Environmental migrant

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Drought refugees from Oklahoma camping by the roadside, California, 1936

Environmental migrants are people who are forced to leave their home region due to sudden or long-term changes to their local environment. These are changes which compromise their well-being or secure livelihood. Such changes are held to include increased droughts, desertification, sea level rise, and disruption of seasonal weather patterns (i.e. monsoons[1]). Environmental migrants may choose flee to or migrate to another country, or they may migrate internally within their own country.[2]

The term "environmental migrant" is used somewhat interchangeably with a range of similar terms, such as ecological refugee, environmental refugee, climate refugee, forced environmental migrant, environmentally motivated migrant, climate change refugee, environmentally displaced person (EDP), disaster refugee, environmental displacee, eco-refugee, ecologically displaced person, or environmental-refugee-to-be (ERTB).[1] The term climate exiles has been used to refer to those climate migrants who may be in danger of becoming stateless.[2][3][4] The distinctions between these terms are contested.

Despite problems in formulating a uniform and clear-cut definition of 'environmental migration', such a concept has increased as an issue of concern in the 2000s as policy-makers, environmental and social scientists attempt to conceptualize the potential societal effects of climate change and general environmental degradation. "Unless it is assumed" in order to consider a person an environmental refugee, nature or the environment could be considered the persecutor.[5]

Definition and concept[edit]

Environmental refugees do not really fit into any of the legal definitions of a refugee. Not all environmental refugees migrate from their home country, on occasion they are just displaced within their country of origin. Moreover, the refugees aren't leaving their homes because of fear they will be persecuted, or because of "generalized violence or events seriously disturbing public order."[6] Even though the definition of who is a refugee was expanded since its first international and legally binding definition in 1951 people who are forced to flee due to environmental change are still not offered the same legal protection as refugees.[7]

The term "environmental refugee" was first proposed by Lester Brown in 1976.[8] The International Organization for Migration (IOM) proposes the following definition for environmental migrants:[9]

"Environmental migrants are persons or groups of persons who, for compelling reasons of sudden or progressive changes in the environment that adversely affect their lives or living conditions, are obliged to leave their habitual homes, or choose to do so, either temporarily or permanently, and who move either within their country or abroad."

Climate refugees or climate migrants are a subset of environmental migrants who were forced to flee "due to sudden or gradual alterations in the natural environment related to at least one of three impacts of climate change: sea-level rise, extreme weather events, and drought and water scarcity."[10]

Types[edit]

The International Organisation for Migration proposes three types of environmental migrants:

  • Environmental emergency migrants: people who flee temporarily due to an environmental disaster or sudden environmental event. (Examples: someone forced to leave due to hurricane, tsunami, earthquake, etc.)
  • Environmental forced migrants: people who have to leave due to deteriorating environmental conditions. (Example: someone forced to leave due to a slow deterioration of their environment such as deforestation, coastal deterioration, etc.)
  • Environmental motivated migrants also known as environmentally induced economic migrants: people who choose to leave to avoid possible future problems. (Example: someone who leaves due to declining crop productivity caused by desertification)

“those displaced temporarily due to local disruption such as an avalanche or earthquake; those who migrate because environmental degradation has undermined their livelihood or poses unacceptable risks to health; and those who resettle because land degradation has resulted in desertification or because of other permanent and untenable changes in their habitat.”[11]

Pressured environmental migrants[12] -- slow onset[edit]

This type of migrant is displaced from their environment when an event is predicted prior to when it would be imperative for the inhabitants to leave.[13] Such events could be desertification or prolonged drought, where the people of the region are no longer able to maintain farming or hunting to provide a hospitable living environment.[14]

Imperative environmental migrants[15] -- gradual onset[edit]

These are migrants that have been or will be "permanently displaced" from their homes due to environmental factors beyond their control.

