Environmental issues in Australia

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

A rabbit-proof fence enforces a barrier to protect agriculture areas in Western Australia. Rabbits are an invasive species in Australia.
Mountains near Queenstown, Tasmania, completely denuded of vegetation through effects of mining

Environmental issues in Australia describes a number of environmental issues which affect the environment of Australia. There are a range of such issues, some of the relating to conservation in Australia while others, for example the deteriorating state of Murray-Darling Basin, have a direct and serious effect on human land use and the economy.

Many human activities including the use of natural resources have a direct impact on the Australian environment.

These issues are the primary concern of the environmental movement in Australia.

Climate change[edit]

Climate change is now a major political talking point in Australia in the last two decades. Persistent drought, and resulting water restrictions during the first decade of the twenty-first century, are an example of natural events' tangible effect on economic and political realities .[1][2][3]

Australia ranks within the top ten countries globally with respect to greenhouse gas emissions per capita.[4]

The current federal and state governments have all publicly stated their belief that climate change is being caused by anthropogenic greenhouse gas emissions. Vocal minority groups within the population campaign against mining and coal-fired power stations in Australia, and such demonstrations are widely reported by the mainstream media.[5] Similarly, vocal minority groups concurrently oppose wind energy schemes, despite being 'carbon neutral', on the grounds of local visual and noise impact and concern for the currently high cost and low reliability of wind energy.[6][7][8]

Despite the publication of the Garnaut report and the Green Paper on the proposed Carbon Pollution Reduction Scheme, public belief in anthropogenic climate change has noticeably eroded following the leaking of e-mails from the University of East Anglia's Climate Research Unit.[9][10]

There is claimed to be a net benefit to Australia in stabilising greenhouse gases in the atmosphere at 450ppm CO2 eq[11] in line with the prevailing political stance. Public disagreement with this opinion is generally dismissed as expression of vested interests, for example from the coal industry.

Energy use[edit]

Most of Australia's demand for electricity depends upon coal-fired thermal generation,[12] owing to the plentiful indigenous coal supply, limited potential electric generation and political unwillingness to exploit indigenous uranium resources (although Australia accounted for the world's second highest production of uranium in 2005[13] to fuel a 'carbon neutral' domestic nuclear energy program.[14]

Australia does not require its vehicles to meet any fuel efficiency standards, in spite of its emissions reduction target under the Paris Agreement.[15]


Conservation in Australia is an issue of state and federal policy. Australia is one of the most biologically diverse countries in the world, with a large portion of species endemic to Australia. Preserving this wealth of biodiversity is important for future generations.

A key conservation issue is the preservation of biodiversity, especially by protecting the remaining rainforests. The destruction of habitat by human activities, including land clearing, remains the major cause of biodiversity loss in Australia. The importance of the Australian rainforests to the conservation movement is very high.[16] Australia is the only western country to have large areas of rainforest intact. Forests provide timber, drugs, and food and should be managed to maximise the possible uses. Currently, there are a number of environmental movements and campaigners advocating for action on saving the environment, one such campaign is the Big Switch.

Land management issues including clearance of native vegetation, reafforestation of once-cleared areas, control of exotic weeds and pests, expansion of dryland salinity, and changed fire regimes. Intensification of resource use in sectors such as forestry, fisheries, and agriculture are widely reported to contribute to biodiversity loss in Australia. Coastal and marine environments also have reduced biodiversity from reduced water quality caused by pollution and sediments arising from human settlements and agriculture. In central New South Wales where there are large plains of grassland, problems have risen from—unusual to say—lack of land clearing.

The Daintree Rainforest, a tropical rainforest near Daintree, Queensland covering around 1200 square kilometres, is threatened by logging, development, mining and the effects of the high tourist numbers.

There are some government programs in Australia which are the opposite of conservation (such as killing wildlife); an example of this is shark culling, which currently occurs in New South Wales and Queensland.[17][18]

Native fauna[edit]

The Tasmanian devil, officially listed as an endangered species in 2008.

Over a hundred species of fauna are currently under serious threat of extinction. The plight of some of these species receives more attention than others and recently the focus of many conservation organisations has been the critically endangered northern hairy-nosed wombat, the endangered Tasmanian devil,[19] northern tiger quoll, south eastern red-tailed black cockatoo, southern cassowary, Tasmanian wedge-tailed eagle, Leadbeater's possum and southern corroboree frog.

Australia has a poor record of conservation of native fauna. The extinction of Australian megafauna is attributed to the arrival of humans and since European settlement, 23 birds, 4 frogs, and 27 mammal species are also known to have become extinct.

Marine conservation[edit]

Recent climate change reports have highlighted the threat of higher water temperatures to the Great Barrier Reef

One of the notable issues with marine conservation in Australia is the protection of the Great Barrier Reef. The Great Barrier Reef's environmental pressures include water quality from runoff, climate change and mass coral bleaching, cyclic outbreaks of the crown-of-thorns starfish, overfishing, and shipping accidents. The government of Queensland currently kills sharks in the Great Barrier Reef using drum lines, causing damage to the marine ecosystem.[20]

In 2021 Australia announced the creation of 2 national marine parks in size of 740,000 square kilometres. With those parks 45% of the Australian marine territory will be protected.[21]


Whaling in Australia took place from colonisation in 1788. In 1979 Australia terminated whaling and committed to whale protection. The main varieties hunted were humpback, blue, right and sperm whales.[22]

Shark culling[edit]

Western Australia culled sharks in 2014, killing dozens of tiger sharks and causing public protest.[23] Later that year it was abandoned, and the government of Western Australia continued to shoot and kill sharks it believed to be an "imminent threat" to humans from 2014 to 2017;[24][25] this policy was criticised by senator Rachel Siewart for being environmentally damaging.[26]

