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Ephah (/ˈ.fɑː/,[1] Hebrew: עֵיפָה‎‎ ‘Êp̄āh) was one of Midian's five sons as listed in the Hebrew Bible.[2] The son of Abraham, Midian's five sons were Ephah, Epher, Enoch, Abida,[3] and Eldaah. These five were the progenitors of the Midianites.

Other uses[edit]

Biblical Figure[edit]

The name of three persons in the Old Testament, two men and one woman.

(1) The son of Midian, descended from Abraham by his wife Keturah (Genesis 25:4 ; 1 Chronicles 1:33), mentioned again in Isaiah 60:6 as a transporter of gold and frankincense from Sheba, who shall thus bring enlargement to Judah and praise to Yahweh. According to Fried. Delitzsch, Schrader, and Hommel, `Ephah is an abbreviation of `Ayappa, the Kha-yappa Arabs of the time of Tiglath-pileser III and Sargon.

(2) A concubine of Caleb (1 Chronicles 2:46).

(3) The son of Jahdai, a descendant of Judah (1 Chronicles 2:47).[4]


The Book of Isaiah, chapter 60, mentions a land of Ephah whence camels and dromedaries would come to Israel: "A multitude of camels shall cover you, the young camels of Midian and Ephah". K E Bailey suggests Ephah is a tribal land in northern Arabia.[5]


The Hebrew word "ephah" (איפה) means a particular measure for grain, and "measure" in general.

The measurement for an ephah is about 21.14 litres, or ten omers.[6] A dry measure of about 3/5 of a bushel capacity. It corresponds to the bath (Ezekiel 45:11) in liquid measure and was the standard for measuring grain and similar articles since it is classed with balances and weights (Leviticus 19:36 ; Amos 8:5) in the injunctions regarding just dealing in trade. In Zechariah 5:6 - 5:10 it is used for the utensil itself.

We learn from Ezekiel 45:11 that the bath and ephah were equivalent, or about 1,290.04 cubic inches, which would correspond to about 4.65 gallons English measure.[7]


  1. ^ LDS.org: "Book of Mormon Pronunciation Guide" (retrieved 2012-02-25), IPA-ified from «ē´fä»
  2. ^ Genesis 25:1–4; I Chronicles 1:32–33
  3. ^ R. V. "Abida"
  4. ^ "Bibler.org - Dictionary - Ephah". 2012-05-27. 
  5. ^ K E Bailey, Jesus through Middle Eastern Eyes, SPCK London 2008 p. 54
  6. ^ Exodus 16:36
  7. ^ "convert-me.com - Ephah". 2015-07-17.