Orange-spotted grouper

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Orange-spotted grouper
Epinephelus coioides Thailand.jpg
Scientific classification
Kingdom: Animalia
Phylum: Chordata
Class: Actinopterygii
Order: Perciformes
Family: Serranidae
Genus: Epinephelus
Species: E. coioides
Binomial name
Epinephelus coioides
(Hamilton, 1822)

The orange-spotted grouper (Epinephelus coioides), also known as the estuary cod, is a species of fish in the family Serranidae. It is found in the western Pacific, the Indian Ocean, and the Red Sea. It has also been recorded in the Mediterranean Sea as a Lessepsian migrant.[2] Its natural habitats are subtropical or tropical mangrove, open seas, shallow seas, subtidal aquatic beds, coral reefs, estuarine waters, intertidal flats, and coastal saline lagoons. It is threatened by habitat loss and overfishing.[1] This predatory fish reaches up to 1.2 m (3.9 ft) in length.[2]

In earlier literature it has often been confused with Epinephelus tauvina or Epinephelus malabaricus.[2][3]


  1. ^ a b Cornish, A. & Harmelin-Vivien, M. 2004. Epinephelus coioides. 2006 IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Downloaded on 4 August 2007.
  2. ^ a b c Froese, Rainer and Pauly, Daniel, eds. (2014). "Epinephelus coioides" in FishBase. April 2014 version.
  3. ^ Estuary cod Primefact 167. NSW Dept of Primary Industries, July 2006