Environmental aspects of the electric car
Electric cars (or electric vehicles, EVs) have major environmental benefits compared to conventional internal combustion engine cars. They produce little or no tailpipe emissions, reduce dependence on petroleum and also have the potential to reduce greenhouse gas emissions and health effects from air pollution, depending on the source of electricity used to charge them and other factors. Electric motors are significantly more efficient than internal combustion engines and thus, even accounting for typical power plan efficiencies and distribution losses, less energy is required to operate an EV. Producing batteries for electric cars requires additional resources and energy, so they may have a larger environmental footprint from the production phase. EVs also generate different impacts in their operation and maintenance. EVs are typically heavier and could produce more tire, brake, and road dust, but their regenerative braking could reduce brake particulate pollution. EVs are mechanically simpler, which reduces the use and disposal of engine oil.
Advantages and disadvantages compared to fossil fuelled cars
Battery electric cars have several environmental benefits over conventional internal combustion engine vehicles (ICEVs), such as:
- Elimination of harmful tailpipe pollutants such as various oxides of nitrogen, which kill thousands of people every year
- Less CO
2 emissions globally than fossil-fuelled cars, thus limiting climate change
Electric cars have some disadvantages, such as:
- Reliance on rare-earth elements such as neodymium, lanthanum, terbium, and dysprosium, and other critical metals such as lithium and cobalt, though the quantity of rare metals used differs per car. Though Rare Earth metals are plentiful in the Earth's crust, only a few miners hold exclusivity to access those elements.
- Possible increased particulate matter emissions from tires. This is sometimes caused by the fact that most electric cars have a heavy battery, which means the car's tires are subjected to more wear. The brake pads, however, can be used less frequently than in non-electric cars, if regenerative braking is available and may thus sometimes produce less particulate pollution than brakes in non-electric cars. Also, some electric cars may have a combination of drum brakes and disc brakes, and drum brakes are known to cause less particulate emissions than disc brakes.
- pollution emitted in manufacturing, especially the increased amounts from producing batteries
- Passive pollution in certain cases; Electricity consumed for recharge is obtained from powerplants which release pollutants, thus even though during movement pollutants are not released the electricity utilised has already polluted. In case Nuclear power plants there are no visible pollutants but only nuclear waste which require costly storage,management etc.
This section needs expansion. You can help by adding to it. (October 2020)
Like all cars, electric cars give off particulate matter (PM) from road tyre and brake wear, and this contributes to respiratory disease. In the UK alone non-tailpipe PM (from all types of vehicle not just electric) may be responsible for between 7,000 and 8,000 premature deaths a year.
However, lower fueling, operation, and maintenance costs of EVs could induce the rebound effect, thereby releasing more particulates. In other words, cheaper driving costs serve to encourage more driving, thereby engendering more tire wear. (Other costs, such as congestion and the resulting incentive to pave more land in order to expand the road network, also arise.)
Electricity generation for electric cars
Electric cars emit less greenhouse gas over their lifetime than fossil fuel cars, except possibly in places with a very high proportion of coal-fired electricity, such as Serbia. The size of the difference depends on distance driven as well as the source of the electricity, because the difference is mainly when the car is being driven rather than when it is being manufactured or recycled. For example, battery electric and hydrogen vehicles do not produce CO
2 emissions at all when driven, but only if their energy comes from renewable electricity or low carbon sources like nuclear. Timing the charging process of electric vehicles according to the power generated by renewable power sources can increase the percentage of renewable energy in the electric grid.
Even when the power is generated using fossil fuels, electric vehicles usually, compared to gasoline vehicles, show significant reductions in overall well-to-wheels global carbon emissions due to the highly carbon-intensive production in mining, pumping, refining, transportation and the efficiencies obtained with gasoline. This means that even if part of the energy used to run an electric car comes from fossil fuels, electric cars will still contribute to reduce CO
2 emissions, which is important since most countries' electricity is generated, at least in part, by burning fossil fuels. Researchers in Germany have claimed that, while there is some technical superiority of electric propulsion compared with conventional technology, in many countries the effect of electrification of vehicles' fleet emissions will predominantly be due to regulation rather than technology.[clarification needed] The emissions of electrical grids can be expected to improve over time as more wind and solar generation is deployed.
