Epithelial dysplasia

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Epithelial dysplasia, a term becoming increasingly referred to as intraepithelial neoplasia, is the sum of various disturbances of epithelial proliferation and differentiation as seen microscopically. Individual cellular features of dysplasia are called epithelial atypia.

Morphological changes[edit]

The changes that occur in epithelial dysplasia include:

  • Drop-shaped rete processes
  • Basal cell hyperplasia
  • Irregular epithelial stratification
  • Nuclear hyperchromatism
  • Increased nuclear-cytoplasmic ratio
  • Increased normal and abnormal mitosis
  • Enlarged nucleoli
  • Individual cell keratinization
  • Loss or reduction of cellular cohesion
  • Cellular pleomorphism
  • Loss of basal cell polarity
  • Anisocytosis
  • koilocytosis

Epithelial cell dysplasia is divided into three categories of severity: mild, moderate, and severe. Epithelial dysplasia becomes microinvasive squamous cell carcinoma once the tumor begins to invade nearby tissue.

See also[edit]