Temporary environmental migrants[16] -- short term, sudden onset[edit]

This includes migrants suffering from a single event (i.e. Hurricane Katrina). This does not go to say that their status of being temporary is any less severe than that of the other, it simply means that they are able to go back to the place they fled from (though it may be undesirable to do so) granted that they are able to rebuild what was broken, and go on to maintain a similar quality of life to the one prior to the natural disaster. This type of migrant is displaced from their home state when their environment rapidly changes. They are displaced when disastrous events occur, such as tsunamis, hurricanes, tornadoes, and other natural disasters occur.[17]

Enumeration[edit]

Global statistics[edit]

There have been a number of attempts over the decades to enumerate environmental migrants and refugees. Jodi Jacobson (1988) is cited as the first researcher to enumerate the issue, stating that there were already up to 10 million ‘Environmental Refugees’. Drawing on ‘worst-case scenarios’ about sea-level rise, she argued that all forms of ‘Environmental Refugees’ would be six times as numerous as political refugees.[18] By 1989, Mustafa Tolba, Executive Director of UNEP, was claiming that 'as many as 50 million people could become environmental refugees' if the world did not act to support sustainable development.[19] In 1990, the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC 1990: 20) declared that the greatest single consequence of climate change could be migration, ‘with millions of people displaced by shoreline erosion, coastal flooding and severe drought’.[20] In the mid-1990s, British environmentalist, Norman Myers, became the most prominent proponent of this ‘maximalist’ school (Suhrke 1993). Noting, that "environmental refugees will soon become the largest group of involuntary refugees".[21] Additionally, he stated that there were 25 million environmental refugees in the mid-1990s, further claiming that this figure could double by 2010, with an upper limit of 200 million by 2050 (Myers 1997).[22] Myers argued that the causes of environmental displacement would include desertification, lack of water, salination of irrigated lands and the depletion of bio-diversity. He also hypothesised that displacement would amount to 30m in China, 30m in India, 15m in Bangladesh, 14m in Egypt, 10m in other delta areas and coastal zones, 1m in island states, and with otherwise agriculturally displaced people totalling 50m by 2050.[23] More recently, Myers has suggested that the figure by 2050 might be as high as 250 million.[24]

A map showing where natural disasters caused/aggravated by global warming may occur, and thus where environmental refugees would be created[citation needed]

These claims have gained significant currency, with the most common projection being that the world will have 150-200 million climate change refugees by 2050. Variations of this claim have been made in influential reports on climate change by the IPCC (Brown 2008: 11)[25] and the Stern Review on the Economics of Climate Change (Stern et al. 2006: 3),[26] as well as by NGOs such as Friends of the Earth,[27] Greenpeace Germany (Jakobeit and Methmann 2007)[28] and Christian Aid;[24] and inter-governmental organisations such as the Council of Europe,[29] UNESCO,[30] IOM (Brown 2008) and UNHCR.[31]

Norman Myers is the most cited researcher in this field, who found that 25 million environmental migrants existed in 1995 in his work (Myers & Kent 1995),[23] which drew upon over 1000 sources.[32] However, Vikram Kolmannskog has stated that Myers’ work can be ‘criticized for being inconsistent, impossible to check and failing to take proper account of opportunities to adapt’ (2008: 9).[33] Furthermore, Myers himself has acknowledged that his figures are based upon ‘heroic extrapolation’ (Brown 2008: 12).[25] More generally, Black has argued that there is ‘surprisingly little scientific evidence’ that indicates that the world is ‘filling-up with environmental refugees’ (1998: 23).[34] Indeed, Francois Gemenne has stated that: 'When it comes to predictions, figures are usually based on the number of people living in regions at risk, and not on the number of people actually expected to migrate. Estimates do not account for adaptation strategies [or] different levels of vulnerability' (Gemenne 2009: 159).[35]

Asia and the Pacific[edit]

According to the Internal Displacement Monitoring Centre, more than 42 million people were displaced in Asia and the Pacific during 2010 and 2011, more than twice the population of Sri Lanka. This figure includes those displaced by storms, floods, and heat and cold waves. Still others were displaced by drought and sea-level rise. Most of those compelled to leave their homes eventually returned when conditions improved, but an undetermined number became migrants, usually within their country, but also across national borders.[36]