Many, but not most or all countries are introducing CO
2 average emissions targets across all cars sold by a manufacturer, with financial penalties on manufacturers that fail to meet these targets. This has created an incentive for manufacturers, especially those selling many heavy or high-performance cars, to introduce electric cars and turbocharged cars as a means of reducing average fleet CO
Air pollution and carbon emissions in various countries
Electric cars have several benefits over conventional internal combust engine automobiles, reduction of local air pollution, especially in cities, as they do not emit harmful tailpipe pollutants such as particulates (soot), volatile organic compounds, hydrocarbons, carbon monoxide, ozone, lead, and various oxides of nitrogen. The clean air benefit may only be local because, depending on the source of the electricity used to recharge the batteries, air pollutant emissions may be shifted to the location of the generation plants. This is referred to as the long tailpipe of electric vehicles. The amount of carbon dioxide emitted depends on the emission intensity of the power sources used to charge the vehicle, the efficiency of the said vehicle and the energy wasted in the charging process. For mains electricity the emission intensity varies significantly per country and within a particular country, and on the demand, the availability of renewable sources and the efficiency of the fossil fuel-based generation used at a given time.
Charging a vehicle using renewable energy (e.g., wind power or solar panels) yields very low carbon footprint-only that to produce and install the generation system (see Energy Returned On Energy Invested.) Even on a fossil-fueled grid, it's quite feasible for a household with solar panels to produce enough energy to account for their electric car usage, thus (on average) cancelling out the emissions of charging the vehicle, whether or not the panel directly charges it. Even when using exclusively grid electricity, introducing EVs comes with a major environmental benefits in most (EU) countries, except those relying on old coal fired power plants. So for example the part of electricity, which is produced with renewable energy is (2014) in Norway 99 percent and in Germany 30 percent.
Sales of purely fossil-fuelled cars will end in 2030 and hybrids in 2035, although existing ones will be allowed to remain on some public roads depending on local rules. One estimate in 2020 said that if all fossil-fuelled cars were replaced UK greenhouse gas emissions would fall by 12%. But because UK consumers can select their energy suppliers, the amount of the drop depends on how 'green' their chosen supplier is in providing energy into the grid.
Two thirds of road transport (not just automobiles) particulate matter contamination arise from tire, brake, and road dust, the UK government disclosed in July 2019 and particulate matter pollution was forecast to continue to increase even with electric cars.
This section needs to be updated.December 2020)(
According to a Union of Concerned Scientists study in 2018:
"Based on data on power plant emissions released in February 2018, driving on electricity is cleaner than gasoline for most drivers in the US. Seventy-five percent of people now live in places where driving on electricity is cleaner than a 50 MPG gasoline car. And based on where people have already bought EVs, electric vehicles now have greenhouse gas emissions equal to an 80 MPG car, much lower than any gasoline-only car available."
In France, which has many nuclear power plants, CO
2 emissions from electric car use would be about 24 g/km (38.6 g/mi). Because of the stable nuclear production, the timing of charging electric cars has almost no impact on their environmental footprint.
Norway & Sweden
Since Norway and Sweden produce almost its entire electricity with carbon-free sources, CO
2 emissions from driving an electric car are even lower, at about 2 g/km (3.2 g/mi) in Norway and 10 g/km (16.1 g/mi) in Sweden.
Environmental impact of manufacturing
Electric cars also have impacts arising from the manufacturing of the vehicle. Since battery packs are heavy, manufacturers work to lighten the rest of the vehicle. As a result, electric car components contain many lightweight materials that require a lot of energy to produce and process, such as aluminium and carbon-fiber-reinforced polymers. Electric motors and batteries add to the energy of electric-car manufacture. There are two kinds of motors used by electric cars: permanent magnet motors (like the one found in the Tesla Model 3), and induction motors (like the one found on the Tesla Model S). Induction motors do not use magnets, but permanent magnet motors do. The magnets found in permanent magnet motors used in electric vehicles contain rare-earth metals which are used to increase the power output of these motors. The mining and processing of metals such as lithium, copper, and nickel requires much energy and it can release toxic compounds. In developing countries with weak legislation and/or enforcement thereof, mineral exploitation can increase risks further. As such, the local population may be exposed to toxic substances through air and groundwater contamination. New battery technologies may be needed to resolve those problems. Li-ion batteries recycling is rarely done in developing and developed countries. In fact, in 2017, only 5% of lithium-ion batteries were actually recycled in the EU.
