Epicharmus of Kos
Epicharmus of Kos or Epicharmus Comicus or Epicharmus Comicus Syracusanus (Greek: Ἐπίχαρμος), thought to have lived between c. 540 and c. 450 BC, was a Greek dramatist and philosopher often credited with being one of the first comic writers, having originated the Doric or Sicilian comedic form. Aristotle (Poetics 5.1449b5) writes that he and Phormis invented comic plots (μῦθοι, muthoi). Most of the information we have about Epicharmus comes from the writings of Athenaeus, Suda and Diogenes Laertius, but fragments and comments come up in a host of other ancient authors as well. There have also been some papyrus finds of longer sections of text, but these are often so full of holes that it is difficult to make sense of them. Plato mentions Epicharmus in his dialogue Gorgias and in Theaetetus. In the latter, Socrates refers to Epicharmus as "the prince of Comedy", Homer as "the prince of Tragedy", and both as "great masters of either kind of poetry". More references by ancient authors can be found discussed in Pickard-Cambridge's Dithyramb, Tragedy, Comedy and they are collected in Greek in Kassel and Austin's new edition of the fragments in Poetae Comici Graeci (2001).
Life and work
Epicharmus' birthplace is not known, but late and fairly unreliable ancient commentators suggest a number of alternatives. The Suda (E 2766) records that he was either Syracusan by birth or from the Sikanian city of Krastos. Diogenes Laertius (VIII 78) records that Epicharmus was born in Astypalea, the ancient capital of Kos on the Bay of Kamari, near modern-day Kefalos. Diogenes Laertius also records that Epicharmus' father was the prominent physician Helothales, who moved the family to Megara in Sicily, when Epicharmus was just a few months old. Although raised according to the Asclepiad tradition of his father, as an adult Epicharmus became a follower of Pythagoras.
All of this biographical information could be treated as suspect. More references to alternative origins and discussion of their likelihood can be found in Pickard-Cambridge's Tragedy, Comedy, Dithyramb, and more recently in Rodriguez Noriega Guillen's Epicarmo di Siracusa: Testimonios y Fragmentos. The standard edition of his fragments by Kaibel has now been updated with the publication of Kassel and Austin's Poetae Comici Graeci. It is most likely that sometime after 484 BC, he lived in Syracuse, and worked as a poet for the tyrants Gelo and Hiero I. The subject matter of his poetry covered a broad range, from exhortations against intoxication and laziness to such unorthodox topics as mythological burlesque, but he also wrote on philosophy, medicine, natural science, linguistics, and ethics. Among many other philosophical and moral lessons, Epicharmus taught that the continuous exercise of virtue could overcome heredity, so that anyone had the potential to be a good person regardless of birth. He died in his 90s (according to a statement in Lucian, he died at ninety-seven).
"As the bright sun excels the other stars, As the sea far exceeds the river streams: So does sage Epicharmus men surpass, Whom hospitable Syracuse has crowned."
Theocritus Epigram 18 (AP IX 60; Kassel and Austin Test. 18) is also written in his honor.
Epicharmus wrote somewhere between thirty-five and fifty-two comedies, though many have been lost or exist only in fragments. Along with his contemporary Phormis, he was alternately praised and denounced for ridiculing the great mythic heroes.
His two most famous works were Agrōstīnos ("The Country-Dweller," or "Clodhopper"), which dealt humorously with the rustic lifestyle, and Hebes Gamos ("The Marriage of Hebe"), in which Heracles was portrayed as a glutton. He also depicted Odysseus as an unheroic figure of burlesque by parodying the Homeric image for comic effect in his Odysseùs Autómolos (Ulysses the Deserter). Additional works include
- Amykos ("Amycus")
- Bousiris ("Busiris")
- Ga Kai Thalassa ("Earth and Sea")
- Deukalion ("Deucalion")
- Dionysoi ("The Dionysuses")
- Elpis ("Hope"), or Ploutos ("Wealth")
- Heorta kai Nasoi
- Herakleitos ("Heraclitus")
- Thearoi ("Spectators")
- Hephaistos ("Hephaestus"), or Komastai ("The Revelers")
- Kyklops ("The Cyclops")
- Logos kai Logeina
- Megaris ("Woman From Megara")
- Menes ("Months")
- Odysseus Nauagos ("Odysseus Shipwrecked")
- Orya ("The Sausage")
- Persai ("The Persians")
- Pithon ("The Little Ape" or "Monkey")
- Seirenes ("Sirens")
- Troes ("Trojan Men")
- Philoktetes ("Philoctetes")
- Choreuontes ("The Dancers")
- Chytrai ("The Pots")
Reproducing a mid-4th century BCE accusation from Alkimos, Diogenes Laërtius in his Lives of Eminent Philosophers conserves a late opinion that Plato plagiarized several of Epicharmus's ideas. "[H]e [Plato] derived great assistance from Epicharmus the Comic poet, for he transcribed a great deal from him, as Alcimus says in the essays dedicated to Amyntas [of Heraclea]…." Laërtius then lists, in III, 10, the several ways that Plato "employs the words of Epicharmus."