From 1962 to the present, the government of Queensland has killed sharks on drum lines and shark nets, a process that also kills other animals such as dolphins[27] and dugongs.[28] From 1962 to 2018, Queensland's "shark control" program killed roughly 50,000 sharks, including sharks in the Great Barrier Reef.[17][20] Queensland's shark-killing program has been called "outdated, cruel and ineffective".[20]

New South Wales has a shark net program that kills sharks as well as other marine life.[29] Between 1950 and 2008, 352 tiger sharks and 577 great white sharks were killed in the nets in New South Wales – also during this period, a total of 15,135 marine animals were killed in the nets, including whales and turtles.[18] There has been a very large decrease in the number of sharks in eastern Australia in recent years, and the shark-killing programs in Queensland and New South Wales are partly responsible for this decrease.[17]

Jessica Morris of Humane Society International calls shark culling a "knee-jerk reaction" and says, "sharks are top order predators that play an important role in the functioning of marine ecosystems. We need them for healthy oceans."[30]

Oil spills[edit]

While there have been no oil spill environmental disasters of the scale of the Exxon Valdez in the country, Australia has a large oil industry and there have been several large oil spills [1]. Spills remain a serious threat to the marine environment and Australian coastline. The largest spill to date was the Kirki tanker in 1991 which dropped 17,280 tonnes of oil off the coast of Western Australia.

In March 2009, the 2009 southeast Queensland oil spill occurred, where 200,000 litres were spilled from the MV Pacific Adventurer spilling more than 250 tonnes of oil, 30 tonnes of fuel and other toxic chemicals on Brisbane's suburban beaches. Premier Anna Bligh described the spill as "worst environmental disaster Queensland has ever seen".[31]

Ocean dumping[edit]

A serious issue to the Australian marine environment is the dumping of rubbish from ships. There have been a number of cases,[32] particularly involving the navy of Australian and other countries polluting Australian waters including the dumping of chemical warfare agents. Recently documented cases include the aircraft carrier USS Ronald Reagan in 2006 which was found to be dumping rubbish off the shores of Moreton Island.[33] In Victoria, a large number of toxic drums containing 1,2-Dichlorobenzene xylenol, a substance very toxic to aquatic creatures washed up on beaches during May 2009 presumably fallen off a passing container ship.[34]

Invasive species[edit]

The cane toad invasion has devastated Australian wildlife through a combination of their toxicity to predators and outcompetition of native species

Australia's geographical isolation has resulted in the evolution of many delicate ecological relationships that are sensitive to foreign invaders and in many instances provided no natural predators for many of the species subsequently introduced.[citation needed] The introduction and prolific breeding of animal species such as the cane toad (Rhinella marina) and rabbit (Oryctolagus cuniculus) had greatly disrupted native species populations.[35][36] Introduced species in Australia are problematic in that they may outcompete or, in the case of the can toad, red fox (Vulpes vulpes) and feral domestic cats (Felis catus), directly kill native species. Rabbits in Australia along with feral beasts of burden disrupt native species by destroying vulnerable habitat requiring drastic pest-exclusion measures such as the Rabbit-proof fence.[37] The cane toad invasion is particularly concerning due to them having few predators and apart from extensively outcompeting native species[38] their toxicity kills thousands of native apex predators each year.[39] The threat of the ongoing cane toad invasion has seen the establishment of a national taskforce despite its potential range being limited to the north of the continent.[40] Likewise Tasmania takes the threat of the species so seriously that it has a government sponsored taskforce to prevent fox populations from taking hold on the island.[41] The species has single-handedly caused the extinction of several native species on the mainland.[42]

Australia is also vulnerable to invasive weeds. Controlling the invasion of prickly pears in Australia is one of the success stories of invasive species control. The government maintains a Weeds of National Significance (WONS) list of problematic plant species.[43]

Land degradation[edit]

According to Jared Diamond, "Australia's number-one environmental problem [is] land degradation".[44] Land degradation results from nine types of damaging environmental impacts:[44]

Logging and woodchopping[edit]

Clearcutting of old growth forests is continuing in parts of Australia. This often involves the destruction of natural ecosystems and the replacement with monoculture plantations.

Australia had a 2018 Forest Landscape Integrity Index mean score of 7.22/10, ranking it 46th globally out of 172 countries.[45]

Land clearing[edit]

In the prehistory of Australia the Indigenous Australians used fire-stick farming which was an early form of land clearing which caused long term changes to the ecology. With European colonisation land clearing continued on a larger scale for agriculture – particularly for cattle, cotton and wheat production. Since European settlement a total of 13% of native vegetation cover has been lost. The extinction of 20 different mammals, 9 bird and 97 plant species have been partially attributed to land clearing. Land clearing is a major source of Australia's greenhouse gas emissions, and contributed to approximately 12 percent of Australia's total emissions in 1998.

The consequences of land clearing include dryland salinity and soil erosion. These are a major concern to the landcare movement in Australia.

The clearing of native vegetation is controlled by Federal laws (indirectly), State law and local planning instruments. The precise details of regulation of vegetation clearing differ according to the location where clearing is proposed.

Soil salinity[edit]

Soil salinity affects 50,000 km2 of Australia and is predominantly due to land clearance.

Waterway health[edit]

A Parks Victoria litter trap on the river catches floating rubbish on the Yarra at Birrarung Marr

The protection of waterways in Australia is a major concern for various reasons including habitat and biodiversity, but also due to use of the waterways by humans.