A 2018 report by ADAC (which looked at vehicles running on various fuels, including gas, diesel, hybrid and electricity) stated that "no powertrain has the best climate balance, and the electric car is not always particularly climate-friendly compared to the internal combustion engine car. At its website, ADAC mentions that a big problem in Germany is the fact that much of the produced electricity comes from coal-fired power plants, and that electric cars are only climate-friendly when equipped with regeneration.
Several reports have found that hybrid electric vehicles, plug-in hybrids and all-electric cars generate more carbon emissions during their production than current conventional vehicles but still have a lower overall carbon footprint over the full life cycle. The initial higher carbon footprint is due mainly to battery production.
In 2017, a report made by IVL Swedish Environmental Research Institute also calculated that the CO
2 emissions of lithium-ion batteries (present in many electric cars today) are in the order of 150–200 kilos of carbon dioxide equivalents per kilowatt-hour battery. Half of the CO
2 emissions (50%) comes from cell manufacturing, whereas mining and refining contributes only a small part of the CO
2 emissions. In practice, emissions in the order of 150–200 kilos of carbon dioxide equivalents per kilowatt-hour means that an electric car with a 100kWh battery will thus have emitted 15–20 tons of carbon dioxide even before the vehicle ignition is turned on. However, Popular Mechanics calculates that even if the 15–20 tons estimate is correct, it would only take 2.4 years of driving for the electric car with a 100kWh battery to recover the greenhouse emissions from the battery manufacturing. Furthermore, two other studies suggest a 100kWh battery would generate about 6-6.4 tons of CO
2 emissions, so significantly less than what the IVL study claims.
However, in December 2019, IVL Swedish Environmental Research Institute updated their 2017 study, reducing their estimate to 61-106 kg CO2-eq per kWh of battery capacity, with potential to go even lower. The new study therefore shows carbon emissions from battery production are 2-3 times less intensive than previously reported, questioning studies that had taken the 2017 figure to prove EV were not better than ICE cars on life-cycle assessments.
Citing the 2019 study:
"The apparent decrease in total GWP [Global Warming Potential] from the 2017 report (150-200kg CO2-eq/kWh battery capacity) to 61-106kg CO2-eq/kWh battery capacity is partly due to that this report includes battery production with nearly fossil free electricity use which is the main reason for the decrease in the lowest value. The lowering of the high value is mainly due to improved efficiency in cell production. Another reason for a decrease is that the emissions from recycling are not included in the new range. They were about 15kg CO2-eq/kWh battery capacity in the 2017 report."
A 2020 study from Eindhoven University of Technology mentioned that the manufacturing emissions of batteries of new electric cars are much smaller than what was assumed in the IVL study (around 75 kg CO2/kwh) and that the lifespan of lithium batteries is also much longer than previously thought (at least 12 years with a mileage of 15000 km annually). As such, they are more ecological than gasoline-powered internal combustion cars. 
Raw material availability and supply security
This section needs to be updated.March 2019)(
Common technology for plug-in hybrids and electric cars is based on the lithium-ion battery and an electric motor which uses rare-earth elements. The demand for lithium and other specific elements (such as neodymium, boron and cobalt) required for the batteries and powertrain is expected to grow significantly due to the future sales increase of plug-in electric vehicles in the mid and long term. While only 7 g (0.25 oz) of lithium carbonate equivalent (LCE) are required in a smartphone and 30 g (1.1 oz) in a tablet computer, electric vehicles and stationary energy storage systems for homes, businesses or industry use much more lithium in their batteries. As of 2016[update] a hybrid electric passenger car might use 5 kg (11 lb) of LCE, while one of Tesla's high performance electric cars could use as much as 80 kg (180 lb).
