Epidemiology of domestic violence
|Part of a series on|
|Violence against women|
|Sexual assault and rape|
Domestic violence occurs across the world, in various cultures, and affects people across society, at all levels of economic status; however, indicators of lower socioeconomic status (such as unemployment and low income) have been shown to be risk factors for higher levels of domestic violence in several studies. In the United States, according to the Bureau of Justice Statistics in 1995, women reported a six times greater rate of intimate partner violence than men. However, studies have found that men are much less likely to report victimization in these situations.
Some studies have found that "women are as physically aggressive or more aggressive than men in their relationships with their spouses or male partners". However, studies have shown that women are more likely to be injured. Archer's meta-analysis found that women suffer 65% of domestic violence injuries. A Canadian study showed that 7% of women and 6% of men were abused by their current or former partners, but female victims of domestic violence were more than twice as likely to be injured as male victims, three times more likely to fear for their life, twice as likely to be stalked, and twice as likely to experience more than ten incidents of violence.
While some sources state that gay and lesbian couples experience domestic violence at the same frequency as heterosexual couples, other sources report that domestic violence rates among gay, lesbian and bisexual people might be higher but more under-reported.
- 1 By demographic
- 2 Measuring
- 3 International levels
- 4 References
- 5 External links
According to various national surveys, the percentage of women who were ever physically assaulted by an intimate partner varies substantially by country: Barbados (30%), Canada (29%), Egypt (34%), New Zealand (35%), Switzerland (21%), United States (33%). Some surveys in specific places report figures as high as 50–70% of women who were ever physically assaulted by an intimate partner. Others, including surveys in the Philippines and Paraguay, report figures as low as 10%.
South Africa is said to have the highest statistics of gender-based violence in the world, including rape and domestic violence (Foster 1999; The Integrated Regional Network [IRIN], Johannesburg, South Africa, May 25, 2002). 80% of women surveyed in rural Egypt said that beatings were common and often justified, particularly if the woman refused to have sex with her husband. Up to two-thirds of women in certain communities in Nigeria's Lagos State say they are victims to domestic violence.
Between 1993 and 2001, U.S. women reported intimate partner violence almost seven times more frequently than men (a ratio of 20:3). Statistics for the year 1994 showed that more than five times as many females reported being victimized by an intimate than did males.
Domestic violence during pregnancy can be missed by medical professionals because it often presents in non-specific ways. A number of countries have been statistically analyzed to calculate the prevalence of this phenomenon:
- UK prevalence: 3.4%
- USA prevalence: 3.2–33.7%
- Ireland prevalence: 12.5%
- Rates are higher in teenagers
- Severity and frequency increase postpartum (10% antenatally vs. 19% postnatally); 21% at 3 months post partum
There are a number of presentations that can be related to domestic violence during pregnancy: delay in seeking care for injuries; late booking, non-attenders at appointments, self-discharge; frequent attendance, vague problems; aggressive or over-solicitous partner; burns, pain, tenderness, injuries; vaginal tears, bleeding, STDs; and miscarriage.
Domestic violence against a pregnant woman can also affect the fetus and can have lingering effects on the child after birth. Physical abuse is associated with neonatal death (1.5% versus 0.2%), and verbal abuse is associated with low birth weight (7.6% versus 5.1%).
Women's violence towards men is a serious social problem. While much attention has been focused on domestic violence against women, researchers argue that domestic violence against men is a substantial social problem worthy of attention. However, the issue of victimization of men by women has been contentious, due in part to studies which report drastically different statistics regarding domestic violence.
Some studies—typically crime studies—show that men are substantially more likely than women to use violence. Other studies—typically family and domestic violence studies—show that men are more likely to inflict injuries, but also that when all acts of physical aggression or violence are considered in aggregate, women are equally violent as men, or more violent than men. 
In May 2007, researchers with the Centers for Disease Control reported on rates of self-reported violence among intimate partners using data from a 2001 study. In the study, almost one-quarter of participants reported some violence in their relationships. Half of these involved one-sided ("non-reciprocal") attacks and half involved both assaults and counter assaults ("reciprocal violence"). Women reported committing one-sided attacks more than twice as often as men (70% versus 29%). In all cases of intimate partner violence, women were more likely to be injured than men, but 25% of men in relationships with two-sided violence reported injury compared to 20% of women reporting injury in relationships with one-sided violence. Women were more likely to be injured in non-reciprocal violence.