The Murray-Darling Basin is under threat due to irrigation in Australia, causing high levels of salinity which affect agriculture and biodiversity in New South Wales, Victoria and South Australia. These rivers are also affected by pesticide run-off and drought. Low oxygen levels in the water combined with high temperatures has led to fish kills in the Darling River in 2018, 2019 and 2023.[46] The worst was in March 2023 in which millions of dead bony bream, golden perch silver perch and some Murray cod flowed down the river.[46]

Australian waterways facing environmental issues[edit]

Rivers and creeks in urban areas also face environmental issues, particularly pollution.


New South Wales[edit]

Remediation of soil and sediment from Homebush Bay on the Parramatta River by desorbtion and incineration


South Australia[edit]

Water use[edit]

Water use is a major sustainability issue in Australia. Water is becoming a very very big problem for not only Australia but worldwide as where there are droughts occurring more often and only having limited use of the water and then there are even places that don't have any water at all such as India etc., we need conserve our water for the future and get more access to the water since we only have roughly 5% access to it.[62]


The urban sprawl of Melbourne, spreading from the city centre (towards top right of the image).

Australia is one of the most urbanised countries in the world. Many Australian cities have large urban footprints and are characterised by an unsustainable low density urban sprawl. This places demand on infrastructure and services which contributes to the problems of land clearing, pollution, transport related emissions, energy consumption, invasive species, automobile dependency and urban heat islands.

A Queensland beach with the skyline of the heavily developed Gold Coast in the background. Formerly swamplands, the city was urbanised on a coastal strip between waterways and the sea and now contains many high rises.

The urban sprawl continues to increase at a rapid rate in most Australian cities, particularly the state capital cities, all of which (with the exception of Hobart) are metropoleis. In some centres, such as Sydney and Greater Western Sydney,[63] Greater Melbourne[64] and South East Queensland[65] large metropolitan conurbations threaten to extend for hundreds of kilometres and based on current population growth rates are expected to become megacities in the 21st century. Most Australian cities population growth is a result of migration in contrast to the Birth rate and fertility rate in Australia, which is contributing to the ongoing trend of urbanisation.

In recent years, some cities have implemented transit-oriented development strategies to curb the urban sprawl. Notable examples include Melbourne 2030,[66] South East Queensland Regional Plan and the Sydney Metropolitan Strategy. There are also population decentralisation programs at state and federal levels aimed at shifting populations out of the major centres and stemming the drivers to rapid urbanisation. Albury-Wodonga was part of the federal government's program of decentralisation begun in the 1970s, which has at times had relocation policies for immigration. The Victorian government has run a decentralisation program since the 1960s, having had a ministerial position appointed and ongoing promotional and investment programs for stimulating growth in Regional Victoria. However policy has swung over the decades, primarily due to local development priorities and agendas and a lack of federal co-ordination to the problem.

Issues include large quantities of e-waste and toxic waste going into landfill. Australia does not have restrictions on the dumping of toxic materials that are common in other countries, such as dumping Cathode Ray Tubes which leach heavy metals into water catchments. Due to the lack of sufficient sites for toxic waste disposal large quantities of toxic waste are trucked between states to remote dumping grounds or exported overseas in ships.[67]

Mining issues[edit]

Australia has the largest reserves of uranium in the world and there has been a number of enquiries on uranium mining. The anti-nuclear movement in Australia actively opposes mining and seeks to prevent the construction of nuclear power plants.[68]

At least 150 leaks, spills and licence breaches occurred at the Ranger uranium mine between 1981 and 2009.[69]

Controversial land use projects[edit]

The following is a list of development projects that have been controversial due to concerns of environmental effects. This list includes projects required to submit an Environmental Effects Statement.