The main deposits of lithium are found in China and throughout the Andes mountain chain in South America. In 2008 Chile was the leading lithium metal producer with almost 30%, followed by China, Argentina, and Australia. Lithium recovered from brine, such as in Nevada and Cornwall, is much more environmentally friendly.
Nearly half the world's known reserves are located in Bolivia, and according to the US Geological Survey, Bolivia's Salar de Uyuni desert has 5.4 million tons of lithium. Other important reserves are located in Chile, China, and Brazil. Since 2006 the Bolivian government have nationalized oil and gas projects and is keeping a tight control over mining its lithium reserves. Already the Japanese and South Korean governments, as well as companies from these two countries and France, have offered technical assistance to develop Bolivia's lithium reserves and are seeking to gain access to the lithium resources through a mining and industrialization model suitable to Bolivian interests.
According to a 2011 study conducted at Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory and the University of California Berkeley, the currently estimated reserve base of lithium should not be a limiting factor for large-scale battery production for electric vehicles, as the study estimated that on the order of 1 billion 40 kWh Li-based batteries (about 10 kg of lithium per car) could be built with current reserves, as estimated by the U.S. Geological Survey. Another 2011 study by researchers from the University of Michigan and Ford Motor Company found that there are sufficient lithium resources to support global demand until 2100, including the lithium required for the potential widespread use of hybrid electric, plug-in hybrid electric and battery electric vehicles. The study estimated global lithium reserves at 39 million tons, and total demand for lithium during the 90-year period analyzed at 12–20 million tons, depending on the scenarios regarding economic growth and recycling rates.
A 2016 study by Bloomberg New Energy Finance (BNEF) found that availability of lithium and other finite materials used in the battery packs will not be a limiting factor for the adoption of electric vehicles. BNEF estimated that battery packs will require less than 1% of the known reserves of lithium, nickel, manganese, and copper through 2030, and 4% of the world's cobalt. After 2030, the study states that new battery chemistries will probably shift to other source materials, making packs lighter, smaller, and cheaper.
- Rare-earth elements
China has 48% of the world's reserves of rare-earth elements, the United States has 13%, and Russia, Australia, and Canada have significant deposits. Until the 1980s, the U.S. led the world in rare-earth production, but since the mid-1990s China has controlled the world market for these elements. The mines in Bayan Obo near Baotou, Inner Mongolia, are currently the largest source of rare-earth metals and are 80% of China's production. In 2010 China accounted for 97% of the global production of 17 rare-earth elements. Since 2006 the Chinese government has been imposing export quotas reducing supply at a rate of 5% to 10% a year.
Prices of several rare-earth elements increased sharply by mid-2010 as China imposed a 40% export reduction, citing environmental concerns as the reason for the export restrictions. These quotas have been interpreted as an attempt to control the supply of rare-earths. However, the high prices have provided an incentive to begin or reactivate several rare-earth mining projects around the world, including the United States, Australia, Vietnam, and Kazakhstan.
In September 2010, China temporarily blocked all exports of rare-earths to Japan in the midst of a diplomatic dispute between the two countries. These minerals are used in hybrid cars and other products such wind turbines and guided missiles, thereby augmenting the worries about the dependence on Chinese rare-earth elements and the need for geographic diversity of supply. A December 2010 report published by the US DoE found that the American economy vulnerable to rare-earth shortages and estimates that it could take 15 years to overcome dependence on Chinese supplies. China raised export taxes for some rare-earths from 15 to 25%, and also extended taxes to exports of some rare-earth alloys that were not taxed before. The Chinese government also announced further reductions on its export quotas for the first months of 2011, which represent a 35% reduction in tonnage as compared to exports during the first half of 2010.
In order to avoid its dependence on rare-earth minerals, Toyota Motor Corporation announced in January 2011 that it is developing an alternative motor for future hybrid and electric cars that does not need rare-earth materials. Toyota engineers in Japan and the U.S. are developing an induction motor that is lighter and more efficient than the magnet-type motor used in the Prius, which uses two rare-earths in its motor magnets. Other popular hybrids and plug-in electric cars in the market that use these rare-earth elements are the Nissan Leaf, the Chevrolet Volt and Honda Insight. For its second generation RAV4 EV due in 2012, Toyota is using an induction motor supplied by Tesla Motors that does not require rare-earth materials. The Tesla Roadster and the Tesla Model S use a similar motor.
