Ephemera

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A historical example of ephemera

Ephemera are transitory creations which are not meant to be retained or preserved. Its etymological origins extends to Ancient Greece, with the common definition of the word being: "the minor transient documents of everyday life". Ambiguous in nature, various interpretations of ephemera and related items have been contended, including menus, newspapers, postcards, posters, plastic champagne glasses, portable classrooms and stickers.

Since the printing revolution, ephemera has been a long-standing element of everyday life. Some ephemera are ornate in their design, acquiring prestige, whereas others are minimal and notably utilitarian. Virtually all conceptions of ephemera make note of the matter's disposability.

Ephemera has long been collected by the likes of families, hobbyists and curators, with certain instances of ephemera intended to be collected. Literature by collectors and societies has contributed to a greater willingness to preserve ephemera, which is now ubiquitous in archives and library collections. Ephemera has seen academic interest as a beneficial prospect to humanities and in of its self, illustrating or providing insight into diverse matters, such as those of a sociological, cultural or anthropological background.

Etymology and categorisation[edit]

A piece of ephemera circa 1749–1751, around the time Samuel Johnson may have coined the term

The etymological origin of Ephemera (ἐφήμερα) is the Greek epi (ἐπί) – "on, for" and hemera (ἡμέρα) – "day". This combination generated the term ephemeron in neuter gender; the neuter plural form is ephemera, the source of the modern word, which can be traced back to the works of Aristotle.[1] The word is both plural and singular.[2] The initial sense extended to the mayfly and other short-lived insects and flowers, belonging to the biological order Ephemeroptera.[3] In 1751, Samuel Johnson used the term ephemerae in reference to "the papers of the day" – and is frequently cited as the term's creator.[4] This application of ephemera has been cited as the first example of aligning it with transient prints.[5] Ephemeral, by the mid-19th century, began to be used to generically refer to printed items.[4] Ephemera and ephemerality have mutual connotations of "passing time, change, and the philosophically ultimate vision of our own existence".[6] The degree to which ephemera is ephemeral is due in part to the value bestowed upon it and the passage of time has seen the ephemerality of certain ephemera decrease generally.[7][8]

Ephemera, ambiguous in nature, has been noted to have had a history of assorted applications, the presently most common definition being: "the minor transient documents of everyday life".[4][9] This definition ascribes ephemera's pressence within the greater context of printed materials: ostensibly trivial mundanity.[4] "[E]veryday life" establishes a connection to popular culture and social history; ephemera is an important aspect of said life, which, according to Henry Jenkins, showcases the immaterial nature of culture arising in daily life.[10][11][12] Rick Prelinger noted that with greater value granted to ephemera, thus reducing ephemerality, the general definition may itself be short-lived.[13]

With a virtual consensus between librarians that ephemera is "difficult", categorisation has burdened the field of library science and is similarly difficult for historiography due to the ambiguity of ephemera.[14][4][15] A piece of ephemera's purpose, field of use and geography are among the various elements relevant to its categorisation.[16] Challenges pertaining to ephemera include determining its creator, purpose, date and location of origin and "what impact it had in its particular context".[17][18] Determining its worth in a present context, distinct from its perhaps obscured purpose, is also of interest.[19]

As the breadth of printed ephemera is vast, there is various "different textual complexity and meaning" present.[20] Librarians often conflate ephemera with grey literature whereas collectors often broaden the scope and defintion of ephemera.[21][22] José Esteban Muñoz argued that "ephemera is always about specificity and resisting dominant systems of aesthetic and institutional classification" without being divorced from social experiences.[23] Wasserman, who defined ephemera as "objects destined for disappearance or destruction", categorised the following as ephemera:[24]

  • air transport labels
  • bank checks
  • bingo cards
  • bookmarks
  • broadsides
  • bus tickets
  • catalogs
  • envelopes
  • flyers
  • maps
  • menus
  • newspapers
  • pamphlets
  • paper dolls
  • postcards
  • receipts
  • sheet music
  • stamps
  • theater programs
  • ticket stubs
  • valentines