Straus argues that these discrepancies between the two data sets are due to several factors. For example, Straus notes that crime studies use different methodologies than family conflict studies. Additionally, Straus notes that most studies show that while men inflict the greater portion of injuries, women are at least as likely as men to shove, punch, slap or otherwise physically assault their partner, and that such relatively minor assaults often escalate to more serious assaults. Men generally do not report such assaults if asked general questions about violence or abuse; older studies frequently failed to ask about specific actions, thus falling afoul of quite different cultural gender norms for what constitutes abuse. Minor assaults perpetrated by women are also a major problem, even when they do not result in injury, because they put women in danger of much more severe retaliation by men.
The 2000 CDC report, based on phone interviews with 8000 men and 8000 women, reported that 7.5% of men claim to have been raped or assaulted by an intimate at some time in their life (compared to 25% of women), and 0.9 percent of men claim to have been raped or assaulted in the previous 12 months (compared to 1.5% of women).
A 2007–2008 online non-random, self-report survey of the experiences and health of men who sustained partner violence in the past year. The study showed that male victims of IPV are very hesitant to report the violence or seek help. Reasons given for non-reporting were they (1) may be ashamed to come forward; (2) may not be believed; and (3) may be accused of being a batterer when they do come forward. The 229 U.S. heterosexual men, between 18 and 59, had been physically assaulted by their female partner within previous year and did seek help. The researchers say their findings emphasize the need for prevention on all levels:
- Primary prevention: Educate public and providers that both sexes can be IPV victims
- Secondary prevention: First responders (police, hotlines, medical professionals) should take concerns seriously from all individuals (including males) seeking help
- Tertiary prevention: Rehabilitative services available to all individuals
Among LGB people
Some sources state that gay and lesbian couples experience domestic violence at the same frequency as heterosexual couples, while other sources state domestic violence among gay and lesbian couples might be higher than among heterosexual couples, that gay, lesbian, and bisexual individuals are less likely to report domestic violence that has occurred in their intimate relationships than heterosexual couples are, or that lesbian couples experience domestic violence less than heterosexual couples do. By contrast, some researchers commonly assume that lesbian couples experience domestic violence at the same rate as heterosexual couples, and have been more cautious when reporting domestic violence among gay male couples. In a survey by the Canadian Government, some 19% of lesbian women reported being victimized by their partners. Other research reports that lesbian relationships exhibit substantially higher rates of physical aggression.
The U. S. Department of Health and Human Services reports that for each year between 2000 and 2005, "female parents acting alone" were most common perpetrators of child abuse.
When it comes to domestic violence towards children involving physical abuse, research in the UK by the NSPCC indicated that "most violence occurred at home" (78 per cent). 40—60% of men and women who abuse other adults also abuse their children. Girls whose fathers batter their mothers are 6.5 times more likely to be sexually abused by their fathers than are girls from non-violent homes. In China in 1989, 39,000 baby girls died during their first year of life because they didn't receive the same medical care that would be given to a male child.
The examples and perspective in this article deal primarily with the United States and do not represent a worldwide view of the subject. (February 2015) (Learn how and when to remove this template message)
Teen dating violence is a pattern of controlling behavior by one teenager over another teenager who are in a dating relationship. While there are many similarities to "traditional" domestic violence there are also some differences. Teens are much more likely than adults to become isolated from their peers as the result of controlling behavior by their boyfriend/girlfriend. Also, for many teens the abusive relationship may be their first dating experience and have never had a "normal" dating experience with which to compare it. While teenagers are trying to establish their sexual identities, they are also confronting violence in their relationships and exposure to technology. Studies document that teenagers are experiencing significant amounts of dating or domestic violence. Depending on the population studied and the way dating violence is defined, between 9 and 35% of teens have experienced domestic violence in a dating relationship. When a broader definition of abuse that encompasses physical, sexual, and emotional abuse is used, one in three teen girls is subjected to dating abuse."
Additionally, a significant number of teens are victims of stalking by intimate partners. Although involvement with romantic relationships is a critical aspect of adolescence, these relationships also present serious risks for teenagers. Unfortunately, adolescents in dating relationships are at greater risk of intimate partner violence than any other age group. Approximately one third of adolescent girls are victims of physical, emotional, or verbal abuse from a dating partner. Estimates of sexual victimization range from 14% to 43% of girls and 0.3% to 36% for boys. According to the Center for Disease Control, in 2009, nearly 10% of students nationwide had been intentionally hit, slapped, or physically hurt by their boyfriend or girlfriend. Twenty-six percent of girls in a relationship reported being threatened with violence or experiencing verbal abuse; 13% reported being physically hurt or hit.
Measures of the incidence of violence in intimate relationships can differ markedly in their findings depending on the measures used. Care is needed when using domestic violence statistics to ensure that both gender bias and under-reporting issues do not affect the inferences that are drawn from the statistics.