Climate-induced migration is a highly complex issue which needs to be understood as part of global migration dynamics. Migration typically has multiple causes, and environmental factors are intertwined with other social and economic factors, which themselves can be influenced by environmental changes. Environmental migration should not be treated solely as a discrete category, set apart from other migration flows. A 2012 Asian Development Bank study argues that climate-induced migration should be addressed as part of a country's development agenda, given the major implications of migration on economic and social development. The report recommends interventions both to address the situation of those who have migrated, as well as those who remain in areas subject to environmental risk. It says: "To reduce migration compelled by worsening environmental conditions, and to strengthen resilience of at-risk communities, governments should adopt polices and commit financing to social protection, livelihoods development, basic urban infrastructure development, and disaster risk management."[37]

Additionally, it is maintained that the poor populate areas that are most at risk for environmental destruction and climate change, including coastlines, flood-lines and steep slopes. As a result, climate change threatens areas already suffering from extreme poverty. "The issue of equity is crucial. Climate affects us all, but does not affect us all equally," UN Secretary-General Ban Ki-moon told delegates at a climate conference in Indonesia.[38] Africa is also one of the world regions where environmental displacement is critical largely due to droughts and other climate related eventualities.[39]

In Minqin county, Gansu Province, "10,000 people have left the area and have become shengtai yimin, 'ecological migrants'".[40]

In 2013 a claim of a Kiribati man of being a "climate change refugee" under the Convention relating to the Status of Refugees (1951) was determined by the New Zealand High Court to be untenable.[41][42] The Refugee Convention did not apply as there is no persecution or serious harm related to any of the five stipulated convention grounds. The Court rejected the argument that the international community itself (or countries which can be said to have been historically high emitters of carbon dioxide or other greenhouse gases) were the “persecutor” for the purposes of the Refugee Convention.[41] This analysis of the need for the person to identify persecution of the type described in the Refugee Convention does not exclude the possibility that a people for countries experiencing severe impacts of climate change can come with the Refugee Convention. However it is not the climate change event itself, rather the social and political response to climate change, which is likely to create the pathway for a successful claim. The New Zealand Immigration and Protection Tribunal and the High Court, “there is a complex inter-relationship between natural disasters, environmental degradation and human vulnerability. Sometimes a tenable pathway to international protection under the Refugee Convention can result. Environmental issues sometimes lead to armed conflict. There may be ensuing violence towards or direct repression of an entire section of a population. Humanitarian relief can become politicised, particularly in situations where some group inside a disadvantaged country is the target of direct discrimination.”[43] The New Zealand Court of Appeal also rejected the claim in a 2014 decision. On further appeal the New Zealand Supreme Court confirmed the earlier adverse rulings against the application for refugee status, with the Supreme Court also rejecting the proposition “that environmental degradation resulting from climate change or other natural disasters could never create a pathway into the Refugee Convention or protected person jurisdiction.”[44]

In 2014 attention was drawn to an appeal to the New Zealand Immigration and Protection Tribunal against the deportation of a Tuvaluan family on the basis that they were "climate change refugees", who would suffer hardship resulting from the environmental degradation of Tuvalu.[45] However the subsequent grant of residence permits to the family was made on grounds unrelated to the refugee claim.[46] The family was successful in their appeal because, under the relevant immigration legislation, there were "exceptional circumstances of a humanitarian nature" that justified the grant of resident permits as the family was integrated into New Zealand society with a sizeable extended family which had effectively relocated to New Zealand.[46]

North America[edit]

Alaska[edit]

There have been 178 Alaskan communities threatened by erosion of their land. The annual temperature has steadily increased over the last fifty years, with Alaska seeing it double (compared to the rate seen across the rest of the United States) to the rate of 3.4 degrees, with an alarming 6.3 degrees increase for the winters over the past fifty years. Many of the communities residing in these areas have been living off the land for generations. There is an eminent threat of loss of culture and loss of tribal identity with these communities.[47]