Project/Area affected Activity State Began Notes
Wittenoom Crocidolite (asbestos) mining Western Australia 1938 Now a prohibited area (exclusion zone) known as the Wittenoom Prohibited Area.[70] Widespread contamination causing thousands of cancers (including mesothelioma) and many hundreds of deaths.[71] In addition to widespread contamination about half the material mined by Australian Blue Asbestos was distributed throughout Australia resulting in an ongoing public health crisis.[72] Australia banned use of asbestos in 2003.[73]
Northampton Lead mining Western Australia 1954 Lead tailing contamination, leaching into waterways, encapsulation and extensive cleanup[74][75]
British nuclear tests at Maralinga Nuclear testing South Australia 1955 Massive radioactive contamination. Continual cleanup operations. Long-term health effects on local Indigenous tribes and former personnel. Now part of a prohibited area (exclusion zone) known as the Woomera Prohibited Area.
Kings Park Clearing Western Australia 1956 Clearing of urban bushland to build a swimming pool and car park. A campaign by a coalition of scientific, naturalist and heritage groups prevented it from going ahead.[76]
Mounts Bay Infilling Western Australia 1963 Infilling of the Swan River to create land for freeway construction. This was opposed by the Citizens’ Committee for the Protection of Kings Park and the Swan River.[76]
Kelly’s Bush Clearing New South Wales 1970 Clearing of urban bushland for suburban development. The area was protected after the NSW Builders' Labourers' Federation (BLF) placed a 'green ban’ on the site.[77]
Blackbutt Nature Reserve Clearing New South Wales 1973 Clearing of Newcastle bushland for the construction of an expressway. Work was halted by a BLF green ban and the area subsequently protected.[78]
Riley’s Island Clearing New South Wales 1973 Clearing of native habitat for suburban development. A BLF green ban halted work and the area was made a nature reserve in 1989.[78]
Port Kembla Beach Clearing, dredging New South Wales 1974 Dredging for sandmining and clearing for property development. Halted by South Coast Labour Council and BLF work bans.[78]
Terania Creek Logging New South Wales 1979 Logging of old growth rainforest. After four weeks of blockading, a moratorium was placed on work and a government inquiry subsequently held, after which the area was added to the newly created Nightcap National Park.[79][80]
Middle Head Beach Sand mining New South Wales 1980 Destruction of beach and sacred sites by industrial dredging. Following months of blockading the neighbouring beach at Grassy Head beach was spared and the NSW government granted no more beach sand mining leases after 1980.[81]
Ranger uranium mine Uranium mining Northern Territory 1980 Possible contamination of land with radioactive mine tailings. Ranger mine contained within Kakadu National Park.[68]
Nightcap rainforest Logging New South Wales 1982 Logging of old growth rainforest at Grier’s Scrub and Mount Nardi. Following blockading, work was halted at the latter and the area later made part of the Nightcap National Park.[79]
Broken Hill Uranium mining New South Wales 1982 Potential radioactive toxicity and damage to habitat due to mine leaks. The proposed Honeymoon uranium mine was delayed for almost 20 years by campaigns involving unions, traditional owners and environmentalists. It opened in 2011 but then closed in 2013 due to a decline in demand for uranium.[81]
Franklin Dam Damming Tasmania 1983 Damming of forested area, watercourse damage, reduced water flow. Catalyst for the foundation of the Australian Greens. The project was cancelled by the Hawke federal ALP government in 1983, following a three month blockade of clearing and over 1000 arrests.[82]
Daintree rainforest Road building Queensland 1983 Clearing of rainforest in a national park to build a track. Threat of increased development. Track was pushed through in 1984 but quickly deteriorated and was not refurbished after the area was granted World Heritage status.[79]
Roxby Downs Uranium mining South Australia 1983 Possible contamination of land with radioactive mine tailings. Mine construction was disrupted by blockades in 1983 and 1984 before opening in 1988.[83]
Farmhouse Creek Road building, logging Tasmania 1986 Clearing to build a road to facilitate the logging of old growth forest. Opposed by a blockade using Australia’s first tree sit platform. Following further blockading, parts of the area were eventually granted protection after a federal government inquiry.[81]
Mount Etna Mining Queensland 1987 Destruction of little bent-wing bat breeding habitat through the blasting of caves to enable limestone mining. A blockade led to mining being halted for six months but in 1988 the caves were destroyed.[79]
Washpool Roadbuilding, Logging New South Wales 1989 Road construction to enable the logging of old growth forest. Blockading held up the project before a court injunction stopped work due to the presence of Aboriginal sacred sites. The area gained protection the following year after another injunction was gained due to illegal logging and faults with an Environmental Impact Statement. It was added to the Washpool National Park in 1999.[79]
Mount Royal Logging New South Wales 1989 Logging of old growth habitat in a state forest. Following protest action work was stopped by a court injunction. The area was added to the Mount Royal National Park in 1997.[79]
Chaelundi Logging New South Wales 1990 Logging of old growth forest. Work was blockaded and then halted after the NSW Forestry Commission was ordered to undertake an Environment Impact Statement. When logging was resumed in 1991 it was disrupted by blockaders until a further court injunction stopped work. A further attempt to log was prevented by direct action in 1994 and the area subsequently made a national park.[79]
Fraser Island (K'gari) Logging Queensland 1990 Logging of old growth forest. Blockading disrupted work and in 1991 a government inquiry report led to logging being phased out. The island was later accorded World Heritage status.[79]