Further items that have been categorised as ephemera include: posters, album covers, meeting minutes, buttons, stickers, financial records and personal memorabilia; announcements of events in a life, such as a birth, a death, a graduation or marriage, have described as ephemera.[10][15][25] Artistic ephemera include sand paintings, sculptures composed of intentionally transient material, graffiti, and guerrilla art.[26] The range of printed ephemera is complex and often eludes simple definition.[27]

Curator Timothy Young wrote that "anything bearing text", such as cigarette packages and bottle caps, could befit an argument concerning categorisation as ephemera.[1] Alison Byerly described ephemera as items that are "more or less spontaneous manifestations of cultural preoccupations".[28] Over 500 categories are listed in The Encyclopedia of Ephemera, ranging from the 18th to 20th century.[28][29] Professor of Urban Studies J. Mark Schuster described festivals as "signature ephemera".[30] John Lewis described ephemera as a type of graphic art.[4] Citing the likes of "aluminum foil haute couture", plastic champagne glasses and portable classrooms, Daniel Solomon, in a 1970 Design Quarterly article, wrote that "more and more of the man-made world is ephemera".[31]

Forms[edit]

There is scarcely a subject that has not generated its own ephemera.[32]

— Rickards and, the librarian, Julie Anne Lambert

Printed ephemera[edit]

The temperance movement generated a vast amount of ephemera

Per the common understanding, printed ephemera does not exceed "more than thirty-two pages in length", although some understandings define it as all printed materials which are not books or the "antithesis of litera[ture]".[33][34][35][a] Ephemera is chiefly observed as single page materials, with variance and repeat characteristics.[10][36] The material usage of printed ephemera is very often minimal and much are without art; some are highly decorated and make use of a distinct design lexicon, with there existing significant amounts of art which could be classified as ephemera. Fine art has at times been associated with ephemera, such as William Hogarth's early trade cards.[1][32][37][b] Trade cards engraved and printed intaglio acquired general prestige.[38] Early ephemera, functionally monochromatic and predominantly textual. indicates a greater access to printing from common people and later cheap photography.[39][40][41] Advertising and infomation are among the primary elements of ephemera; design elements, which are typically indicative of the period of origin, such as the Renaissance, likely changed in accordance to higher literacy rates.[10][42][43][c] The prose of ephemera could range from pithy to relatively long (~400 words, for example).[45] By the 19th century, color printing was present, as were vivid, creative, innovative and ornate design, due to the incorporation of lithography.[43][46] Ephemera's "generic legibility" was achieved through the use of visuals, a quality that was significantly democratised by ephemera.[40][47]

Various forms of printed ephemera, such as chapbooks, dime novels and penny dreadfuls, with varying quality of paper, deteriorate quickly. The survival rate of material before the 19th century is low, although ephemera had still been broad. Virturally all definitions emphasise the disposability of ephemera.[4][5][48][44] The heavier paper of postcards, for example, led them to be more durable than other forms of ephemera and much of ephemera was not intended to be disposed of.[49][8] The temperance movement instigated instances of ephemera with robust ubiquity; some printed ephemera have had production quantities of millions, although quantifying the matter is often reliant upon limited yet vast approximation.[50][15][51][d] Such temperance ephemera was prominent enough to elicit contemporaneous sentimentality and disdain.[53] Assignats saw widespread contempt on account of their low-quality, thus they "might seem the most ephemeral of ephemera".[54] By this point, ephemera was printed by various establishments, having likely become a major element of some.[39]

Distinct from more literary types – such as the fitful relation to poetry – some printed ephemera feature a "cultural function": funeral elegies and invitations are among them.[33][55][56][57] Ephemera is notably utilitarian, those of that category remaining solely printed in black, as was the norm before the early 19th century.[28][58] Historically, there has been various categories of ephemera; art ephemera is that which promotes a showcase of art.[59][60] Specific genres, those that include postcards, broadsides, and posters, are defined by their function.[1] Broadsides, themselves, have been identified as a genre: the graphic arts, manuscript material and substantial pamphlets have been articulated as the three other major genres.[59] Other types of ephemera, the resultingly modern replications of duplicating machines and photocopiers, differ from the previous transactional approach by chiefly being informative.[1] Some ephemera has been deemed avant-garde.[61]