Louisiana[edit]

Isle de Jean Charles, Louisiana, home to the Biloxi-Chitimacha-Choctaw First Nation, is being depopulated with federal grant money, due to saltwater intrusion and sea level rise. This Indigenous Nation residing on the Isle de Jean Charles is facing the effects of climate change. The resettlement of this community of around 100, exists as the first migration of a total community in the state of Louisiana. This state has lost almost 2000 square miles of it’s coast within the last 87 years and now an alarming rate of almost 16 square miles a year is disappearing. In early 2016, a 48-million-dollar grant was the first allocation of federal tax dollars to aid a community suffering from direct impact of climate change. Louisiana has lost land mass comparable to the size of the state of Delaware revealing land mass loss that is at a rate faster than many places in the world. The resettlement plan for the Isle de Jean Charles is at the forefront of responding to climate change without destroying the community that resides within.[48][49]

Washington State[edit]

The Quinault village of Taholah has requested $60 million to relocate away from the encroaching Pacific Ocean.[50]

South America[edit]

Some Kuna people, such as those in the settlement of Gardi Sugdub, have decided to relocate from islands to the mainland of Panama due to sea level rise.[51]

Political and legal perspectives[edit]

The International Organization for Migration (IOM) expects the scale of global migration to rise as a result of accelerated climate change.[52] It therefore recommends policymakers around the world to take a proactive stance on the matter.[53] The IOM is composed of 146 member states and 13 observer states and "works closely with governments in promoting migration management that ensures humane and orderly migration that is beneficial to migrants and societies."[53] Additionally, When interviewing Oliver- Smith, an anthropologist and member of the UN group, National Geographic Magazine noted that "there are at least 20 million environmental refugees worldwide, the [UN] group says – more than those displaced by war and political repression combined." Therefore, it is imperative that we begin to recognize this recent division of refugee.[54]

The Environmental Justice Foundation (EJF) has argued that the people who will be forced to move due to climate change currently have no adequate recognition in international law.[55] The EJF contends that a new multilateral legal instrument is required to specifically address the needs of "climate refugees" in order to confer protection to those fleeing environmental degradation and climate change.[56] They have also asserted that additional funding is needed to enable developing countries to adapt to climate change. Sujatha Byravan and Sudhir Chella Rajan have argued for the use of the term 'climate exiles' and for international agreements to provide them political and legal rights, including citizenship in other countries, bearing in mind those countries' responsibilities and capabilities.[2][3][4]

In some cases, climate change may lead to conflict arising between countries that as a result of flooding or other conditions produce a large number of refugees, and bordering countries that build fences to keep out these refugees. The Bangladesh–India border is largely separated via a fence, and case studies suggest the possibility of violent conflict arising due to people fleeing from areas suffering from destruction of arable land. Current migration has already resulted in low-scale conflicts.[57]

The Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) predicts that sea levels will increase with up to 0.6 meters by 2100. This will cause populations to wipeout entirely. Small areas may have nothing left. This could lead to the lose of millions of refugees. Refugee organizations have taken on cases of many different refugees. The Organization for Refugees Asylum and Migration (ORAM) is designed to help refugees in seeking status and re-settlement. They are designed to help refugees overcome the Refugee process. ORAM’s main goal is to protect the vulnerable refugees for the laws put on refugee and help end the refugee asylum process. There is a ton of legal action taken against refugees. Political laws are put on the refugees to either harm or hurt the refugees.[58]

Global perceptions from possible countries of asylum[edit]