Brown Mountain Logging Victoria 1990 Logging of old growth forest, which was disrupted by blockaders and then suspended for three years. Logging was later resumed leading to another blockade in 2009.[79]
Mount Killiekrankie Logging New South Wales 1990 Logging of old growth forest. Work was blockaded until it was stopped due to the NSW Forestry Commission being prosecuted for polluting the Bellinger River. The area was added to the New England National Park in 1999.[79]
Mummel Gulf Logging New South Wales 1992 Logging of old growth forest. A three month long blockade prevented cutting. The Mummel Gulf National Park and Mummel Gulf State Conservation Area were created in 1999.[79]
Wild Cattle Creek Logging New South Wales 1992 Logging of old growth forest. Despite two blockades most of the area was logged by 1994. The area was later added to the Cascade National Park.[79]
Exit Caves Mining Tasmania 1992 Mining for limestone within a World Heritage area and its effects on a 21 kilometre long cave system. Following protests blasting was halted by the federal government but mining continued until the Bender Limestone quarry was closed in 1994.[79]
Dingo and Bulgar Forests Logging New South Wales 1993 Logging of old growth forest. Blockading disrupted work. Sections were later added to the Tapin Tops National Park.[79]
Cairns and Kuranda Clearing Queensland 1993 Clearing of World Heritage listed rainforest as part of construction of the 7.5 kilometre Skyrail Rainforest Cableway.[79]
Yarra Valley Logging Victoria 1993 Deforestation, threatening of a major water catchment, threatening the endangered Leadbeater's possum.
Hinchinbrook Island Clearing and dredging Queensland 1994 Bulldozing and dredging of mangroves for a tourist development. Blockading disrupted work but the marina was completed.[79]
Kerr Forest Logging Western Australia 1994 Logging of old growth forest. Work was disrupted by 30 Balingup residents before litigation resulted in an injunction being placed on logging.[79]
Whian Whian State Forest Logging New South Wales 1994 Old growth forest logging. Blockading stalled work until 1997 when the contractor agreed to withdraw from the area. It was made part of the Nightcap National Park the following year.[79]
M2 Motorway Clearing New South Wales 1995 Clearing of urban bushland in Sydney including Aboriginal sacred sites and 100 000 trees. Construction was opposed by protesters using lockons, treesits and site occupations.[79]
Nullum State Forest Logging New South Wales 1995 Old growth forest logging. Following a blockade by local residents and the Byron Bay Environment Centre the Forestry Corporation of New South Wales was fined $25,000 for breaches of the Pollution Control Act. The area was later added to Mount Jerusalem National Park.[79]
Jane Block Logging Western Australia 1995 Old growth forest logging. Work was disrupted by a blockade before litigation protected the remaining stands of forest from logging.[79]
Iron Gates, Evans Head Development New South Wales 1997 Destruction of beach and Aboriginal sacred sites for suburban development. Following blockading and litigation clearing was put on hold. The developer, who later went bankrupt, was ordered to rehabilitate the site.[79]
Barmah-Millewa Logging, stock grazing Victoria 1998 Destruction of red river gum habitat by logging and poor farming practices. The issue had been a major one for traditional owners and environmentalists for some years but the two came together in the late 1990s and increased their campaigning efforts. In 2008 the Victorian government placed 91,000 hectares under protection and agreed to co-management with traditional owners.[84]
Jabiluka Clearing, uranium mining Northern Territory 1998 Clearing and toxicity risks associated with the construction of a uranium mine. Traditional owners called for nonviolent direct action against construction and this eventually involved 5000 people. They also refused to grant use of their land. Following campaigning and court cases Rio Tinto cancelled the project in 2001 and later engaged in rehabilitation works.[85]
Tiwi Islands Deforestation and woodchipping Northern Territory 2001 Deforestation approved by the Howard government. Operators significantly breached environmental laws resulting in excessive irreparable land clearing.[86]
Nowingi toxic waste proposal Toxic waste Victoria 2004 Toxic waste disposal plant. Threat to surrounding settlements, Murray River and environment.
Bell Bay Pulp Mill Logging Tasmania 2006 Deforestation. Threatening of old growth forests in the Tamar Valley. Claims effluent could harm Bass Strait marine life.
Styx Valley Logging and woodchipping Tasmania 2006 Deforestation. Destruction of old growth forests.
Wonthaggi desalination plant Desalination Victoria 2007 Uneconomic. Pollution of the Bass Coast. Accusations of government/private entity corruption. Lack of consultation with community. No justification for perceived requirement. Insufficient initial assessment. Insufficient EES.
Port Phillip Channel Deepening Project Dredging Victoria 2008 Dredging in heavy metal-laiden shipping ports posed contamination concerns. Destruction of marine environments. Catalyst for the foundation of the Blue Wedges community group.
Walmadan/James Price Point Clearing Western Australia 2011 Habitat destruction through the construction of a 30 km gas refinery site. A protest camp bringing together First Nations community members, environmentalists and others disrupted preliminary work before Woodside abandoned the project. The WA Supreme Court subsequently found that the environmental approvals originally enabling it to go ahead were illegal.[81][87]
Leard State forest Clearing New South Wales 2012 Clearing of forest habitat for construction of the Maules Creek coal mine. Work was disrupted by nonviolent direct action.[88]
Beeliar Wetlands Clearing Western Australia 2016 Clearing of wetlands habitat and Aboriginal sacred sites for tollway construction. Following a blockade involving over 1000 people the project was cancelled.[81]
Oyster Point Land use Queensland
Magellan Metals Lead poisoning
Carmichael coal mine Coal mining Queensland 2019 potential impact upon the Great Barrier Reef, groundwater at its site and its carbon emissions.[89]