- "A mortal should think mortal thoughts, not immortal thoughts."
- "The best thing a man can have, in my view, is health."
- "The hand washes the hand: give something and you may get something."
- "Then what is the nature of men? Blown-up bladders!"
- "Don't forget to exercise incredulity; for it is the sinews of the soul."
- Broken laughter: select fragments of Greek comedy By S. Douglas Olson Page 52 ISBN 0-19-928785-6
- Aristotle, Poetics 5.1449b5 )
- cf. P. W. Buckham, p. 245
- Plato, Gorgias [505e]: "So that, in Epicharmus's phrase, 'what two men spake erewhile' I may prove I can manage single-handed". 
- "Summon the great masters of either kind of poetry- Epicharmus, the prince of Comedy, and Homer of Tragedy", Theaetetus, by Plato, section §152e.  (translation by Benjamin Jowett ). There is some variability in translation of the passage. Words like "king", "chief", "leader", "master" are used in the place of "prince" in different translations. The basic Greek word in Plato is "akroi" from "akros" meaning topmost or high up. In this context it means "of a degree highest of its kind" or "consummate" (cf. Liddell & Scott, A Greek-English Lexicon). 
- cf. A. W. Pickard-Cambridge, Chapter IV, beginning on p. 230, on Epicharmus works and life, and citations by authors on him. Also it addresses the controversy about when and where he was born.
- cf. P.W.Buckham, p.164, "But Epicharmus was a philosopher and a Pythagorean"; and Pickard-Cambridge, p. 232, "Epicharmus was a hearer of Pythagoras".
- Bryn Mawr Classical Review 2005.10.24
- Lucian, Macrobii, 25 (cf. )
- Theocritus, Epigrams, 17 (cf. )
- Martin Revermann, 'Paraepic poetry:point(s) and practices,' in Emmanuela Bakola, Lucia Prauscello, Mario Telò, Greek Comedy and the Discourse of Genres, Cambridge University Press 2013 pp.101-127 esp.pp.107ff.
- Diogenes Laërtius, Lives and Opinions of Eminent Philosophers, iii. 9
- Philip Wentworth Buckham, Theatre of the Greeks, 1827.
- P.E. Easterling (Series Editor), Bernard M.W. Knox (Editor), Cambridge History of Classical Literature, v.I, Greek Literature, 1985. ISBN 0-521-21042-9, cf. Chapter 12, p. 367 on Epicharmus and others.
- Rudolf Kassel, C. Austin (Editor) Poetae Comici Graeci: Agathenor-Aristonymus (Poetae Comici Graeci), 1991.
- A. W. Pickard-Cambridge, Dithyramb, Tragedy, and Comedy (1927, repr. 1962).
- Plato, Theaetetus.
- William Ridgeway, contrib. The Dramas and Dramatic Dances of Non-European Races. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1915.
- Xavier Riu, Dionysism and Comedy, 1999. 
- Lucia Rodríguez-Noriega Guillén, Epicarmo de Siracusa. Testimonios y Fragmentos. Edición crítica bilingüe.; Oviedo: Universidad de Oviedo, Servicio de Publicaciones, 1996. Reviewed by Kathryn Bosher, University of Michigan, in Bryn Mawr Classical Review 2005.10.24
- Smith, William, Dictionary of Greek and Roman Biography and Mythology, 1870, article on Epicharmus, 
- Theocritus, Idylls and Epigrams. (Theocritus translated into English Verse by C.S. Calverley, )
- This article incorporates text from a publication now in the public domain: Chisholm, Hugh, ed. (1911). "article name needed". Encyclopædia Britannica (11th ed.). Cambridge University Press.