Reaction as for the possible acceptance of possible environmental migrants is mixed, this is because of countries dealing with other domestic problems. For example India, which has a population of over 1 billion people, is building an India-Bangladesh barrier. While the stated purpose of the barrier is to deter drug trade, the barrier may also help prevent the possible refuge of 20 million Bangladeshis who may be displaced by future climate change.[59] This is a contrast to Canada in which public pressure is slowly building to create policies that will allow accommodation and better planning.[60][61][62][63] On 20 September 2016, Prime Minister Trudeau of Canada told the UN Summit for Refugees and Migrants that plans just for resettlement would not be enough.[64] Sweden which had allowed refugees to seek asylum from areas of war in an open door policy has changed to a policy that is more deterrent of asylum seekers and is even offering money for asylum seekers to withdraw their requests.[65][66] The United States, which was warned under the Obama administration to prepare for climate change and the refugees, may have more difficulties being prepared to do so under current President Donald Trump.[67][68] This can be seen as Trump denies the possibility of climate change, has signed executive orders dismantling environmental protections, and has ordered the EPA to remove climate change information from their public site, likely signaling America's unwillingness to acknowledge the future possibility of increased environmental refugees from climate change.[69][70][71]

Asylum is the freedom of prosecution in the country the people want to be in. Different countries have their own rules and laws of asylum.The United States for example their system is recognized by federal and international laws. France was the first country to constitute the right to asylum. So the right to asylum differs in different nations. There is a still fight for the right to asylum in some areas of the world.[72]

Perspective of countries taking immigrants[edit]

In the UK, research is being done on how climate change’s impact upon countries that are emigrated to will vary due to the infrastructure of those countries. They want to put into place policies so that those who have to migrate could go throughout Europe, and have solid emergency planning in place so that the people being displaced would have a swift and quick plan of escape once their environment can no longer handle inhabitants-slow or sudden onset.[73] The end goal of this work is to determine the best course of action in the event of various environmental catastrophes.

Popular culture[edit]

German artist Hermann Josef Hack's World Climate Refugee Camp in Hannover displaying 600 small climate refugee tents.

The notion of 'environmental migrant', and particularly 'climate refugee', has gained traction in popular culture. A documentary entitled Climate Refugees has been released. "Climate Refugees" is an Official Selection for the 2010 Sundance Film Festival.[74] More recently, Short Documentary Academy Award Nominee, Sun Come Up (2011), tells the story of Carteret islanders who are forced to leave their ancestral land in response to climate change and migrate to war-torn Bougainville [75]

Since 2007, German artist Hermann Josef Hack has shown his World Climate Refugee Camp in the centers of various European cities. The model camp, made of roughly 1000 miniature tents, is a public art intervention that depicts the social impacts of climate change.[76]

Documentary films[edit]

  • Climate Refugees (2010), Documentary movie directed by Michael P. Nash. Starring: Lester Brown, Yvo de Boer, Paul Ehrlich ...
  • Eco Migrants: The Case of Bhola Island (2013), Documentary movie directed by Susan Stein. Starring Katherine Jacobsen, Nancy Schneider, Bogumil Terminski
  • Refugees of the Blue Planet (2006), Documentary movie directed by Hélène Choquette & Jean-Philippe Duval.
  • The Land Between (2014) documentary movie directed by David Fedele.[77]

See also[edit]

References[edit]

Notes[edit]