See also[edit]

Notes and references[edit]

  1. ^ "No end to drought: climate experts". ABC News. 6 September 2007. Retrieved 26 July 2015.
  2. ^ "The Independent – 404". The Independent. Retrieved 26 July 2015.
  3. ^ "Australia drought is climate change warning: UK". Reuters. 27 April 2007. Retrieved 26 July 2015.
  4. ^ CO2 emissions per capita per country (2003 data) Archived 26 October 2010 at the Wayback Machine
  5. ^ International Center on Nonviolent Conflict; Fielding, Kelly; Gulliver, Robyn; Louis, Winnifred (3 November 2021). "Civil Resistance against Climate Change: What, when, who and how effective?". The Commons Social Change Library. Retrieved 5 July 2023.
  6. ^ "'Backwards-looking noisy minority' to protest community wind farm". Castlemaine Independent. 8 October 2010. Archived from the original on 25 July 2011. Retrieved 15 October 2010.
  7. ^ "Wind Farm Opens Despite Protest, The Flinders News (2010)". Archived from the original on 15 March 2011. Retrieved 15 October 2010.
  8. ^ "Spec.com.au – News Online from Hamilton, Portland and South-West Victoria – Australia – News headlines from Hamilton, Portland and South-West Victoria. The latest headlines, news, sport, classifieds, online subscriptions, advertising and more from Spec.com.au". Spec.com.au – News Online from Hamilton, Portland and South-West Victoria – Australia. Retrieved 26 July 2015.
  9. ^ "Media Releases :: LORD MONCKTON SYDNEY PRESENTATIONS TODAY". Archived from the original on 19 September 2015. Retrieved 26 July 2015.
  10. ^ "The Herald Sun, "Climategate; Warmist Conspiracy Revealed?" (2009)". Archived from the original on 24 November 2009. Retrieved 15 October 2010.
  11. ^ "Garnaut Climate Change Review Interim Report to the Commonwealth, State and Territory Governments of Australia" (PDF). Garnaut Climate Change Review. February 2007. pp. 63pp. Retrieved 27 April 2008. These glimpses suggest that it is in Australia's interest to seek the strongest feasible global mitigation outcomes – 450 ppm as currently recommended by the science advisers to the UNFCCC and accepted by the European Union.
  12. ^ "OpenNEM: NEM". opennem.org.au. Retrieved 30 November 2021.
  13. ^ "Geoscience Australia: Ausgeo News, December 2005". www.ga.gov.au. Retrieved 17 June 2022.
  14. ^ Australian Chamber Of Commerce And Industry, "Nuclear Power – An Option For Australia"
  15. ^ Cox, Lisa (30 March 2019). "'Woefully dirty': Government accused over Australia's failure to cut vehicle emissions". The Guardian.
  16. ^ McIntyre, Iain (4 November 2020). "Environmental Blockading in Australia and Around the World - Timeline 1974-1997". The Commons Social Change Library. Retrieved 5 July 2023.
  17. ^ a b c https://www.news.com.au/technology/science/animals/aussie-shark-population-is-staggering-decline/news-story/49e910c828b6e2b735d1c68e6b2c956e Aussie shark population in staggering decline. Rhian Deutrom. 14 December 2018. Retrieved 22 December 2018.
  18. ^ a b https://web.archive.org/web/20181002102324/https://www.marineconservation.org.au/pages/shark-culling.html "Shark Culling" (archived). marineconservation.org.au. Archived from the original on 2018-10-02. Retrieved 22 December 2018.
  19. ^ Naidoo, Meryl (22 May 2009). "Tasmanian devils listed as endangered on threatened species list". Herald Sun.
  20. ^ a b c https://www.ntd.tv/2018/09/04/video-endangered-hammerhead-sharks-dead-on-drum-line-in-great-barrier-reef/ Archived 19 September 2018 at the Wayback Machine Phillips, Jack (4 September 2018). "Video: Endangered Hammerhead Sharks Dead on Drum Line in Great Barrier Reef". ntd.tv. Retrieved 22 December 2018.
  21. ^ "New Australian Marine Parks Protect an Area Twice the Size of the Great Barrier Reef". Mongabay. Ecowatch. 14 May 2021. Retrieved 18 May 2021.
  22. ^ Suter, Keith D. (October 1982). "Australia's new whaling policy: formulation and implementation". Marine Policy. 6 (4): 287–302. doi:10.1016/0308-597X(82)90004-5.
  23. ^ "Australia: Over 170 sharks caught under controversial cull program". 8 May 2014.
  24. ^ Milman, Oliver (24 October 2014). "WA abandons shark culling program, but reserves right to kill again". The Guardian.
  25. ^ https://thewest.com.au/news/sharks/premier-mark-mcgowans-shark-plan-not-enough-to-protect-us-ng-b88448984z Mercer, Daniel (18 April 2017). "Premier Mark McGowan's Shark Plan Not Enough To Protect Us". thewest.com.au. Retrieved 22 December 2018.
  26. ^ Wahlquist, Calla (12 February 2015). "Western Australia's 'serious threat' shark policy condemned by Senate". The Guardian.
  27. ^ Matt Watson (25 August 2015). Dolphins, rays among hundreds of non-targeted animals killed on Queensland shark nets and drum lines, figures show. ABC News. Australian Broadcasting Corporation. Retrieved on 27 November 2016.
  28. ^ Perrin, William F.; Bernd Wursig; J.G.M. 'Hans' Thewissen (2009). Encyclopedia of Marine Mammals: Edition 2. Academic Press. p. 334. ISBN 9780080919935. Retrieved 26 November 2016.
  29. ^ http://www.seashepherd.org.au/apex-harmony/overview/new-south-wales.html Archived 27 November 2016 at the Wayback Machine Sea Shepherd – New South Wales. Retrieved 22 December 2018.
  30. ^ https://hsi.org.au/blog/2016/12/08/shark-nets-death-traps-for-marine-animals/ Archived 2 October 2018 at the Wayback Machine Morris, Jessica (8 December 2016). "Shark Nets – Death Traps For Marine Animals". hsi.org.au. Retrieved 22 December 2018.
  31. ^ Robyn Ironside; Anna Caldwell & Brian Williams (13 March 2009). "Pacific Adventurer oil spill a disaster says Anna Bligh". The Courier Mail.
  32. ^ "A history of sea dumping off Australia and its territories" (PDF). Archived from the original (PDF) on 18 March 2009. Retrieved 9 March 2009.