Some researchers, such as Michael P. Johnson, suggest that where and how domestic violence is measured also affects findings, and caution is needed to ensure statistics drawn from one class of situations are not applied to another class of situations in a way that might have fatal consequences. Other researchers, such as David Murray Fergusson, counter that domestic violence prevention services, and statistics that they produce, target the extreme end of domestic violence and preventing child abuse rather than domestic violence between couples.
Survey approaches to gathering domestic violence statistics have shown inconsistent results with regard to gender differences. Some surveys have shown comparable levels of violence by both men and women against partners, while other surveys have shown higher levels of violence by men. Approaches using data from reports of domestic violence offenses, for example, agency or hospital samples, tend to show women experiencing violence from male partners as the majority of cases (80–90%).
Research based on the survey-based Conflict Tactics Scale, a measure of intrafamily conflict and violence focusing on the adults in the family developed by Murray Straus (1979)[clarification needed], includes national surveys on the prevalence of domestic violence in the United States and other countries. These include the two U.S. National Family Violence Surveys (1975 and 1985) and the National Violence Against Women Survey (2000) (Tjaden & Thoennes, 2000). The National Violence Against Women Survey (2000) found that women experience more intimate partner violence than do men, women experience more chronic and injurious physical assaults at the hands of intimate partners than do men, and that violence perpetrated against women by intimates is often accompanied by emotionally abusive and controlling behavior (Tjaden & Thoennes, 2000).
Research based on reported domestic violence or on police records show men to be the perpetrators, and women the victims, of most reported domestic violence. However, the intervention of police may introduce a degree of gender bias into reporting. When faced with an uncertain domestic violence situation, removing one party will often defuse an altercation. Police officers may find it easier to take action against a man. This may be due to gender expectations, reinforced by previous incidents. . Additionally, removing the woman may entail involving other social services to care for any existing children for a time, something that may not be in the children's best interests, or may cause a significant delay. The fact that non-domestic offending is often committed by males may also influence an officer's decision.
Police responding to a complaint may act more favorably to the complainant than other parties (though some researchers report instances where men were attacked, called the police instead of fighting back, yet were arrested themselves). Some researchers have found that women are more likely to report domestic violence to police than men are. In Ireland, 29% of female victims and 5% of male victims of domestic abuse reported the abuse to the police. In the United States, male victims are less likely than female victims to report rape, physical assault, or stalking.
Injury and hospital admission statistics suggest that males are more frequently the perpetrators of injury causing violence. However, both the difference in likelihood of reporting noted above, and the relative strength difference between males and females, could be factors in this reporting bias, as males may be more likely to injure females in otherwise equivalent circumstances.
The problem of under-reporting to police is believed to be substantial. However, estimates about how much domestic violence is not reported vary widely. It must also be remembered that a significant amount of non-domestic violence crime is also not reported to police. Depending on what statistics are chosen, anywhere between a tenth of incidents and nothing significantly less than what would be expected for any other incident are reported to police.[clarification needed]
Many crime victimization surveys, from many countries, do show that there is a correlation between the under-reporting of crime and the degree of intimacy between the victim and the offender. The degree of seriousness of offending also affects reporting, with less serious offending less likely to be reported to police. Also the nature of the offending affects reporting, with sexual offenses far less likely to be reported, even when they are serious.
The World Conference on Human Rights, held in Vienna in 1993, and the Declaration on the Elimination of Violence Against Women in the same year, concluded that civil society and governments have acknowledged that violence against women is a public health and human rights concern. Work in this area has resulted in the establishment of international standards, but the task of documenting the magnitude of violence against women and producing reliable, comparative data to guide policy and monitor implementation has been exceedingly difficult.
The World Health Organisation Multi-country Study on Women's Health and Domestic Violence against Women 2005 is a response to this difficulty. Published in 2005 it is a groundbreaking study which analysed data from 10 countries and sheds new light on the prevalence of violence against women. It seeks to look at violence against women a public health policy perspective. The findings will be used to inform a more effective response from government, including the health, justice and social service sectors, as a step towards fulfilling the state's obligation to eliminate violence against women under international human rights laws.
A 1992 Council of Europe study on domestic violence against women found that 1 in 4 women experience domestic violence over their lifetimes and between 6 and 10% of women suffer domestic violence in a given year.
In the European Union, DV is a serious problem in the Baltic States. These three countries – Estonia, Latvia, and Lithuania – have also lagged behind most post-communist countries in their response to DV. The problem in these countries is very severe, and in 2013 a DV victim won a European Court of Human Rights case against Lithuania.