Ephemera has functioned as a substantial means of disseminating information, evident in public sectors such as tourism, finance, law and recreation.[62] Administrative elements have been present since the late 17th century.[63] Certain printed ephemera: newspapers, playbills and tickets were used, during the 19th century, as a "mediating element between the absolute ephemerality of the performance event itself and more 'permanent' historical and literary records".[64] Printed ephemera such as handbills were prominent in the French Revolution as a means to mobilise and disperse political messages.[15] The French and British empires were propagated by ephemera.[65][66] In mid-18th century England, a considerable amount of ephemera was iconoclastic in their critique of the nation's opulence.[67][e] Health and social norms were established in 1970s Ireland via ephemera pertaining to health education.[69] Post-World War II, ephemera become instrumental to the "American kitchen"; houses and markets were inundated by ephemera.[70][71] Alongside other white nationalist organisations, the Ku Klux Klan has utilized ephemera as a means of recruitment and intimidation; black immigrants in 1970s and 80s Britain, according to Paul Gilroy, used ephemera to counter "racial dispossession".[72][73]

Smoking-related ephemera depicting a marten

Martin Andrews and Gillian Russell – printing historian and English professor, respectively – identified the mid-15th century as the origin of ephemera, following the Printing Revolution.[5][59] The ephemera that is playbills became a fixture in London theatres by the late 17th century.[74] According to Andrews, the first product of Western printing was ephemera; among the earliest printed ephemera is religious indulgences.[6][59] The first mass produced ephemera is presumed to be a variant of indulgences produced in 1454/55.[75] Streets remain a significant means of dispersing ephemera and demand for ephemera corresponded with an increasing scale of towns.[36][76] Printed ephemera's present and mundane ubiquity is a relatively modern phenomenon, evidenced by Henri Béraldi's writings on ephemera and his amazement at its proliferation.[77] Ubiquitous descriptions of printed ephemera have extended back to the 1840s and by the turn of the century, a time in which a deluge of ephemera had become commonplace, "readers [were] defined by their relationship with print ephemera".[78][79][80]

Lottery tickets, followed by playbills, were the most prominent printed ephemera of the late Georgian era; illustrated trade cards were among the most common ephemera in the United States during the mid-to-late 19th century – the range of ephemera in the nation increased from there onwards.[81][82] In the Southern United States, ephemera was the form of print most common to readers.[83] In Russia, around this time, "Saccharine images of young peasants were particularly common in confectionary ephemera".[84] Panoramic paintings were a far-reaching class of ephemera, few remaining as a result.[85] Junk mail is a contemporary example of prominent ephemera.[62]

Smoking related ephemera – such as publications and collectable cards – via encyclopedic-style facts "aided the proliferation of print media as an exchange of information".[86] Discussing an increase in ephemera by the mid-19th century, E.S Dallas wrote that new etiquette had been introduced, thus "a new era" was to follow, espousing the impression that authorship and literature were no longer hermetic.[87]

Digital ephemera[edit]

In 1998, librarian Richard Stone wrote that the internet "can be seen as the ultimate in ephemera with its vast amount of information and advertising which is extremely transitory and volatile in nature, and vulnerable to change or deletion".[27] Multiple academics have described digital ephemera as being possibly more vulnerable than traditional forms.[48][88] Within the context of modern media dissemination, YouTube videos, viral emails and photos have been identified as ephemeral and various modern print ephemera features a digital component.[26][89] Commonly printed ephemera increasingly only manifests digitally.[90] The Tate Library defines "e-ephemera" as the digital-born content and paratext of an email, typically of a promotional variety, produced by cultural institutions; similar in nature, monographs, catalogues and micro-sites are excluded, per being considered e-books.[89] Websites, such as those of an adminstrative nature, have seen description as ephemera.[91][92] The likes of Instagram feature accounts dedicated to displaying graphically-designed ephemera.[93]

Distinguishing between printed ephemera, Byerly said that further ephemera will need to be dismissed in its time as to be valid, although she questioned as to what is neglected on the internet; Russell, five years later, conversely wrote that ephemera was likely to become more prominent, on account of digital renewal.[5][28] Digital ephemera is of comparable nature to printed ephemera, although is even more prevalent and subject to altering perceptions of ephemera.[90][94][95] Literature scholar James Mussell saw both united in how they defy intended neglectance.[96] Holly Callaghan of the Tate Library noted a proliferation of "e-ephemera"; an increased reliance upon this form of ephemera has engendered concern, with note to later accessibility and a difficultly to those outside of the intended recipients.[89][97][98] Citing ostensibly infinite digital storage, Wasserman said that "the internet seems poised to eradicate the very existence of ephemera", ultimately preserving it.[99]

