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Parasite140083-fig1 Figs 1-7 Neoechinorhynchus (Hebesoma) spiramuscularis.tif
Neoechinorhynchus (Hebesoma) spiramuscularis [1]
Scientific classification
Kingdom: Animalia
Phylum: Acanthocephala
Class: Eoacanthocephala


Eoacanthocephala is a class of parasitic worms, within the phylum Acanthocephala. They feed on any aquatic cold-blooded creature such as turtles and fish. Their proboscis spines arranged radially, no protonephridia, persistent ligament sacs in female. The only reliable way to identify the group is that they only have one cement gland. This is a primitive characteristic and hence the name.


  1. ^ Amin, O. A, Heckmann, R. A & Ha, N. V. (2014) Acanthocephalans from fishes and amphibians in Vietnam, with descriptions of five new species. Parasite, 21, 53 doi:10.1051/parasite/2014052PMID 25331738 open access publication – free to read

Robert L. Usinger; Storer. 1951. General Zoology. Sixth edition. McGraw-Hill, Inc. Page-437.