An epic is traditionally a genre of poetry, known as epic poetry. However, in modern terms, epic is often extended to other art forms, such as epic theatre, films, music, novels, stage play, television series, and video games, wherein the story has a theme of grandeur and heroism, just as in epic poetry. Scholars argue that the epic has long since become "disembedded" from its origins in oral poetry, appearing in successive narrative media throughout history.
There are many genres of epic (exclusive of epic poetry): epic fantasy describes works of fantasy, such as in J. R. R. Tolkien's Lord of the Rings. Epic fantasy has been described as containing three elements: it must be a trilogy or longer, its time-span must encompass years or more, and it must contain a large back-story or universe setting in which the story takes place. Epic fantasy is not limited to the Western tradition: for example, Arabic epic literature includes One Thousand and One Nights; and Indian epic poetry includes Ramayana and Mahabharata.
The female epic examined ways in which female authors have adapted the masculine epic tradition to express their own heroic visions. There are chivalric epics from the Middle Ages, national epics, and pan-national epics. The real-life stories of heroic figures have also been referred to as being epic; examples include Ernest Shackleton's exploration adventures in Antarctica.
- Paul Merchant (June 1971). The Epic. Routledge Kegan & Paul. ISBN 978-0-416-19700-6.
- Arnott, Luke (2016-12-01). "Epic and Genre: Beyond the Boundaries of Media". Comparative Literature. 68 (4): 351–369. doi:10.1215/00104124-3698457. ISSN 0010-4124.
- Derek M. Buker (2002). "The Long and Longer of It: Epic Fantasy". The Science Fiction and Fantasy Readers' Advisory. ALA Editions. p. 118.
- John Grant and John Clute. "Arabian fantasy". The Encyclopedia of Fantasy.
- Timothy Corrigan (2012). The Film Experience: An Introduction. Macmillan. p. 329.
- Constantine Santas (2008). "Table of Contents". The Epic in Film: From Myth to Blockbuster. Rowman & Littlefield. p. v.
- Robert Burgoyne (2011). The Epic Film. Taylor & Francis.
- Schweizer, Bernard (2006). Approaches to the Anglo and American Female Epic, 1621–1982. Aldershot: Ashgate.
- Raymond Briggs (1969). Shackleton's Epic Voyage; Lennard Bickel (2001) Shackleton's Forgotten Men: The Untold Tragedy of the Endurance Epic; Frank Arthur Worsley (1931), Endurance: An Epic of Polar Adventure
- Paul Merchant. The Epic. Routledge Kegan & Paul (June 1971). ISBN 978-0-416-19700-6