Epipactis helleborine

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Epipactis helleborine
Epipactis helleborine flowers1 220703.jpg
Scientific classification edit
Kingdom: Plantae
Clade: Angiosperms
Clade: Monocots
Order: Asparagales
Family: Orchidaceae
Subfamily: Epidendroideae
Genus: Epipactis
Species:
E. helleborine
Binomial name
Epipactis helleborine
Synonyms[1][2]

Epipactis helleborine, the broad-leaved helleborine, is a terrestrial species of orchid with a broad distribution. Its nodding flowers vary from greenish pink to purple. It prefers shaded woodland environments.

Description[edit]

Epipactis helleborine grows to a maximum height of 92 cm (36 in) and has broad dull green leaves which are strongly ribbed and flat. [3] The flowers are arranged in long drooping racemes with dull green sepals and shorter upper petals. The lower labellum is pale red and is much shorter than the upper petals.[4]

Achlorophyllous, white Epipactis helleborine plants have been found. Achlorophyllous forms tend to be shorter, as small as 17cm. [5]

Flowering occurs June-September.[6]

Distribution[edit]

This species is widespread across much of Europe and Asia, from Portugal to China, as well as northern Africa.[1][7][8]

In North America, it is an introduced species and widely naturalized mostly in the Northeastern United States, eastern Canada and the Great Lakes Region, but also in scattered locations in other parts of the continent.[9][10][11] In the US it is sometimes referred to as the "weed orchid" or "weedy orchid" and continues to spread throughout the country to new areas including Michigan,[12] Wisconsin,[13] and the San Francisco Bay Area.[14]

Habitat[edit]

Found in woods and hedge-banks[15] and often not far from paths near human activity.[16] It is one of the most likely European orchids to be found within a city, with many sites for example in London and Moscow. Sometimes spotted beside car parks.[17]

Ecology[edit]

This species of orchid is pollinated by several species of Hymenoptera, particularly the common wasp, but also other species in the genera Vespula and Dolichovespula. Flowers release a sweet nectar to attract the wasps, which has an intoxicating effect on them.[18][19] Eight varieties of Epipactis helleborine in central Europe (Lower Silesia, Poland) had their nectar studied and they were found to contain naturally occurring oxycodone (as well as another narcotic-like opioid) in minute amounts.[20]

Epipactis helleborine requires a mycorrhizal symbiosis to germinate successfully and remains partially dependant upon the fungus when plants mature, however it is not particularly selective among fungal species. Fungi associated with the live roots include Tuber, Helotiales, Peziza, Leptodontidium, Hydnotrya and Wilcoxina.[21][22]

It has been suggested that the presence of this orchid species in a woodland is an indicator that edible truffles can be found there,[23] but this is not always the case.

Subspecies[edit]

A rather long list of names have been proposed for subspecies, varieties and forms of Epipactis helleborine, far too many to list here.[2] This is not unusual for such a widespread species. At present (June 2014) only the following are accorded international acceptance:[1]

  1. Epipactis helleborine subsp. bithynica (Robatsch) Kreutz - Turkey
  2. Epipactis helleborine subsp. degenii (Szentp. & Mónus) Kreutz - Greece
  3. Epipactis helleborine subsp. densifolia (W.Hahn, Passin & R.Wegener) Kreutz - Turkey
  4. Epipactis helleborine subsp. helleborine - widespread
  5. Epipactis helleborine subsp. latina W.Rossi & E.Klein - Italy, former Yugoslavia
  6. Epipactis helleborine subsp. leutei (Robatsch) Kreutz - Austria, Czech Republic
  7. Epipactis helleborine subsp. levantina Kreutz, Óvári & Shifman - Turkey
  8. Epipactis helleborine subsp. molochina (P.Delforge) Kreutz - Spain
  9. Epipactis helleborine subsp. neerlandica (Verm.) Buttler - Great Britain, Sweden, Belgium, Netherlands, France, Germany
  10. Epipactis helleborine subsp. orbicularis (K.Richt.) E.Klein - Austria, Czech Republic, Sweden, Germany, Switzerland, France, Spain, Italy, Baltic Republics
  11. Epipactis helleborine subsp. schubertiorum (Bartolo, Pulv. & Robatsch) Kreutz - Italy
  12. Epipactis helleborine var. tangutica (Schltr.) S.C.Chen & G.H.Zhu - China
  13. Epipactis helleborine subsp. tremolsii (Pau) E.Klein - France, Spain, Portugal, Sardinia, Italy, Algeria, Morocco

References[edit]

  1. ^ a b c Kew World Checklist of Selected Plant Species, Epipactis helleborine
  2. ^ a b Kew World Checklist of Selected Plant Families, Epipactis helleborine subsp. helleborine, synonyms
  3. ^ General Morphology and Anatomy of Chlorophyll-free and Green Forms of Epipactis helleborine
  4. ^ Webb, D.A., Parnell, J. and Doogue,D . 1996. An Irish Flora. Dundalgan Press (W. Tempest) Ltd. Dundalk.ISBN 0-85221-131-7
  5. ^ General Morphology and Anatomy of Chlorophyll-free and Green Forms of Epipactis helleborine
  6. ^ First Nature - Epipactis Helleborine
  7. ^ Altervista Flora Italiana, Elleborine comune, Epipactis helleborine (L.) Crantz
  8. ^ Flora of China v 25 p 180, 火烧兰 huo shao lan, Epipactis helleborine (Linnaeus) Crantz
  9. ^ Flora of North America v 26 p 586, Epipactis helleborine (Linnaeus) Crantz
  10. ^ Biota of North America Program, county range map
  11. ^ "World Checklist of Selected Plant Families".
  12. ^ http://msue.anr.msu.edu/news/homeowners_battling_a_weedy_orchid_invading_lawns_and_flowerbeds
  13. ^ http://www.nps.gov/plants/alien/pubs/midatlantic/plants-to-watch.htm
  14. ^ http://ucjeps.berkeley.edu/cgi-bin/get_IJM.pl?tid=24407
  15. ^ Clapham, A.R., Tutin, T.G. and Warburg, E.F. 1968. Excursion Flora of the British Isles. Cambridge University Press ISBN 0 521 04656 4
  16. ^ Beesley, S. and Wild, J. 1997. Urban Flora of Belfast. Institute of Irish Studies and The Queen's University of Belfast. ISBN 0-85389-695 X
  17. ^ PeerJ - Pollinator diversity and reproductive success of Epipactis helleborine (L.) Crantz (Orchidaceae) in anthropogenic and natural habitats
  18. ^ London Wildlife Trust - Orchid for July
  19. ^ Bioinfo - Epipactis helleborine
  20. ^ “Why do pollinators become 'sluggish'? Nectar chemical constituents from Epipactis helleborine L. Crantz Orchidaceae”. Applied Ecology & Environmental Research. 2005;3(2):29-38. Jakubska A, Przado D, Steininger M, Aniol-Kwiatkowska A, Kadej M.
  21. ^ Annals of Botany - Differences in mycorrhizal communities between Epipactis palustris, E. helleborine and its presumed sister species E. neerlandica
  22. ^ Mycorrhiza - Epipactis helleborine shows strong mycorrhizal preference towards ectomycorrhizal fungi with contrasting geographic distributions in Japan
  23. ^ Acta Biologica Szegediensis - Could orchids indicate truffle habitats? Mycorrhizal association between orchids and truffles

External links[edit]