Epirmupi

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Epirmupi
𒂊𒉆𒈬𒉈
Military Governor of Elam
Seal-Sb 6673-IMG 7188.jpg
Seal impression with inscription ""Liburbeli, servant of the Great Epirmupi". Liburbeli in the service of Epirmupi, Governor of Elam and vassal of Rimush and Manishtushu. Louvre Museum Sb 6673.[1][2]
Reignc. 2199–2154 BCE
PredecessorEshpum
SuccessorIli-ishmani
DynastyAkkadian Governor of Elam
Ili-ishmani ruled from Susa in Elam

Epirmupi (𒂊𒉆𒈬𒉈 E-pir-mu-pil, previously read E-nam-mu-de) was a ruler of Elam around 2199–2154 BCE. His name is purely Akkadian, and he was in charge of Elam at the time of Rimush and Manishtushu, or early in the reign of Naram-Sin and probably their dependent and vassal.[3][4][5] His title of "Military Governor" (Shakkanakku in Akkadian, GIR.NITA in Sumerian) suggests that he was a dependent of the Akkadian kings, rather than an independent ruler.[6] He also held the title of Ensi of Susa".[7]

His successor was probably Ili-ishmani.[8] After Ili-ishmani, and the weakening of the Akkadian Empire, rule in Elam reverted to local rulers of the Awan Dynasty.[9]

Seal inscriptions[edit]

Various inscriptions in the name of Epirmupi are known, especially "Epirmupi, the Shakkanakku of the land of Elam” and "Epirmupi, Ensi of Susa".[7]

A seal is known with the inscription "Epirmupi, the strong, Liburbeli, cup-bearer, your servant", incorporating the image of two heroic combats: a naked hero versus a lion and a naked hero against a buffalo. The seal is now in the Louvre Museum.[10][11]

References[edit]

  1. ^ "Les sceaux de l'administration princiere de Suse". Cite journal requires |journal= (help)
  2. ^ "Site officiel du musée du Louvre". cartelfr.louvre.fr.
  3. ^ Álvarez-Mon, Javier (2020). The Art of Elam CA. 4200–525 BC. Routledge. p. 216. ISBN 978-1-000-03485-1.
  4. ^ Potts, D. T. (2016). The Archaeology of Elam: Formation and Transformation of an Ancient Iranian State. Cambridge University Press. p. 100. ISBN 978-1-107-09469-7.
  5. ^ Potts, D. T. (2015). The Archaeology of Elam: Formation and Transformation of an Ancient Iranian State. Cambridge University Press. p. 204. ISBN 978-1-316-58631-0.
  6. ^ Potts, D. T. (2016). The Archaeology of Elam: Formation and Transformation of an Ancient Iranian State. Cambridge University Press. p. 100. ISBN 978-1-107-09469-7.
  7. ^ a b Shayegan, M. Rahim (2011). Arsacids and Sasanians: Political Ideology in Post-Hellenistic and Late Antique Persia. Cambridge University Press. p. 262. ISBN 978-0-521-76641-8.
  8. ^ Potts, D. T. (2016). The Archaeology of Elam: Formation and Transformation of an Ancient Iranian State. Cambridge University Press. p. 97. ISBN 978-1-107-09469-7.
  9. ^ Foster, Benjamin R. (2015). The Age of Agade: Inventing Empire in Ancient Mesopotamia. Routledge. p. 274. ISBN 978-1-317-41552-7.
  10. ^ Álvarez-Mon, Javier (2020). The Art of Elam CA. 4200–525 BC. Routledge. p. 209. ISBN 978-1-000-03485-1.
  11. ^ Potts, D. T. (2015). The Archaeology of Elam: Formation and Transformation of an Ancient Iranian State. Cambridge University Press. p. 204. ISBN 978-1-316-58631-0.
  12. ^ "Site officiel du musée du Louvre". cartelfr.louvre.fr.
  13. ^ "Site officiel du musée du Louvre". cartelfr.louvre.fr.
  14. ^ Delaporte, Louis-Joseph (1874-1944) Auteur du texte (1920). Catalogue des cylindres, cachets et pierres gravées de style oriental : Musée du Louvre. Fouilles et missions / par Louis Delaporte ; avec le concours de M. Fr. Thureau-Dangin pour la partie épigraphique. p. 58.
Preceded by
Eshpum
Akkadian Governor of Elam
2199–2154 BCE
Succeeded by
Ili-ishmani