The British Crime Survey for 2006–2007 reported that 0.5% of people (0.6% of women and 0.3% of men) reported being victims of domestic violence during that year and 44.3% of domestic violence was reported to the police. According to the survey, 312,000 women and 93,000 men were victims of domestic violence.
The Northern Ireland Crime Survey for 2005 reported that 13% of people (16% of women and 10% of men) reported being victims of domestic violence at some point in their lives.
The National Study of Domestic Abuse for 2005 reported that 213,000 women and 88,000 men reported being victims of domestic violence at some point in their lives. According to the study, one in seven women and one in sixteen men were victims of severe physical abuse, severe emotional abuse, or sexual abuse.
In the United Kingdom, the police estimate that around 35% of domestic violence against women is actually reported. A 2002 Women's Aid study found that 74% of separated women suffered from post-separation violence.
In Canada, the Assembly of First Nations evaluation of the Canada Prenatal Nutrition Program conducted by CIET offers an inclusive and relatively unbiased national estimate. It documented domestic violence in a random sample of 85 First Nations across Canada: 22% (523/2359) of mothers reported suffering abuse in the year prior to being interviewed; of these, 59% reported physical abuse.
Results of studies which estimate the prevalence of domestic violence vary significantly, depending on specific wording of survey questions, how the survey is conducted, the definition of abuse or domestic violence used, the willingness or unwillingness of victims to admit that they have been abused and other factors. For instance, Straus (2005) conducted a study which estimated that the rate of minor assaults by women in the United States was 78 per 1,000 couples, compared with a rate for men of 72 per 1,000 and the severe assault rate was 46 per 1,000 couples for assaults by women and 50 per 1,000 for assaults by men. Neither difference is statistically significant. He claimed that since these rates were based exclusively on information provided by women respondents, the near-equality in assault rates could not be attributed to a gender bias in reporting.
One analysis found that "women are as physically aggressive or more aggressive than men in their relationships with their spouses or male partners". However, studies have shown that women are more likely to be injured. Archer's meta-analysis found that women in the United States suffer 65% of domestic violence injuries. A Canadian study showed that 7% of women and 6% of men were abused by their current or former partners, but female victims of spousal violence were more than twice as likely to be injured as male victims, three times more likely to fear for their life, twice as likely to be stalked, and twice as likely to experience more than ten incidents of violence. However, Straus notes that Canadian studies on domestic violence have simply excluded questions that ask men about being victimized by their wives.
According to a 2004 survey in Canada, the percentages of males being physically or sexually victimized by their partners was 6% versus 7% for women. However, females reported higher levels of repeated violence and were more likely than men to experience serious injuries; 23% of females versus 15% of males were faced with the most serious forms of violence including being beaten, choked, or threatened with or having a gun or knife used against them. Also, 21% of women versus 11% of men were likely to report experiencing more than 10 violent incidents. Women who often experience higher levels of physical or sexual violence from their current partner, were 44%, compared with 18% of men to suffer from an injury. Cases in which women are faced with extremely abusive partners, results in the females having to fear for their lives due to the violence they had faced. In addition, statistics show that 34% of women feared for their lives, and 10% of men feared for theirs.
Some studies show that lesbian relationships have similar levels of violence as heterosexual relationships.
Approximately 1.3 million women and 835,000 men report being physically assaulted by an intimate partner annually in the United States. In the United States, domestic violence is the leading cause of injury to women between the ages of 15 and 44.
Victims of DV are offered legal remedies, which include the criminal law, as well as obtaining a protection order. The remedies offered can be both of a civil nature (civil orders of protection and other protective services) and of a criminal nature (charging the perpetrator with a criminal offense). People perpetrating DV are subject to criminal prosecution, most often under assault and battery laws.
In Russia, according to a representative of the Russian Ministry of Internal Affairs one in four families experiences domestic violence. Domestic violence is not a specific criminal offense, but it can be charged under various crimes of the criminal code (e.g. assault), but in practice cases of domestic violence turn into criminal cases only when they involve severe injuries, or the victim has died. For more details see Domestic violence in Russia.
Fighting the prevalence of domestic violence in Kashmir has brought Hindu and Muslim activists together. According to some Islamic clerics and women's advocates, women from Muslim-majority cultures often face extra pressure to submit to domestic violence, as their husbands may manipulate Islamic law to exert their control.
A study on Bedouin women in Israel found that most have experienced DV, most accepted it as a decree from God, and most believed they were to blame themselves for the violence. The study also showed that the majority of women were not aware of existing laws and policies which protect them: 60% said they did not know what a restraining order was.