Lower operational impacts and maintenance needs
Battery electric vehicles have lower maintenance costs compared to internal combustion vehicles, since electronic systems break down much less often than the mechanical systems in conventional vehicles, and the fewer mechanical systems on board last longer due to the better use of the electric engine. Electric cars do not require oil changes and other routine maintenance checks.
Internal combustion engines are relatively inefficient at converting on-board fuel energy to propulsion as most of the energy is wasted as heat, and the rest while the engine is idling. Electric motors, on the other hand, are more efficient at converting stored energy into driving a vehicle. Electric drive vehicles do not consume energy while at rest or coasting, and modern plug-in cars can capture and reuse as much as one fifth of the energy normally lost during braking through regenerative braking. Typically, conventional gasoline engines effectively use only 15% of the fuel energy content to move the vehicle or to power accessories, and diesel engines can reach on-board efficiencies of 20%, while electric drive vehicles typically have on-board efficiencies of around 80%.
- NEV's and electric velomobiles: low-capacity battery electric vehicles
- Converting existing vehicle to electric (see environmental impact of manufacturing)
- Solar car: car powered by an electric motor, fed by a PV-panel; this does not have some of the disadvantages noted in this article
- Fuel cell car: car powered by an electric motor, fed by a fuel cell; this may not have some of the disadvantages noted in this article (if not foreseen with an additional battery)
- Induction motor: does not have permanent (rare-earth) magnets
- Modal shift
- Phase-out of fossil fuel vehicles
- Plug-in hybrid electric car: is a hybrid electric vehicle whose battery can be recharged by plugging it into an external source of electric power, as well by its on-board engine and generator. While running in all-electric mode (EV mode), the plug-in hybrid operation is similar to an all-electric vehicle.
- Vehicles powered by advanced biofuels: carbon-neutral vehicles
- Robotic disassembly of electric car batteries
- Downcycling of end-of-life e-automotive batteries
- "Electric Vehicle Costs and Benefits in the United States" (PDF). Carnegie Mellon University. Retrieved 3 September 2020.
- Holland; Mansur; Muller; Yates (2016). "Are there environmental benefits from driving electric vehicles? The importance of local factors". American Economic Review. 106 (12): 3700–3729. doi:10.1257/aer.20150897.
- Yuksel; Tamayao; Hendrickson; Azevedo; Michalek (2016). "Effect of regional grid mix, driving patterns and climate on the comparative carbon footprint of electric and gasoline vehicles". Environmental Research Letters. 11 (4). doi:10.1088/1748-9326/11/4/044007.
- Weis; Jaramillo; Michalek (2016). "Consequential life cycle air emissions externalities for plug-in electric vehicles in the PJM interconnection". Environmental Research Letters. 11 (2): 024009. Bibcode:2016ERL....11b4009W. doi:10.1088/1748-9326/11/2/024009.
- "All-Electric Vehicles". www.fueleconomy.gov. Retrieved 2019-11-08.
- Michalek; Chester; Jaramillo; Samaras; Shiau; Lave (2011). "Valuation of plug-in vehicle life cycle air emissions and oil displacement benefits". Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences. 108 (40): 16554-16558. Bibcode:2011PNAS..10816554M. doi:10.1073/pnas.1104473108. PMID 21949359. S2CID 6979825.
- Tessum; Hill; Marshall (2014). "Life cycle air quality impacts of conventional and alternative light-duty transportation in the United States". Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences. 111 (52): 18490–18495. Bibcode:2014PNAS..11118490T. doi:10.1073/pnas.1406853111. PMC 4284558. PMID 25512510.
- Ben Webster (29 July 2019). "Electric cars are a threat to clean air, claims Chris Boardman". The Times. Retrieved 3 August 2019.
The government’s air quality expert group said this month that particles from tyres, brakes and road surfaces made up about two thirds of all particulate matter from road transport and would continue to increase even as more cars were run on electric power.
- Association, New Scientist and Press. "Diesel fumes lead to thousands more deaths than thought". New Scientist. Retrieved 2020-10-12.