Collecting[edit]

Ephemera has long been collected. "[T]he full spectrum of printed ephemera" had been collected since the 17th century.[20] Victorian families pasted their collections of ephemera, particularly acquiring chromolithographic trade cards, in scrapbooks.[100] Victorian scraps were an instance of ephemera intended for scrapbooks.[101] Of late 19th century ephemera, women and children composed one of the three general groups of collectors.[102] Hobbyists and institutions were the other two. It was a private endeavour, with little outward cultural presence, although an eminent interpersonal function.[102][103] Professor of English, Susan Zieger determined that the first instance of printed ephemera that was intended to be collected was cigarette cards which would beget a "craze for collecting".[104][105][f] Janet S. Byrne, curator in the department of prints and photographs at the Metropolitan Museum of Art, wrote that ephemera constituted some of the museum's "most important prints".[37]

Ephemera is ubiquitous in archives and library special collections, although often is without the categorisation: ephemera.[106] Archivist Jim Burant noted that although his peers may be dismissive of ephemera "we are probably all ephemera collectors within our own institutions".[107] One example of an ephemera archive, accepted in 1968, thus among the first to be accepted by a major library, is the John Johnson Collection of Printed Ephemera at the Bodleian Library, Oxford.[4] Johnson, who acquired 1.5 million pieces of ephemera, has been called "the most significant English ephemerist of the twentieth century".[108] For a significant time now, ephemera has been considered for archive.[109] Ephemera collections can be difficult to peruse and those that are digital were said to be rare, by the late 2000s; Byerly wrote that digital archiving of ephemera renders its "aura" void.[28][109] Later literature from librarians has argued in favour of digitalisation; efficiency and wider dissemenation were among Lambert's positions for digitalisation.[4][110]

Collectors steered the decision towards preserving ephemera, following publications by them, in the 1960s and 70s, about their collections.[4] From 1972 onwards, the conceptualisation of a sufficient manner of collecting ephemera began to be discussed.[111] A decade earlier, Printed Ephemera by John Lewis was released, bolstering ephemera's cultural notice – as did the formation of ephemera societies in Britain and America by 1980.[5][102] Around this time, professional associations dedicated to ephemera arose. By the early 1990s there would be "little established practice" for collecting ephemera, although this decade did see gradual improvement.[4][27] Most major collections are idiosyncratic and sequential in nature and ephemera persevered can be among the only remaining reproductions.[28][112]

Illustration of a man sneezing and another disapproving. Text reads: "He's a public enemy/Trap your germs/in a handkerchief.
Illustration of an American flag. Text reads: "Elmhurst/Flag day/June 18, 1939.
20th century ephemera from the UK (left) and the United States (right)

The late Georgian era saw significant archiving, particularly of playbills, an overal much presrved item; British librarians have placed particular value on collecting ephemera and significantly influenced the practice, the history going back to the mid-17th century with John Selden.[32][81][109][74] Johnson and Bella Clara Landauer initiated "comprehensive collections of printed ephemera" in Britain and America, respectively, where interest in ephemera is chiefly present, according to Lambert and Rickards.[32] Ephemera does exist globally, such as the Japanese genre kibyōshi, and its reach extends to expeditions to the Antarctica.[113][114]

Discussing how digital ephemera will be collected, Garner said that "like print ephemera, [it] will survive in part accidentally, and in other cases because it has been intentionally archived".[4] A decade earlier, Byerly, conversely, wrote that its difficult to determine the interest in preserving digital ephemera, even for contemporary purposes.[28] Institutions, including the Library of Congress, have attempted to preserve digital ephemera; a partnership between Twitter and the Library of Congress arose for this purpose, although the project became unfeasible as a result of the vast scope.[115] In 2006, the Tate Library began to compile and collect emails they deemed ephemera.[89]