In Iraq husbands have a legal right to "punish" their wives. The criminal code states at Paragraph 41 that there is no crime if an act is committed while exercising a legal right; examples of legal rights include: "The punishment of a wife by her husband, the disciplining by parents and teachers of children under their authority within certain limits prescribed by law or by custom".
In Jordan, part of article 340 of the Penal Code states that "he who discovers his wife or one of his female relatives committing adultery and kills, wounds, or injures one of them, is exempted from any penalty." This has twice been put forward for cancellation by the government, but was retained by the Lower House of the Parliament, in 2003: a year in which at least seven honor killings took place. Article 98 of the Penal Code is often cited alongside Article 340 in cases of honor killings. "Article 98 stipulates that a reduced sentence is applied to a person who kills another person in a 'fit of fury'".
The Human Rights Watch found that up to 90% of women in Pakistan were subject to some form of maltreatment within their own homes. Honor killings in Pakistan are a very serious problem, especially in northern Pakistan. In Pakistan, honour killings are known locally as karo-kari. Karo-kari is a compound word literally meaning "black male" (Karo) and "black female (Kari).
Domestic violence in India is widespread, and is often related to the custom of dowry. Although not as common as in other parts of Asia, honor killings do occur in some regions of India, particularly in northern regions of the country. Honor killings have been reported in the states of Punjab, Rajasthan, Haryana, Uttar Pradesh, and Bihar, as a result of people marrying without their family's acceptance, and sometimes for marrying outside their caste or religion.
Findings from the 2006 Australian Bureau of Statistics Personal Safety Survey show that among the female victims of physical assault, 31 percent were assaulted by a current or previous partner. Among male victims, 4.4 percent were assaulted by a current or previous partner. Thirty per cent of people who had experienced violence by a current partner since the age of 15 were male, and seventy per cent were female.
- Watts C, Zimmerman C (April 2002). "Violence against women: global scope and magnitude". Lancet. 359 (9313): 1232–7. doi:10.1016/S0140-6736(02)08221-1. PMID 11955557.
- Waits, Kathleen (1984–1985). "The Criminal Justice System's Response to Battering: Understanding the Problem, Forging the Solutions". Washington Law Review. 60: 267–330.
- Capaldi, Deborah; et al. (April 2012). "A Systematic Review of Risk Factors for Intimate Partner Violence". Partner Abuse. 3: 231–280. PMC 3384540.
- Bachman, Ronet; Linda E. Saltzman (August 1995). "Violence against Women: Estimates from the Redesigned Survey" (PDF). Bureau of Justice Statistics. Archived from the original (PDFNCJ 154348) on July 26, 2009.
- References Examining Assaults By Women On Their Spouses Or Male Partners: An Annotated Bibliography
- Tonia L. Nicholls; Hamel, John (2007). Family interventions in domestic violence: a handbook of gender-inclusive theory and treatment. New York: Springer Pub. pp. 5–6. ISBN 0-8261-0245-X.
- Archer, 2000
- "Domestic violence rate unchanged, Statistics Canada finds". CBC News. July 14, 2005.
- Andrew Karmen (2010). Crime Victims: An Introduction to Victimology. Cengage Learning. p. 255. ISBN 0495599298. Retrieved August 19, 2014.
- Robert L. Hampton, Thomas P. Gullotta (2010). Interpersonal Violence in the African-American Community: Evidence-Based Prevention and Treatment Practices. Springer Science & Business Media. p. 49. ISBN 0387295984. Retrieved August 19, 2014.
- "Ending Violence Against Women—Population Reports" (PDF). Series L, Number 11. Center for Health and Gender Equity (CHANGE). December 1999. Archived from the original (PDF) on March 12, 2012.
- "National Intimate Partner and Sexual Violence Survey: 2010 Summary Report" (PDF). Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. 2011. Retrieved December 20, 2013.
- India tackles domestic violence. BBC News. October 26, 2006.
- Kristof, Nicholas D.; WuDunn, Sheryl (August 17, 2009). "The Women's Crusade". The New York Times. Retrieved 2009-08-20.
- Domestic Violence in Australia—an Overview of the Issues Archived January 15, 2010, at the Wayback Machine.. Parliamentary Library.
- The Interrelationship Between Gender-based Violence and HIV/AIDS in South Africa. (PDF) Journal of International Women's Studies Vol. 6#1, November 2004.
- Widespread violence against women in Africa documented Archived December 28, 2009, at the Wayback Machine.. Source: UNFPA.
- Half of Nigeria's women experience domestic violence. afrol News.