- "Global EV Outlook 2020 – Analysis". IEA. Retrieved 2020-12-24.
- "EUROPA - Electric vehicles and critical metals - Jamie Speirs, Imperial College Centre for Energy Policy and Technology | SETIS - European Commission". setis.ec.europa.eu. Retrieved September 1, 2019.
- "Rare Earth Metals and Hybrid Cars". December 9, 2010. Retrieved September 1, 2019.
- Sheibani, Askar (March 26, 2014). "Rare earth metals: tech manufacturers must think again, and so must users". The Guardian. Retrieved September 1, 2019 – via www.theguardian.com.
- Damian Carrington (August 4, 2017). "Electric cars are not the answer to air pollution, says top UK adviser". The Guardian. Retrieved September 1, 2019 – via www.theguardian.com.
- Loeb, Josh (March 10, 2017). "Particle pollution from electric cars could be worse than from diesel ones". eandt.theiet.org. Retrieved September 1, 2019.
- "This is why electric cars won't stop air pollution". www.imeche.org. Retrieved 2020-10-12.
- "Electric car emissions myth 'busted'". BBC News. 2020-03-23. Retrieved 2020-10-12.
- "Life-cycle emissions of electric cars are fraction of fossil-fuelled vehicles".
- "Western Balkans wasted EUR 655 million on coal subsidies since 2015". Balkan Green Energy News. 2020-12-04. Retrieved 2020-12-24.
- Doucette, Reed; McCulloch, Malcolm (2011). "Modeling the CO2 emissions from battery electric vehicles given the power generation mixes of different countries". Energy Policy. 39 (2): 803–811. doi:10.1016/j.enpol.2010.10.054.
- Article "EV CO2 emission" from homechargingstations.com
- "Well-to-Wheels Greenhouse Gas Emissions and Petroleum Use for Mid-Size Light-Duty Vehicles" (PDF). Department Of Energy United States of America. 2010-10-25. Archived from the original (PDF) on 2013-04-23. Retrieved 2013-08-02.
- Massiani, Jerome; Weinmann, Jens (2012). "Estimating electric car's emissions in Germany: an analysis through a pivotal marginal method and comparison with other methods". Economics and Policy of Energy and the Environment. 2: 131–155.
- Andrew English (2014-04-29). "Why electric cars must catch on". Daily Telegraph. Retrieved 2014-05-01.
- "Should Pollution Factor Into Electric Car Rollout Plans?". Earth2tech.com. 2010-03-17. Retrieved 2010-04-18.
- Chip Gribben. "Debunking the Myth of EVs and Smokestacks". Electro Automotive. Archived from the original on 2009-03-01. Retrieved 2010-04-18.
- Raut, Anil K. (January 2003). Role of electric vehicles in reducing urban air pollution: a case of Kathmandu. Better Air Quality 2003, At Manila, Philippines. Retrieved 2020-01-27.
- Sperling, Daniel and Deborah Gordon (2009). Two billion cars: driving toward sustainability. Oxford University Press, New York. pp. 22–26 and 114–139. ISBN 978-0-19-537664-7.
- "CO2 Intensity". Eirgrid. Archived from the original on 2011-05-04. Retrieved 2010-12-12.
- Buekers, J; Van Holderbeke, M; Bierkens, J; Int Panis, L (2014). "Health and environmental benefits related to electric vehicle introduction in EU countries". Transportation Research Part D: Transport and Environment. 33: 26–38. doi:10.1016/j.trd.2014.09.002.
- Clark, Duncan (2009-07-17). "Real-time "CO2 intensity" site makes the case for midnight dishwashing". London: Guardian. Retrieved 2010-12-12.
- "Combining Solar Panels with an Electric Car". October 2014.
- Ambrose, Jillian (2020-09-21). "UK plans to bring forward ban on fossil fuel vehicles to 2030". The Guardian. ISSN 0261-3077. Retrieved 2020-10-13.
- "If all cars were electric, UK carbon emissions would drop by 12%". Air Quality News. 2020-06-02. Retrieved 2020-10-13.
- "Electric Power Monthly". Electricity. EIA. Retrieved 6 March 2017.