  33. ^ "US carrier exempt from dumping law". Sunshine Coast Daily. Sunshine Coast Newspaper Company. 1 February 2006. Retrieved 22 March 2012.
  34. ^ Johnston, Chris (21 May 2009). "Mass decontamination as toxic drums continue to wash ashore". The Age. Melbourne.
  35. ^ Shine, Richard; Baeckens, Simon (4 June 2023). "Rapidly evolved traits enable new conservation tools: perspectives from the cane toad invasion of Australia". Evolution. 77 (8). Oxford University Press (OUP): 1744–1755. doi:10.1093/evolut/qpad102. hdl:10067/1971290151162165141. ISSN 0014-3820. PMID 37279524.
  36. ^ Alves, Joel M.; Carneiro, Miguel; Day, Jonathan P.; Welch, John J.; Duckworth, Janine A.; Cox, Tarnya E.; Letnic, Mike; Strive, Tanja; Ferrand, Nuno; Jiggins, Francis M. (22 August 2022). "A single introduction of wild rabbits triggered the biological invasion of Australia". Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences. 119 (35): e2122734119. doi:10.1073/pnas.2122734119. ISSN 0027-8424. PMC 9436340. PMID 35994668.
  37. ^ "Invasive Species Fact Sheet: The feral cat (Felis catus)" (PDF). Department of the Environment and Heritage (Australia). 2004. Archived from the original (PDF) on 11 October 2010. Retrieved 10 May 2010.
  38. ^ Taylor, Andrew; McCallum, Hamish I.; Watson, Graeme; Grigg, Gordon C. (30 January 2017). "Impact of cane toads on a community of Australian native frogs, determined by 10 years of automated identification and logging of calling behaviour". Journal of Applied Ecology. 54 (6). Wiley: 2000–2010. doi:10.1111/1365-2664.12859. ISSN 0021-8901.
  39. ^ Pettit, Lachlan; Crowther, Mathew S.; Ward-Fear, Georgia; Shine, Richard (22 July 2021). "Divergent long-term impacts of lethally toxic cane toads (Rhinella marina) on two species of apex predators (monitor lizards, Varanus spp.)". PLOS ONE. 16 (7). Public Library of Science (PLoS): e0254032. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0254032. ISSN 1932-6203. PMC 8297793. PMID 34292946.
  40. ^ Peacock, David; Wakelin-King, Gresley A.; Shepherd, Ben (2014). "Cane toads (Rhinella marina) in south-western Queensland: invasion front, spread and how Cooper Creek geomorphology could enable invasion into north-eastern South Australia". Australian Journal of Zoology. 62 (5). CSIRO Publishing: 366. doi:10.1071/zo14025. ISSN 0004-959X. S2CID 84893001.
  41. ^ Caley, Peter; Ramsey, David S. L.; Barry, Simon C. (20 January 2015). "Inferring the Distribution and Demography of an Invasive Species from Sighting Data: The Red Fox Incursion into Tasmania". PLOS ONE. 10 (1). Public Library of Science (PLoS): e0116631. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0116631. ISSN 1932-6203. PMC 4300087. PMID 25602618.
  42. ^ SAUNDERS, Glen R.; GENTLE, Matthew N.; DICKMAN, Christopher R. (12 April 2010). "The impacts and management of foxes Vulpes vulpes in Australia". Mammal Review. 40 (3). Wiley: 181–211. doi:10.1111/j.1365-2907.2010.00159.x. ISSN 0305-1838.
  43. ^ Thorp, John R; Rod Lynch (2000). The determination of weeds of national significance. Launceston, Tas.; Canberra, ACT: National Weeds Strategy Executive Committee. ISBN 9780642449139. Archived from the original on 22 July 2008.
  44. ^ a b Jared Diamond, Collapse: How Societies Choose to Fail or Succeed, Penguin Books, 2005 and 2011 (ISBN 9780241958681). See chapter 13 entitled " "Mining" Australia " (pages 378–416).
  45. ^ Grantham, H. S.; Duncan, A.; Evans, T. D.; Jones, K. R.; Beyer, H. L.; Schuster, R.; Walston, J.; Ray, J. C.; Robinson, J. G.; Callow, M.; Clements, T.; Costa, H. M.; DeGemmis, A.; Elsen, P. R.; Ervin, J.; Franco, P.; Goldman, E.; Goetz, S.; Hansen, A.; Hofsvang, E.; Jantz, P.; Jupiter, S.; Kang, A.; Langhammer, P.; Laurance, W. F.; Lieberman, S.; Linkie, M.; Malhi, Y.; Maxwell, S.; Mendez, M.; Mittermeier, R.; Murray, N. J.; Possingham, H.; Radachowsky, J.; Saatchi, S.; Samper, C.; Silverman, J.; Shapiro, A.; Strassburg, B.; Stevens, T.; Stokes, E.; Taylor, R.; Tear, T.; Tizard, R.; Venter, O.; Visconti, P.; Wang, S.; Watson, J. E. M. (2020). "Anthropogenic modification of forests means only 40% of remaining forests have high ecosystem integrity - Supplementary Material". Nature Communications. 11 (1): 5978. doi:10.1038/s41467-020-19493-3. ISSN 2041-1723. PMC 7723057. PMID 33293507.
  46. ^ a b Ormonde, Bill; Stonehouse, Greta (18 March 2023). "Millions of fish dead in the worst mass kill ever to hit Menindee region, in NSW's far west". ABC News. Retrieved 23 December 2023.
  47. ^ Ryan, Kellie. Summer deluges leave Port Phillip Bay filthy. Herald Sun. 9 January 2012
  48. ^ Mick Bunworth (25 January 2005). Yarra pollution poses serious health risk. 7.30 Report transcript. Australian Broadcasting Corporation.
  49. ^ Ker, Peter. It never rains but it plumes The Age. 10 February 2011
  50. ^ "Tracing a toxic river to its source". The Age. Melbourne. 24 August 2005.
  51. ^ "Arsenic leaked into river". The Age. Melbourne. 22 August 2005.
  52. ^ "Environment Protection Authority (Victoria)-EPA Victoria" (PDF). Archived from the original (PDF) on 14 July 2007. Retrieved 26 July 2015.
  53. ^ (22 June 2007). River condition in the Murray-Darling Basin 2001 Archived 31 August 2007 at the Wayback Machine. National Water Commission. Retrieved on 22 MArch 2012.
  54. ^ Tony Moore (22 October 2008). "Brisbane's rivers, creeks in ailing health: report". Brisbane Times. Fairfax Digital. Retrieved 24 September 2009.
  55. ^ Emma Pollard (17 December 2009). "Defence Dept to fix Amberley base creek pollution". ABC News Online. Australian Broadcasting Corporation. Retrieved 17 December 2009.