- "Behind the veil". The Economist. May 12, 2011.
- Rennison, Callie Marie (February 2003). "Intimate Partner Violence, 1993–2001" (PDF). Bureau of Justice Statistics. Archived from the original (PDFNCJ 197838) on July 26, 2009.
- Bureau of Justice Statistics, Sex Differences in Violent Victimization, 1994 Archived July 26, 2009, at the Wayback Machine., September 1997, NCJ-164508.
- Bacchus, Lorraine; Mezey, Gill; Bewley, Susan; Haworth, Alison (May 2004). "Prevalence of Domestic Violence When Midwives Routinely Enquire in Pregnancy". BJOG. 111 (5): 441–5. doi:10.1111/j.1471-0528.2004.00108.x. PMID 15104607.
- Huth-Bocks, A. C.; Levendosky, A. A.; Bogat, G. A. (April 2002). "The Effects of Domestic Violence During Pregnancy on Maternal and Infant Health". Violence & Victims. 17 (2): 169–85. doi:10.1891/vivi.126.96.36.199647. PMID 12033553.
- Torres, Sara; Campbell, Jacquelyn; Campbell, Doris W.; et al. (2000). "Abuse During and Before Pregnancy: Prevalence and Cultural Correlates". Violence & Victims. 15 (3): 303–21. PMID 11200104.
- O'Donnell S.; Fitzpatrick M.; McKenna P. (November 2000). "Abuse in Pregnancy – The Experience of Women". Irish Medical Journal. 93 (8): 229–30. PMID 11133053.
- Parker, Barbara; McFarlane, Judith; Soeken, Karen; Torres, Sarah; Campbell, Doris (1993). "Physical and Emotional Abuse in Pregnancy: A Comparison of Adult and Teenage Women". Nursing Research. 42 (3): 173–8. doi:10.1097/00006199-199305000-00009. PMID 8506167.
- Gielen, Andrea Carlson; O'Campo, Patricia J.; Faden, Ruth R.; Kass, Nancy E.; Xue, Xiaonan (September 1994). "Interpersonal conflict and physical violence during the childbearing year". Social Science and Medicine. 39 (6): 781–87. doi:10.1016/0277-9536(94)90039-6.
- Harrykissoon, Samantha D.; Rickert, Vaughn I.; Wiemann, Constance M. (April 2002). "Prevalence and Patterns of Intimate Partner Violence Among Adolescent Mothers During the Postpartum Period". Archives of Pediatrics & Adolescent Medicine. 156 (4): 325–30. doi:10.1001/archpedi.156.4.325. PMID 11929364.
- Yost, Nicole P.; Bloom, Steven L.; McIntire, Donald D.; Leveno, Kenneth J. (July 2005). "A Prospective Observational Study of Domestic Violence During Pregnancy". Obstetrics & Gynecology. 106 (1): 61–65. doi:10.1097/01.AOG.0000164468.06070.2a. PMID 15994618.
- In D.R. Loseke, R.J. Gelles & M.M. Cavanaugh (Eds.), Current controversies on family violence (2nd edition, pp. 55–77). Newbury Park: Sage Publications.
- Extent, Nature, and Consequences of Intimate Partner Violence
- "A review of the research literature indicates that female intimate partner violence (IPV) is a frequent as male IPV. It is just as severe and has much the same consequences for males as for females." Donald G. Dutton."Female intimate partner violence and developmental trajectories of abusive females." International Journal of Men's Health. Spring 2007. 
- A 2007 study of over 2,400 Spanish high school students found that girls are substantially more likely than boys to exhibit physical aggression (41.9% vs. 31.7%), including higher rates of hitting/kicking (13.4% vs 5.3%), slapping (12.4% vs 3.1%) and shoving/grabbing (22.5% vs 11.9%). See Munoz-Rivas, M. J., Grana, J. L., O'Leary, K. D., & Gonzalez, M. P. (2007). Aggression in adolescent dating relationships: prevalence, justification, and health consequences. Journal of Adolescent Health, 40, 298–304.
- A 2000 meta analysis found that men inflict 65% of domestic injuries, but women are more likely (d=-.05) to use any act of violence or aggression. See Archer, J. (2000)."Sex differences in aggression between heterosexual partners: A meta-analytic review". Psychological Bulletin, 126, 651–680.
- Erin Pizzey, founder of one of the world's first refuges for battered women, distinguished between the "genuinely battered" and the "violence prone, " additionally arguing that roughly two-thirds of the women at her shelter were violence prone, often provoking physical aggression and initiating violent conflicts. See Pizzey's "Comparative Study Of Battered Women And Violence-Prone Women, ", co-researched with Dr. John Gayford of Warlingham Hospital.