  1. ^ Boano, C., Zetter, R., and Morris, T., (2008). Environmentally Displaced People: Understanding the linkages between environmental change, livelihoods and forced migration, Refugee Studies Centre Policy Brief No.1 (RSC: Oxford), pg.4
  2. ^ a b "Before the Flood" Sujatha Byravan and Sudhir Chella Rajan, The New York Times, 9 May 2005.
  3. ^ a b "Warming up to Immigrants: An Option for US Climate Policy" Sujatha Byravan and Sudhir Chella Rajan, Economic and Political Weekly, 7 November 2009.
  4. ^ a b "The Ethical Implications of Sea-Level Rise Due to Climate Change" Sujatha Byravan and Sudhir Chella Rajan, Ethics & International Affairs, Volume 24.3 (Fall 2010).
  5. ^ Renaud, Fabrice et. al. "Environmental Degradation and Migration" (PDF). 
  6. ^ http://www.unhcr.org/46f7c0ee2.pdf |page19
  7. ^ Hartley, Lindsey. ( 16 February 2012). Treading Water: Climate Change, the Maldives, and De-territorialization. Stimson Centre. Retrieved 25 April 2012.
  8. ^ Brown, L., Mcgrath, P., and Stokes, B., (1976). twenty two dimensions of the population problem, Worldwatch Paper 5, Washington DC: Worldwatch Institute
  9. ^ DISCUSSION NOTE: MIGRATION AND THE ENVIRONMENT
  10. ^ Global Governance Project. (2012). Forum on Climate Refugees. Retrieved on 5 May 2012.
  11. ^ Renaud, Fabrice et. al. "Environmental Degradation and Migration" (PDF). 
  12. ^ Marshall, Nicole (2015). "Politicizing Environmental Displacement: A Four Category Approach". Refugee Review. 2: 96–112. 
  13. ^ Koubi, Vally; Stoll, Sebastian; Spilker, Gabriele (8 August 2016). "Perceptions of environmental change and migration decisions". Climatic Change. 138 (3-4): 439–451. ISSN 0165-0009. doi:10.1007/s10584-016-1767-1. 
  14. ^ Marshall, Nicole. "Toward Special Mobility Rights for Climate Migrants". 
  15. ^ Marshall, Nicole (2016). "Forced Environmental Migration: Ethical Considerations for Emerging Migration Policy". Ethics, Policy and Environment. 19 (1): 1–18. 
  16. ^ Marshall, Nicole (2016). "Forced Environmental Migration: Ethical Considerations for Emerging Migration Policy". Ethics, Policy and Environment. 19 (1): 1–18. 
  17. ^ "Understanding a slow disaster: getting to grips with slow-onset disasters, and what they mean for migration and displacement -". Climate & Migration Coalition. 4 February 2015. Retrieved 26 February 2017. 
  18. ^ Jacobson, J.L. (1988). Environmental Refugees: a Yardstick of Habitability, Worldwatch paper 86, Worldwatch Institute, Washington DC, page 38
  19. ^ Tolba, M. K. (1989). Our biological heritage under siege. Bioscience 39, 725–728, page 25
  20. ^ Warner K and Laczko F. (2008). ‘Migration, Environment and Development: New Directions for Research’, in Chamie J, Dall’Oglio L (eds.), International Migration and Development, Continuing the Dialogue: Legal and Policy Perspectives, IOM, page 235
  21. ^ Myers, Norman. "Environmental Refugees: A Growing Phenomenon ." Philosophical Transactions: Biological Sciences 357.1420 (2002): 609. Print
  22. ^ Myers, N. (1997). ‘Environmental Refugees’, Population and Environment 19(2): 167-82
  23. ^ a b Myers, N. and Kent, J. (1995). Environmental Exodus: an Emergent Crisis in the Global Arena, (Climate Institute[who?]: Washington DC)
  24. ^ a b Christian Aid (2007). ‘Human Tide: The Real Migration Crisis’ (CA: London), page 6
  25. ^ a b Brown, O (2008). ‘Migration and Climate Change’, IOM Migration Research Series, paper no.31, www.iom.int
  26. ^ Stern, N. (Ed.) (2006). The Economics of Climate Change: The Stern Review, Cambridge University Press, Cambridge
  27. ^ Friends of the Earth, ‘A Citizen's Guide to Climate Refugees, Fact Sheet Four: Predictions of Climate Refugees to 2050’ (FOTE: London), 2007: 10
