). "Impacts of the large-scale use of passenger electric vehicles on public health in 30 US. metropolitan areas". Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews. 173: 113100. doi:10.1016/j.rser.2022.113100. ISSN 1364-0321. S2CID 256772423.
  46. ^ a b "This is why electric cars won't stop air pollution". Retrieved 2020-10-12.
  47. ^ Habre, Rima; Girguis, Mariam; Urman, Robert; Fruin, Scott; Lurmann, Fred; Shafer, Martin; Gorski, Patrick; Franklin, Meredith; McConnell, Rob; Avol, Ed; Gilliland, Frank (February 2021). "Contribution of tailpipe and non-tailpipe traffic sources to quasi-ultrafine, fine and coarse particulate matter in southern California". Journal of the Air & Waste Management Association (1995). 71 (2): 209–230. doi:10.1080/10962247.2020.1826366. ISSN 2162-2906. PMC 8112073. PMID 32990509.
  48. ^ "Non-exhaust Particulate Emissions from Road Transport : An Ignored Environmental Policy Challenge". Retrieved 2022-04-06.
  49. ^ a b c Saurin D. Shah (2009). David B. Sandalow (ed.). Chapter 2: Electrification of Transport and Oil Displacement (1st ed.). The Brookings Institution. pp. 29, 37 and 43. ISBN 978-0-8157-0305-1. Archived from the original on 2010-04-04. in "Plug-in Electric Vehicles: What Role for Washington?"
  50. ^ a b Sperling, Daniel and Deborah Gordon (2009). Two billion cars: driving toward sustainability. Oxford University Press, New York. pp. 22–26 and 114–139. ISBN 978-0-19-537664-7.
  51. ^
  52. ^ Amariei, Florin (24 December 2023). "Yikes! The $60,000 Hyundai Ioniq 5 Battery Replacement Saga Continues". autoevolution.
  53. ^ "FLASH: BYD announces to stop using ..." Retrieved 2024-01-29.
  54. ^ "Consequences of a Mobile Future: Creating an Environmentally Conscious Life Cycle for Lead-Acid Batteries" (PDF).
  55. ^ "Getting the Lead Out: Why Battery Recycling Is a Global Health Hazard". Yale E360. Retrieved 2021-01-03.
  56. ^ a b Tao, Yanqiu; Rahn, Christopher D.; Archer, Lynden A.; You, Fengqi (2021-11-05). "Second life and recycling: Energy and environmental sustainability perspectives for high-performance lithium-ion batteries". Science Advances. 7 (45): eabi7633. doi:10.1126/sciadv.abi7633. ISSN 2375-2548. PMC 8570603. PMID 34739316.
  57. ^ "Electric cars: What will happen to all the dead batteries?". BBC News. 2021-04-26. Retrieved 2021-12-14.
  58. ^ "Electric Vehicle Battery Reuse and Recycling". Advanced Energy. 2021-11-16. Retrieved 2021-12-14.
  59. ^ "Sustainability". 2018-09-26. Retrieved 2022-04-08.
  60. ^ Zhu, Juner; Mathews, Ian; Ren, Dongsheng; Li, Wei; Cogswell, Daniel; Xing, Bobin; Sedlatschek, Tobias; Kantareddy, Sai Nithin R.; Yi, Mengchao; Gao, Tao; Xia, Yong (2021-08-18). "End-of-life or second-life options for retired electric vehicle batteries". Cell Reports Physical Science. 2 (8): 100537. doi:10.1016/j.xcrp.2021.100537. ISSN 2666-3864. S2CID 238701303.
  61. ^ Wu, Haohui; Gong, Yuan; Yu, Yajuan; Huang, Kai; Wang, Lei (2019-12-01). "Superior "green" electrode materials for secondary batteries: through the footprint family indicators to analyze their environmental friendliness". Environmental Science and Pollution Research. 26 (36): 36538–36557. doi:10.1007/s11356-019-06865-6. ISSN 1614-7499. PMID 31732947. S2CID 208046071.
  62. ^ Harper, Gavin; Sommerville, Roberto; Kendrick, Emma; Driscoll, Laura; Slater, Peter; Stolkin, Rustam; Walton, Allan; Christensen, Paul; Heidrich, Oliver; Lambert, Simon; Abbott, Andrew (November 2019). "Recycling lithium-ion batteries from electric vehicles". Nature. 575 (7781): 75–86. doi:10.1038/s41586-019-1682-5. ISSN 1476-4687. PMID 31695206. S2CID 207913324.
  63. ^ US EPA National Center for Environmental Assessment, Washington DC. "An Inventory of Sources and Environmental Releases of Dioxin-Like Compounds In the U.S. For the Years 1987, 1995, and 2000 (Final, Nov 2006)". Retrieved 2022-04-08.
  64. ^ Quant, Maria; Willstrand, Ola; Mallin, Tove; Hynynen, Jonna (28 March 2023). "Ecotoxicity Evaluation of Fire-Extinguishing Water from Large-Scale Battery and Battery Electric Vehicle Fire Tests". Environmental Science & Technology. 57 (12): 4821–4830. doi:10.1021/acs.est.2c08581. PMC 10061927. PMID 36913186 – via CrossRef.
  65. ^ "Electric Motors Research and Development". Retrieved 2022-04-08.
  66. ^ a b c "Designing and recycling electric motors". European Commission. Retrieved 2022-04-07.
  67. ^ a b c "Nissan and Waseda University in Japan testing jointly developed recycling process for electrified vehicle motors". Waseda University. Retrieved 2022-04-08.