Multiple scholars articulated a connection to the past, such as nostalgia, as a key motivation for ephemera collecting.[28][116][107][117] Such a connection has been described as evocative and atmospheric; the memory as collective and cultural; the nostalgia as populist.[118][27][59][112] The fading nature of ephemera means they become associated with a "projected past" and "what we have forgotten" and can be used as "apt ciphers for expressing melancholic feelings".[119][120][g] The aesthetic value of ephemera has also been seen as motivation.[122]

Small-scale collections of ephemera from 19th century American patrons were assembled in the hopes of "guarantee[ing] permanence", although ephemera naturally avoids "our desires for permanence", thus they "die"; Johnson rarely collected preemptively, believing that the persistence of ephemera should be incidental.[123][110][124] Rickards said that ephemera collectors seek to highlight "social history that often get[s] negelected", poisiting a dichotomy of historiography between "library shelves" and "wastebins".[107] John Pull of the Library of Congress posited that the appeal of ephemera is a mutual relation to the ephemerality of human life.[125] Zieger described the practicing of collecting ephemera as "paradoxical" and "the enigma at the heart of ephemera".[126]

Academia[edit]

In the 21st century, Victorian era ephemera has seen renewed visibility via digital archives; material such as newspapers, postcards and advertisements are made accessible for cultural and academic attention.[104] Digitisation of ephemera strongly aids in the accessibility of ephemera for education.[110] By the turn of the century, there were "few writings" pertaining to ephemera; it has since become auxiliary to conceptions of sociological histories, although the use of ephemera is limited, as its insights are impressionistic and ostensibly precarious.[118][4][10][110][127][128] The perception of its value to sociology is mixed.[27][35][129]

Since its inception, the study of print ephemera has seen much contention; various viewpoints and interpretations have been proposed from scholars.[130] The literature around ephemera has placed focus upon on the production of ephemera.[36] The markedly sparse remains of ephemera before 1800 has led to the 19th and 20th century being predominantly identified with ephemera by scholars, as the scale of ephemera before then is burdensome to determine.[36][131] Trade cards were among the first variations of ephemera to be earnestly examined by scholars; broadside ballads, chapbooks, almanacs, and newspapers predominantly constitute recent literature on ephemera.[76][132]

Exaggerated depiction of an African American man with enlarged red lips; he is shocked to see a white man with a shotgun.
An African American man is dressed in kitchen attire and is preparing a meal.
Depictions of African Americans in ephemera (left, 1880s; right, 1890s).

Various scholars have identified ephemera as illustrating or providing insight into diverse matters. During the Victorian era, ephemera was intended to teach them about pictures, colour and form.[102] Ephemera has been credited with illustrating social dynamics, including daily life, communication, social mobility and the enforcement of social norms.[1][59] Furthermore, varied culture can be assessed via ephemera, as can the sundry histories of working-class people, women, African Americans and immigrants – Zieger wrote that temperance ephemera "helped shape modern mass culture".[1][29][59][133][h] Transient groups can be resultingly documented from ephemera.[17] Rickards wrote that ephemera documents "the other side of history...[which] contains all sorts of human qualities that would otherwise be edited out".[135]

Ephemera studies is frequently said to have begun with John Lewis, a now burgeoning academic field.[4][35] Major collectors of ephemera were among its first scholars and a significant amount of academic writing on the matter has been composed by collectors, archivists and amateurs.[135][136] English scholar, Dianne Dugaw considered the analytic framework of folklore studies to be analogous with the study of ephemera: both subject matters evoke "remembrance and echoed retellings".[9] Stone said similar regarding popular culture studies. Both disciplines use "definition[s] by example", then work outwards; both disciplines contend that which is more prestigious.[27] Art historians study the artistic component of ephemera.[127] Bill Douglas Cinema Museum curator Phil Wickham vouched for the value of ephemera to film scholars.[137] Rickard and Young identified the prospecting contributions of ephemera to cultural studies, Young also highlighting folklore.[1][4]