- "New Data Show Electric Vehicles Continue to Get Cleaner". Union of Concerned Scientists. 2018-03-08. Retrieved 2020-01-24.
- "Electricity generation | Energy Charts".
- "Travel Carbon Calculator". Travelinho. Retrieved 2020-06-16.
- Notter, Dominic A.; Gauch, Marcel; Widmer, Rolf; Wäger, Patrick; Stamp, Anna; Zah, Rainer; Althaus, Hans-Jörg (2010-09-01). "Contribution of Li-Ion Batteries to the Environmental Impact of Electric Vehicles". Environmental Science & Technology. 44 (17): 6550–6556. Bibcode:2010EnST...44.6550N. doi:10.1021/es903729a. ISSN 0013-936X. PMID 20695466.
- Notter, Dominic A.; Kouravelou, Katerina; Karachalios, Theodoros; Daletou, Maria K.; Haberland, Nara Tudela (2015). "Life cycle assessment of PEM FC applications: electric mobility and μ-CHP". Energy Environ. Sci. 8 (7): 1969–1985. doi:10.1039/c5ee01082a.
- Zehner, Ozzie (2013-06-30). "Unclean at Any Speed". IEEE. Retrieved 2013-08-31.
- Gardiner, Joey (August 10, 2017). "The rise of electric cars could leave us with a big battery waste problem". The Guardian. Retrieved September 1, 2019 – via www.theguardian.com.
- Electric, Gas, Diesel & Hybrid: Life Cycle Assessment Of Passenger Cars — New ADAC Report
- "ADAC report". Archived from the original on 2018-07-20. Retrieved 2019-10-10.
- Klima-Studie: Elektroautos brauchen die Energiewende
- "New report highlights climate footprint of electric car battery production" (Press release). IVL Swedish Environmental Research Institute. 2017-06-21.
- Dyer, Ezra (June 22, 2017). "That Tesla Battery Emissions Study Making the Rounds? It's Bunk". Popular Mechanics. Retrieved September 1, 2019.
- "How Lithium-ion Batteries Work". HowStuffWorks. November 14, 2006. Retrieved September 1, 2019.
- Lambert, Fred (November 1, 2016). "Tesla battery data shows path to over 500,000 miles on a single pack". Retrieved September 1, 2019.
- "Battery Lifetime: How Long Can Electric Vehicle Batteries Last?". CleanTechnica. May 31, 2016. Retrieved September 1, 2019.
- Nealer, Rachael; Reichmuth, David; Anair, Don (November 2015). "Cleaner Cars from Cradle to Grave: How Electric Cars Beat Gasoline Cars on Lifetime Global Warming Emissions" (PDF). Union of Concerned Scientists (UCS). Retrieved 2014-11-22.
- "New report on climate impact of electric car batteries".
- Heleen Ekker (1 September 2020). "Nieuwe studie: elektrische auto gaat langer mee dan gedacht". NOS (in Dutch). Retrieved 11 September 2020.
- Comparing the lifetime greenhouse gas emissions of electric cars with the emissions of cars using gasoline or diesel
- Irving Mintzer (2009). David B. Sandalow (ed.). Chapter 6: Look Before You Leap: Exploring the Implications of Advanced Vehicles for Import Dependence and Passerger Safety (PDF). The Brookings Institution. pp. 107–126. ISBN 978-0-8157-0305-1. Archived from the original (PDF) on 2016-05-17. Retrieved 2019-01-14. in "Plug-in Electric Vehicles: What Role for Washington?"
- Clifford Krauss (2009-03-09). "The Lithium Chase". New York Times. Retrieved 2010-03-10.
- Hiscock, Geoff (2015-11-18). "Electric vehicles, storage units drive prices up". The Nikkei. Retrieved 2016-02-29.
- Simon Romero (2009-02-02). "In Bolivia, Untapped Bounty Meets Nationalism". New York Times. Retrieved 2010-02-28.
- "Página sobre el Salar (Spanish)". Evaporiticosbolivia.org. Archived from the original on 2011-03-23. Retrieved 2010-11-27.