- A study of university students in Spain found that "Violent psychological behaviors (characterized by the presence of verbal aggression and coercive and jealous behaviors) and physical aggression were significantly higher in women, though the consequences of physical aggression were worse for the women's health." See Marina J. Muñoz-Rivas, et al. Physical and Psychological Aggression in Dating Relationships Amongst Spanish University Students Psicothema 2007. Vol. 19, no. 1, p. 102-107
- Hamel, John. Russel, Brenda R. "The Partner Abuse State of Knowledge Project: Implications for Law Enforcement Responses to Domestic Violence." January 14. DOI: 10.1007/978-1-4614-5871-5_10 Chapter 10. Page 162. https://www.researchgate.net/publication/287265042_The_Partner_Abuse_State_of_Knowledge_Project_Implications_for_Law_Enforcement_Responses_to_Domestic_Violence
- Whitaker, D. et al. (2007) Differences in Frequency of Violence and Reported Injury Between Relationships With Reciprocal and Nonreciprocal Intimate Partner Violence. Am J Public Health. 2007 May; 97(5): 941–947. doi: 10.2105/AJPH.2005.079020, http://ajph.aphapublications.org/doi/abs/10.2105/AJPH.2005.079020
- Straus, Murray A. (1999). "The Controversy Over Domestic Violence by Women". In Violence in Intimate Relationships.
- Denise A. Hines, Emily M. Douglas. "Men Who Sustain Partner Violence and Seek Help: Their Abuse and Help-Seeking Experiences and Implications for Prevention." NIH. April 1, 2009 Welcome to the Men Experiences with Partner Violence Project
- Bonnie S. Fisher, Steven P. Lab (2010). Encyclopedia of Gender and Society, Volume 1. SAGE. p. 312. ISBN 1412960479. Retrieved August 19, 2014.
- Canadian Government—Abuse in Lesbian Relationships
- "[A 1991 study] reported, in a survey of 350 lesbians, that rates of verbal, physical and sexual abuse were all significantly higher in lesbian relationships than in heterosexual relationships: 56.8% had been sexually victimized by a female, 45% had experienced physical aggression, and 64.5% experienced physical or emotional aggression. Of this sample of women, 78.2% had been in a prior relationship with a man. Reports of violence by men were all lower than reports of violence in prior relationships with women (sexual victimization, 41.9% (vs. 56.8% with women); physical victimization 32.4% (vs. 45%) and emotional victimization 55.1% (vs. 64.5%)." Dutton, 1994
- Stats for 2000 "Archived copy". Archived from the original on March 17, 2011. Retrieved 2010-01-17. ; for 2001 "Archived copy". Archived from the original on September 23, 2009. Retrieved January 17, 2010. ; for 2002 "Archived copy". Archived from the original on January 19, 2009. Retrieved January 17, 2010. for 2003 "Archived copy". Archived from the original on March 17, 2011. Retrieved 2010-01-17. ; for 2004 "Archived copy". Archived from the original on May 27, 2010. Retrieved January 17, 2010. for 2005  Archived March 17, 2011, at the Wayback Machine.
- American Psychology Association. Violence and the Family: Report of the American Psychological Association Presidential Task Force on Violence and the Family. 1996
- Bowker LH, Arbitell M, Mcferron JR (1988). "On the Relationship Between Wife Beating and Child Abuse". In Bograd ML, Yllö K. Feminist perspectives on wife abuse. Thousand Oaks: Sage Publications. ISBN 0-8039-3053-4.
- King-Ries, Andrew (2011). "Teens, Technology, and Cyberstalking: The Domestic Violence Wave of the Future?". Texas Journal of Women and the Law. 20: 131–164.
- New Zealand Family Violence Clearinghouse Archived September 28, 2007, at the Wayback Machine.
- New Zealand Family Violence Clearinghouse Archived September 28, 2007, at the Wayback Machine.
- "36091 NCC Doc.indd Archived December 3, 2007, at the Wayback Machine.". www.gov.ie.
- Extent, Nature, and Consequences of Intimate Partner Violence (NCJ 181867)
- Katalin Fabian. "Mobilizing against Domestic Violence in Postcommunist Europe: Successes and Continuing Challenges | European Conference on Politics and Gender". Ecpg-barcelona.com. Archived from the original on July 17, 2013. Retrieved September 8, 2013.
- 0 (May 30, 2013). "Domestic violence victim wins European Court of Human Rights case against Lithuania | en.15min.lt". 15min.lt. Retrieved 2013-09-08.