Ephemera has been seen as "crucial" to the remit of both performance studies and black print culture studies.[109][138][i] Expanding upon the scholarly argument that ephemera, when securely collected, contributes to an inclusive historical record, Garner argued that if ephemera was to be absent from collection planning then "traces of black culture" could be erased from the historical record.[4] Ephemera has been significant to the creation of queer archives and has a notable presence in queer studies and theory.[20][15] "Queer ephemera" can be understood and extended to include "queer cultural practices that are difficult to document, archive, and preserve".[143] Art historian, Tara Burk described ephemera as an "invaluable primary source".[144]

See also[edit]

Notes[edit]

  1. ^ A qualifier from the National Library of Australia, devised in 1992, virtually excluded material of more than five pages.[27]
  2. ^ Other notable artists who produced ephemera include: Francesco Rosselli, Albrecht Dürer, Stefano della Bella, Francesco Bartolozzi and Giovanni Battista Piranesi.[37]
  3. ^ Display typefaces were an advertising component present prominently in 19th-century ephemera.[44]
  4. ^ Ephemera relating to beer, wine and drinking is vast and developed in accordance with drinking movements.[52]
  5. ^ Soon after, political propaganda arose as a category of ephemera.[68]
  6. ^ In an overview of ephemera, Rickards and Lambert wrote that the specification of cigarette cards as collectable means they should not be classified as ephemera, though rarely is this distinction acknowledged.[32]
  7. ^ The "melancholic beauty of ephemera" was profound to John Keats.[121]
  8. ^ Following the California Gold Rush of 1849, by means of visual ephemera, the citizens of San Francisco, regardless of race or class, "were exposed to one another".[134]
  9. ^ Ephemera attributed to the 19th century painter William Sidney Mount, alongside his life and art, has been said to "provide contemporaneous, precisely observed documentation on the blackface experience".[139] Ephemera produced in America by this time and soon after featured imagery, namely for white consumers, of enslaved and emancipated African Americans.[140] The portrayal of African Americans in culinary ephemera has frequently been derogatory, with caricature-esque features.[141] The image of a "native porter, servant or labourer and [a] white leader or overseer" is common in other forms of ephemera.[142]

References[edit]