  56. ^ Nikole Jacobi & Francis Tapim (8 September 2009). "'Exhaustive investigation' into Amberley creek contamination". ABC News Online. Australian Broadcasting Corporation. Retrieved 24 September 2009.
  57. ^ South East Queensland Regional Strategic Group (2000). Strategic Guide to Natural Resource Management in South East Queensland. Department of Natural Resources. p. 56. ISBN 978-0-7345-1740-1.
  58. ^ Craig Johnstone. (22 July 1995). "How we're slowly killing our river". The Courier-Mail - Weekend p. 1
  59. ^ "Oxley creek bonus". South West News. 28 October 2008. p. 2.
  60. ^ The Bulimba Creek Catchment Pollution Page. The Rivermouth Action Group. Retrieved on 22 March 2012.
  61. ^ Owen, Michael (16 September 2006). "Taskforce to look at ailing Torrens". The Advertiser, Adelaide. News Limited.
  62. ^ simon.gallant (5 December 2016). "Australia's water resources and use". Australia State of the Environment Report. Retrieved 17 June 2022.
  63. ^ "Sydney needs a future plan to be sustainable: mayor". Reuters. 6 June 2007.
  64. ^ Urban sprawl is killing us, but there's another way from The Age
  65. ^ Plan now for the future of South-East Queensland – January 2005. Wildlife Preservation Society of Queensland. Retrieved on 22 March 2012.
  66. ^ Rachel Kleinman (3 May 2006). "Lib planning policy under attack as groups support 2030". The Age. The Age Company. Retrieved 22 March 2012.
  67. ^ Egan, Carmel (27 July 2008). "Clampdown on toxic waste". The Age. Melbourne.
  68. ^ a b Schoolmeester, Kelly (30 September 2021). "Australians campaign against nuclear power and uranium mining, 1974-1988". The Commons Social Change Library. Retrieved 5 July 2023.
  69. ^ Murdoch, Lindsay (13 March 2009). "Polluted water leaking into Kakadu from uranium mine". The Age. Melbourne.
  70. ^ "Prohibited Areas – Wittenoom and Yampire Gorge" (PDF). Shire of Ashburton. 2019. Archived from the original (PDF) on 11 July 2020. Retrieved 16 July 2019.
  71. ^ Musk, Arthur W (Bill); Reid, Alison; Olsen, Nola; Hobbs, Michael; Armstrong, Bruce; Franklin, Peter; Hui, Jennie; Layman, Lenore; Merler, Enzo; Brims, Fraser; Alfonso, Helman; Shilkin, Keith; Sodhi-Berry, Nita; de Klerk, Nicholas (31 October 2019). "The Wittenoom legacy". International Journal of Epidemiology. 49 (2). Oxford University Press (OUP): 467–476. doi:10.1093/ije/dyz204. ISSN 0300-5771. PMID 31670764.
  72. ^ The Wittenoom Tragedy
  73. ^ Soeberg, Matthew; Vallance, Deborah; Keena, Victoria; Takahashi, Ken; Leigh, James (23 February 2018). "Australia's Ongoing Legacy of Asbestos: Significant Challenges Remain Even after the Complete Banning of Asbestos Almost Fifteen Years Ago". International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health. 15 (2). MDPI AG: 384. doi:10.3390/ijerph15020384. ISSN 1660-4601. PMC 5858453. PMID 29473898.
  74. ^ Mann, A.W.; Lintern, M. (1983). "Heavy metal dispersion patterns from tailings dumps, Northampton District, Western Australia". Environmental Pollution Series B, Chemical and Physical. 6 (1). Elsevier BV: 33–49. doi:10.1016/0143-148x(83)90028-9. ISSN 0143-148X.
  75. ^ Knight, Kim (2016). "The importance of revisiting landform design after key decision-making events". Proceedings of the 11th International Conference on Mine Closure. Australian Centre for Geomechanics, Perth. pp. 121–130. doi:10.36487/acg_rep/1608_06_knight. ISBN 9780992481049. ISSN 2208-8296.
  76. ^ a b Layman, Lenore (27 June 2022). "Fighting for the Foreshore: The Campaigns to Protect Mounts Bay and Kings Park". The Commons Social Change Library. Retrieved 2 July 2023.
  77. ^ "Green Bans". The Commons Social Change Library. 29 March 2019. Retrieved 2 July 2023.
  78. ^ a b c Green Bans Art Walks Project (23 June 2023). "Green Bans Timeline: 1971-74". The Commons Social Change Library. Retrieved 2 July 2023.
  79. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q r s t u v McIntyre, Iain (4 November 2020). "Environmental Blockading in Australia and Around the World - Timeline 1974-1997". The Commons Social Change Library. Retrieved 2 July 2023.
  80. ^ 3CR; McIntyre, Iain (1 April 2019). "Treesits, lock-ons and barricades: Environmental blockading in the 1980s". The Commons Social Change Library. Retrieved 2 July 2023.{{cite web}}: CS1 maint: numeric names: authors list (link)
  81. ^ a b c d e McIntyre, Iain (10 May 2021). "Blockades that changed Australia". The Commons Social Change Library. Retrieved 2 July 2023.
  82. ^ Commons Librarian (31 August 2022). "Franklin River Campaign". The Commons Social Change Library. Retrieved 5 July 2023.
  83. ^ Branagan, Marty (7 May 2021). "The Australian Movement against Uranium Mining: Its Rationale and Evolution". The Commons Social Change Library. Retrieved 2 July 2023.
  84. ^ La Nauze, Jonathan (3 July 2023). "Victorian red gum forests : an historic victory" (PDF). Commons Social Change Library. Retrieved 3 July 2023.
  85. ^ Blair, Kirsten (10 March 2020). "The Jabiluka Blockade - 22 years on". The Commons Social Change Library. Retrieved 3 July 2023.
  86. ^ Peter Garrett (16 October 2008). "Tough measures placed on Tiwi plantations". Joint media release. Department of Sustainability, Environment, Water, Population and Communities. Retrieved 22 March 2012.
  87. ^ Paris, Nicola (24 March 2019). "James Price Point/Walmadan : A Huge Win". The Commons Social Change Library. Retrieved 3 July 2023.
  88. ^ Paine, Andy (26 October 2022). "Frontline Action on Coal FLAC: Ten Years on the Climate Frontline". The Commons Social Change Library. Retrieved 3 July 2023.
  89. ^ Oliver Milman (28 July 2014). "Largest coal mine in Australia: federal government gives Carmichael go-ahead". theguardian. Guardian News and Media. Retrieved 2 August 2014.

External links[edit]