- Brendan I. Koerner (2008-10-30). "The Saudi Arabia of Lithium". Forbes. Retrieved 2011-05-12. Published on Forbes Magazine dated November 24, 2008.
- "USGS Mineral Commodities Summaries 2009" (PDF). U. S. Geological Survey. January 2009. Retrieved 2010-03-07. See page 95.
- Hammond, C. R. (2000). The Elements, in Handbook of Chemistry and Physics 81st edition. CRC press. ISBN 978-0-8493-0481-1.
- Early, Catherine. "The new 'gold rush' for green lithium". www.bbc.com. Retrieved 2021-01-13.
- "Japan To Offer Technical Aid On Lithium To Bolivia". Green Car Congress. 2010-09-12. Retrieved 2010-09-12.
- "S. Korean companies to help Bolivia develop lithium industries". Trading Markets. 2010-04-23. Retrieved 2010-09-12.[permanent dead link]
- Gaines, LL.; Nelson, P. (2010). "Lithium-Ion Batteries: Examining Material Demand and Recycling Issues". Argonne National Laboratory. Archived from the original on 3 August 2016. Retrieved 11 June 2016.
- "Study finds resource constraints should not be a limiting factor for large-scale EV battery production". Green Car Congress. 2011-06-17. Retrieved 2011-06-17.
- "University of Michigan and Ford researchers see plentiful lithium resources for electric vehicles". Green Car Congress. 2011-08-03. Retrieved 2011-08-11.
- Randall, Tom (2016-02-25). "Here's How Electric Cars Will Cause the Next Oil Crisis". Bloomberg News. Retrieved 2016-02-25. See embedded video.
- Greim, Peter; Solomon, A. A.; Breyer, Christian (2020-09-11). "Assessment of lithium criticality in the global energy transition and addressing policy gaps in transportation". Nature Communications. 11 (1): 4570. doi:10.1038/s41467-020-18402-y. ISSN 2041-1723. PMC 7486911. PMID 32917866.
- Tim Folger (June 2011). "Rare Earth Elements: The Secret Ingredients of Everything". National Geographic. Retrieved 2011-06-12.
- Jerry Garret (2010-04-15). "A Case for and Against Electric Cars". New York Times. Retrieved 2010-04-17.
- Keith Bradsher (2009-08-31). "China Tightens Grip on Rare Minerals". New York Times. Retrieved 2010-09-27.
- "Rare earths and China – Dirty business". The Economist. 2010-09-30. Retrieved 2010-09-30.
- "Rare earths – Digging in". The Economist. 2010-09-02. Retrieved 2010-09-11.
- "Worries mount over China's 'rare earth' export ban". EurActiv.com. 2010-06-11. Retrieved 2010-09-11.
- Keith Bradsher (2010-09-23). "Amid Tension, China Blocks Crucial Exports to Japan". New York Times. Retrieved 2010-09-23.
- "Critical Materials Strategy" (PDF). U.S. Department of Energy. December 2010. Retrieved 2010-12-15.
- Keith Bradsher (2010-12-15). "U.S. Called Vulnerable to Rare Earth Shortages". New York Times. Retrieved 2010-12-15.
- Keith Bradsher (2010-12-28). "China to Tighten Limits on Rare Earth Exports". New York Times. Retrieved 2010-12-29.
- Alan Ohnsman (2011-01-14). "Toyota Readying Motors That Don't Use Rare Earths". Bloomberg. Retrieved 2011-01-19.
- Saurin D. Shah (2009). David B. Sandalow (ed.). Chapter 2: Electrification of Transport and Oil Displacement (1st ed.). The Brookings Institution. pp. 29, 37 and 43. ISBN 978-0-8157-0305-1. in "Plug-in Electric Vehicles: What Role for Washington?"
- "Consequences of a Mobile Future: Creating an Environmentally Conscious Life Cycle for Lead-Acid Batteries" (PDF).
- "Getting the Lead Out: Why Battery Recycling Is a Global Health Hazard". Yale E360. Retrieved 2021-01-03.
- Are tiny electric cars the answer to big city pollution problems?
- Induction motors overview
- "Biofuels vs EVs: The Union of Concerned Scientists responds : Biofuels Digest". Retrieved September 1, 2019.