  28. ^ Jakobeit, C., and Methmann, C. (2007). Klimafluchtlinge – Die Verleugnete Katastrophe, Greenpeace, Hamburg
  29. ^ Parliamentary Assembly Doc. 11084, 23 October 2006, The Problem of Environmental Refugees: 1
  30. ^ UNESCO (2007)
  31. ^ UNHCR (2002), ‘A critical time for the environment’, Refugees No.127. Geneva.
  32. ^ Friends of the Earth, A Citizen's Guide to Climate Refugees, Fact Sheet Four: Predictions of Climate Refugees to 2050
  33. ^ Kolmannskog, V (2008). Future Floods of Refugees, (Norwegian Refugee Council: Oslo)
  34. ^ Black, R. (1998). Refugees, Environment and Development, Harlow: Longman
  35. ^ Gemenne, F (2009). ‘Environmental Migration: Normative Frameworks and Policy Prescriptions’, Doctoral Thesis, Sciences-Po, Paris
  36. ^ Internal Displacement Monitoring Centre (IDMC) - Norwegian Refugee Council. "Displacement due to natural hazard-induced disasters: Global estimates for 2009 and 2010". Internal-displacement.org. Retrieved 23 February 2014. 
  37. ^ "Addressing Climate Change Migration in Asia & the Pacific 2012" (PDF). Retrieved 23 February 2014. 
  38. ^ "Environmental Refugees." World Vision Canada. N.p., n.d. Web. 15 March 2012.
  39. ^ Adamo, S.; de Sherbinin, A. ( 2011) The impact of climate change on the spatial distribution of populations and migration In: Population Distribution, Urbanization, Internal Migration and Development: An International Perspective (Department of Economic and Social Affairs, Population Division, United Nations, New York)
  40. ^ Hook, Leslie (14 May 2013). "China: High and dry: Water shortages put a brake on economic growth". Financial Times. Retrieved 15 May 2013. 
  41. ^ a b "Teitiota v Chief Executive of the Ministry of Business Innovation and Employment [2013] NZHC 3125 (26 November 2013)". NZLII. Retrieved 20 July 2015. 
  42. ^ Vernon Rive (14 August 2014). ""Climate refugees" revisited: a closer look at the Tuvalu decision". Point Source. Retrieved 11 February 2015. 
  43. ^ "Teitiota v Chief Executive of the Ministry of Business Innovation and Employment [2013] NZHC 3125 (26 November 2013) [27]". NZLII. Retrieved 20 July 2015. 
  44. ^ "Teitiota v Ministry of Business Innovation and Employment [2015] NZSC 107 (20 July 2015) [13]". NZLII. Retrieved 20 July 2015. 
  45. ^ Rick, Noack (7 August 2014). "Has the era of the ‘climate change refugee’ begun?". Washington Post. Retrieved 11 February 2015. 
  46. ^ a b Rive, Vernon (14 August 2014). ""Climate refugees" revisited: a closer look at the Tuvalu decision". Point Source. Retrieved 11 February 2015. 
  47. ^ BARTH, BRIAN. "Before It's Too Late." Planning 82.8 (2016): 14-20. Academic Search Complete. Web. 21 Feb. 2017.
  48. ^ Guillot, Craig. "The Resettlement Of Isle De Jean Charles." Planning 82.8 (2016): 21. Academic Search Complete. Web. 21 Feb. 2017.
  49. ^ Davenport, Coral; Robertson, Campbell. New York Times, Late Edition (East Coast); New York, N.Y. [New York, N.Y] 03 May 2016: A.1
  50. ^ Ashley Ahearn (1 December 2015). "Facing Rising Waters, A Native Tribe Takes Its Plea To Paris Climate Talks". NPR. 
  51. ^ Rising Sea Levels Threaten Tiny Islands Home To Indigenous Panamanians
  52. ^ International Organization for Migration's Perspective on Migration and Climate Change
  53. ^ a b International Organization for Migration: Key Principles for Policy Making on Migration, Climate Change & the Environmental Degradation
  54. ^ Lovgren, Stefan. "Climate Change Creating Millions of "Eco Refugees," UN Warns." Daily Nature and Science News and Headlines | National Geographic News. N.p., 18 October 2005. Web. 13 March 2012.