Citations
  1. ^ a b c d e f g h Young, Timothy G. (2003). "Evidence: Toward a Library Definition of Ephemera". RBM: A Journal of Rare Books, Manuscripts, and Cultural Heritage. 4 (1): 11–26. doi:10.5860/rbm.4.1.214. ISSN 2150-668X.
  2. ^ Solis-Cohen, Lisa (April 4, 1980). "Ephemera Society is Group Devoted to Throwaways". Bangor Daily News. Retrieved May 14, 2022.
  3. ^ Wasserman 2020, p. 2.
  4. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p Garner, Anne (2021). "State of the Discipline: Throwaway History: Towards a Historiography of Ephemera". Book History. 24 (1): 244–263. doi:10.1353/bh.2021.0008. ISSN 1529-1499. S2CID 242506527.
  5. ^ a b c d e Russell, Gillian (2014). "The neglected history of the history of printed ephemera". Melbourne Historical Journal. 42 (1): 7–37.
  6. ^ a b Roylance, Dale (1976). "Graphie Americana: The E. Lawrence Sampter Collection of Printed Ephemera". The Yale University Library Gazette. 51 (2): 104–114. ISSN 0044-0175. JSTOR 40858619.
  7. ^ Pecorari, Marco (2021). Fashion Remains: Rethinking Ephemera in the Archive. Bloomsbury Publishing. p. 4. ISBN 9781350074774.
  8. ^ a b Eliot & Rose 2019, p. 633.
  9. ^ a b Dugaw, Dianne (2020). "Transcendent Ephemera: Performing Deep Structure in Elegies, Ballads, and Other Occasional Forms". Eighteenth-Century Life. 44 (2): 17–42. doi:10.1215/00982601-8218591. ISSN 1086-3192. S2CID 226080511.
  10. ^ a b c d e Anghelescu, Hermina G. B. (2001). "A Bit of History in the Library Attic". Collection Management. 25 (4): 61–75. doi:10.1300/j105v25n04_07. ISSN 0146-2679. S2CID 60723329.
  11. ^ Stein, Daniel; Thon, Jan-Noël, eds. (2015). From Comic Strips to Graphic Novels: Contributions to the Theory and History of Graphic Narrative. De Gruyter. p. 310. ISBN 9783110427660.
  12. ^ Stone 2005, p. 7.
  13. ^ Hediger, Vinzenz; Vonderau, Patrick, eds. (2009). Films that Work: Industrial Film and the Productivity of Media. Amsterdam University Press. p. 51. ISBN 978-90-8964-013-0.
  14. ^ McDowell, Paula (2012). "Of Grubs and Other Insects: Constructing the Categories of "Ephemera" and "Literature" in Eighteenth-Century British Writing". Book History. 15 (1): 48–70. doi:10.1353/bh.2012.0009. ISSN 1529-1499. S2CID 143553893.
  15. ^ a b c d e Russell, Gillian (2018). "Ephemeraphilia". Angelaki. 23 (1): 174–186. doi:10.1080/0969725x.2018.1435393. ISSN 0969-725X. S2CID 214613899.
  16. ^ Massip, Catherine (2020-10-01), Watt, Paul; Collins, Sarah; Allis, Michael (eds.), "Ephemera", The Oxford Handbook of Music and Intellectual Culture in the Nineteenth Century, Oxford University Press, pp. 168–188, doi:10.1093/oxfordhb/9780190616922.013.8, ISBN 978-0-19-061692-2, retrieved 2021-12-11
  17. ^ a b Reichard, David A. (2012). "Animating Ephemera through Oral History: Interpreting Visual Traces of California Gay College Student Organizing from the 1970s". Oral History Review. 39 (1): 37–60. doi:10.1093/ohr/ohs042. ISSN 1533-8592.
  18. ^ Weaver 2010, p. 6.
  19. ^ Eliot & Rose 2019, p. 634.
  20. ^ a b c Russell, Gillian (2015). "Sarah Sophia Banks's Private Theatricals: Ephemera, Sociability, and the Archiving of Fashionable Life". Eighteenth-Century Fiction. 27 (3): 535–555. doi:10.3138/ecf.27.3.535. ISSN 1911-0243. S2CID 162841068.
  21. ^ Marcum, James W. (2006). "Ephemeral Knowledge in the Visual Ecology". Counterpoints. 231: 89–106. ISSN 1058-1634.
  22. ^ Eliot & Rose 2019, p. 637.
  23. ^ Muñoz, José Esteban (1996-01-01). "Ephemera as Evidence: Introductory Notes to Queer Acts". Women & Performance: A Journal of Feminist Theory. 8 (2): 5–16. doi:10.1080/07407709608571228. ISSN 0740-770X.
  24. ^ Wasserman 2020, p. 2, 236.
  25. ^ Ann, Cvetkovich (2003). An Archive of Feelings. Duke University Press. p. 243. ISBN 978-0-8223-8443-4. OCLC 1139770505.
  26. ^ a b London, Justin (2013). "Ephemeral Media, Ephemeral Works, and Sonny Boy Williamson's "Little Village"". The Journal of Aesthetics and Art Criticism. 71 (1): 45–53. doi:10.1111/j.1540-6245.2012.01540.x. ISSN 0021-8529.
  27. ^ a b c d e f g Stone, Richard (1998). "Junk mail: Printed ephemera and preservation of the everyday". Journal of Australian Studies. 22 (58): 99–106. doi:10.1080/14443059809387406. ISSN 1444-3058.
  28. ^ a b c d e f g h Byerly, Alison (2009). "What not to save: The future of ephemera" (PDF): 45–49. {{cite journal}}: Cite journal requires |journal= (help)
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Bibliography

Further reading[edit]

  • Printed Ephemera: The Changing Uses of Type and Letterforms in English and American Printing, John Lewis, Ipswich, Suffolk, Eng.: W. S. Cowell, 1962
  • The Encyclopedia of Ephemera: A Guide to the Fragmentary Documents of Everyday Life for the Collector, Curator, and Historian by Maurice Rickards et alia. London: The British Library; New York: Routledge, 2000.
  • Fragments of the Everyday: A Book of Australian Ephemera by Richard Stone (2005, ISBN 0-642-27601-3)
  • Twyman, Michael (August 2002). "Ephemera: whose responsibility are they?". Library and Information Update. 1 (5): 54–55. ISSN 1476-7171.

External links[edit]