- "Lithuania – EU Court Judgment – Failure to Investigate Domestic Violence". Wunrn.com. March 28, 2013. Archived from the original on April 13, 2014. Retrieved September 8, 2013.
- Crime in England and Wales 2006/07 Archived November 22, 2009, at the Wayback Machine.
- "Archived copy" (PDF). Archived from the original (PDF) on July 12, 2007. Retrieved 2008-07-17.
- Andersson N, Nahwegahbow A (2010). "Family violence and the need for prevention research in First Nations, Inuit and Métis communities. Pimatisiwin". Journal of Aboriginal and Indigenous Community Health. 8 (2): 9–33. PMC 2962655. PMID 20975851.
- Straus, 2005
- Archer, J. (2000). "Sex differences in aggression between heterosexual partners: A meta-analytic review". Psychological Bulletin. 126 (5): 651–680. doi:10.1037/0033-2909.126.5.651. PMID 10989615.
- "CBC News – Canada – Domestic violence rate unchanged, Statistics Canada finds". Cbc.ca. July 14, 2005. Retrieved 2010-04-26.
- O'Grady William (2011). Crime in Canadian Context: debates and controversies. Oxford University Press ISBN 0195433785.
- Fact Sheet: Lesbian Partner Violence. Musc.edu. Retrieved on 2011-12-23.
- "Full Report of the Prevalence, Incidence, and Consequences of Violence Against Women: Findings From the National Violence Against Women Survey | National Institute of Justice". Ojp.usdoj.gov. Retrieved 2013-09-08.
- "Domestic Violence: Fast Facts on Domestic Violence". Clarkprosecutor.org. Retrieved 2013-09-08.
- "Protecting Victims of Domestic Violence (U.S.)" (PDF). U.S. Department of Justice / International Association of Chiefs of Police. Retrieved 2014-04-09.
- "VIOLENCE AGAINST WOMEN IN THE RUSSIAN FEDERATION" (PDF). ANNA National Centre for the Prevention of Violence.
- "BBC News – The silent nightmare of domestic violence in Russia". Bbc.co.uk. March 1, 2013. Retrieved 2013-09-08.
- "Behind the veil". The Economist. May 12, 2011.
- "Independent Appeal: Safe haven for women beaten and abused in Kashmir". The Independent. December 28, 2009.
- Constable, Pamela. "For Some Muslim Wives, Abuse Knows No Borders." Washington Post (May 8, 2007).
- Alexander, Doug. "Addressing Violence Against Palestinian Women". Archived November 23, 2007, at the Wayback Machine. International Development Research Centre (June 23, 2000).
- Khoury, Jack (April 30, 2012). "Study: Most Bedouin victims of domestic violence believe it's a 'decree from God' Israel News Broadcast". Haaretz. Retrieved 2013-09-08.
- "Archived copy" (PDF). Archived from the original (PDF) on October 21, 2012. Retrieved 2012-10-21.
- Altstein, Howard; Simon, Rita James (2003). Global perspectives on social issues: marriage and divorce. Lexington, Mass: Lexington Books. p. 11. ISBN 0-7391-0588-4.
- "Jordan quashes 'honour crimes' law". Al Jazeera. Retrieved 2008-09-27.
- "Jordan: Special Report on Honour Killings". Retrieved 2009-02-08.
- "PAKISTAN: Domestic violence endemic, but awareness slowly rising". IRIN UN. March 11, 2008.
- "BBC News – Pakistani women shot in 'honour killings'". Bbc.co.uk. June 27, 2013. Retrieved 2013-09-08.
- Ash, Lucy (July 16, 2003). "Programmes | Crossing Continents | India's dowry deaths". BBC News. Retrieved 2013-09-08.
- "Honour killing: SC notice to Centre, Haryana and 6 other states – Times Of India". Articles.timesofindia.indiatimes.com. June 21, 2010. Retrieved 2013-09-08.
- Chaitra Arjunpuri. "'Honour killings' bring dishonour to India – Features". Al Jazeera English. Retrieved 2013-09-08.
- "Africa | Ethiopian women are most abused". BBC News. October 11, 2006. Retrieved 2013-09-08.
- "Half of Nigeria's women experience domestic violence". Afrol News.
- "Domestic Violence in Australia—an Overview of the Issues Archived January 15, 2010, at the Wayback Machine.". Parliamentary Library.
- Australian Bureau of Statistics Personal Safety Survey
- World Report on Violence Against Children, Secretary-General of the United Nations
- Hidden in Plain Sight: A statistical analysis of violence against children, UNICEF