  55. ^ "No place like home - climate refugees", The Environmental Justice Foundation, 2009
  56. ^ "Global warming could create 150 million climate refugees by 2050" John Vidal, The Guardian, 3 November 2009.
  57. ^ Litchfield, William Alex. "Climate Change Induced Extreme Weather Events & Sea Level Rise in Bangladesh leading to Migration and Conflict". American University. ICE Case Studies. Retrieved 19 June 2011. 
  58. ^ Society, National Geographic (2011-06-17). "climate refugee". National Geographic Society. Retrieved 2017-03-01. 
  59. ^ Grant, Harriet; Randerson, James; Vidal, John (4 December 2009). "UK should open borders to climate refugees, says Bangladeshi minister". The Guardian. 
  60. ^ Murray, Sheila (2010). "Environmental Migrants and Canada's Refugee Policy". Refuge: Canada's Periodical on Refugees. 27 – via Academic ONEfile. 
  61. ^ Keung, Nicholas. "Ottawa urged to open doors to ‘climate migrants’ | Toronto Star". thestar.com. 
  62. ^ Dinshaw, Fram (30 October 2015). "Mass migration crisis likely to get much worse". National Observer. 
  63. ^ "Environmental migrants breathing easier in Canada | Toronto Star". thestar.com. Retrieved 22 February 2017. 
  64. ^ Grandia, Kevin (20 September 2016). "Climate refugees? We don’t have a plan for that.". National Observer. Retrieved 22 February 2017. 
  65. ^ Crouch, David (24 November 2015). "Sweden slams shut its open-door policy towards refugees". The Guardian. ISSN 0261-3077. Retrieved 22 February 2017. 
  66. ^ "Sweden is paying refugees £3,500 each to go home". The Independent. 25 August 2016. Retrieved 22 February 2017. 
  67. ^ Chemnick,ClimateWire, Jean. "Obama Warns of "Mass Migrations" If Climate Change Is Not Confronted". Scientific American. Retrieved 22 February 2017. 
  68. ^ Milman, Oliver (29 April 2016). "Obama administration warns of ‘climate refugees’ due to rapid Arctic warming". The Guardian. ISSN 0261-3077. Retrieved 22 February 2017. 
  69. ^ Foran, Clare. "Donald Trump and the Triumph of Climate Denial". The Atlantic. Retrieved 22 February 2017. 
  70. ^ Henry, Devin (21 February 2017). "Trump executive orders to target climate, water rules: report". TheHill. Retrieved 22 February 2017. 
  71. ^ "Trump forces environment agency to delete all climate change references from its website". The Independent. 25 January 2017. Retrieved 22 February 2017. 
  72. ^ "The invisible climate refugees". United Nations Regional Information Centre for Western Europe (UNRIC). Retrieved 2017-03-01. 
  73. ^ Perkiss, Stephanie (2010). "Environmental Refugees: An Accountability Perspective". University of Wollongong. 
  74. ^ Climate Refugees at Sundance Film Festival 2010
  75. ^ "Sun Come Up: Home." Sun Come Up . N.p., n.d. Web. 13 March 2012.
  76. ^ "Hermann Josef Hack Website". Hermann-josef-hack.de. Retrieved 23 February 2014. 
  77. ^ "THE LAND BETWEEN". THE LAND BETWEEN. Retrieved 2017-03-01. 

Further reading[edit]

  • Étienne Piguet, Antoine Pécoud and Paul de Guchteneire, Migration and Climate Change, Cambridge University Press, 2001
  • Essam El-Hinnawi, Environmental Refugees, UNEP, 1985.
  • Jane McAdam, Climate Change, Forced Migration, and International Law, Oxford University Press, 2012.
  • Jane McAdam, Forced Migration, Human Rights and Security (Studies in International Law), Hart Publishing, 2008.
  • Bogumil Terminski, Environmentally-Induced Displacement. Theoretical Frameworks and Current Challenges, CEDEM, University of Liège, 2012.
  • Laura Westra, Environmental Justice and the Rights of Ecological Refugees, Routledge, 2009.
  • Gregory White, Climate Change and Migration: Security and Borders in Warming World, Oxford University Press, 2011.

External links[edit]