Epoch J2000.0 Equinox J2000.0
|Right ascension||13h 02m 10.59785s|
|Declination||+10° 57′ 32.9415″|
|Apparent magnitude (V)||+2.826|
|Spectral type||G8 III|
|U−B color index||+0.718|
|B−V color index||+0.940|
|Radial velocity (Rv)||-14.6 km/s|
|Proper motion (μ)||RA: -273.80 mas/yr
Dec.: +19.96 mas/yr
|Parallax (π)||29.76 ± 0.14 mas|
|Distance||109.6 ± 0.5 ly
(33.6 ± 0.2 pc)
|Absolute magnitude (MV)||0.37 ± 0.06|
|Mass||2.64 ± 0.11 M☉|
|Radius||10.6 ± 0.3 R☉|
|Surface gravity (log g)||2.71 ± 0.04 cgs|
|Metallicity [Fe/H]||+0.09 dex|
|Rotational velocity (v sin i)||2.3 km/s|
|Age||560 ± 90 Myr|
Epsilon Virginis (ε Virginis, abbreviated Epsilon Vir, ε Vir), also named Vindemiatrix, is a star in the zodiac constellation of Virgo. The apparent visual magnitude of this star is +2.8, making it the third-brightest member of Virgo. Based upon parallax measurements made during the Hipparcos mission, Vindemiatrix lies at a distance of about 109.6 light-years (33.6 parsecs) from the Sun, give or take a half light-year.
Vindemiatrix is a giant star with a stellar classification of G8 III. With 2.6 times the mass of the Sun, it has reached a stage in its evolution where the hydrogen fuel in its core is exhausted. As a result, it has expanded to over ten times the Sun's girth and is now radiating around 77 times as much luminosity as the Sun. This energy is being emitted from its outer atmosphere at an effective temperature of 5,086 K, which gives it the yellow-hued glow of a G-type star. Since 1943, the spectrum of this star has served as one of the stable anchor points by which other stars are classified.
It bore the traditional names Vindemiatrix and Vindemiator, which come from Greek through the Latin vindēmiātrix, vindēmitor meaning 'the grape-harvestress'. Additional medieval names are Almuredin, Alaraph, Provindemiator, Protrigetrix and Protrygetor. In 2016, the International Astronomical Union organized a Working Group on Star Names (WGSN) to catalog and standardize proper names for stars. The WGSN's first bulletin of July 2016 included a table of the first two batches of names approved by the WGSN; which included Vindemiatrix for this star.
In Chinese, 太微左垣 (Tài Wēi Zuǒ Yuán), meaning Left Wall of Supreme Palace Enclosure, refers to an asterism consisting of Epsilon Virginis, Eta Virginis, Gamma Virginis, Delta Virginis and Alpha Comae Berenices. Consequently, Epsilon Virginis itself is known as 太微左垣四 (Tài Wēi Zuǒ Yuán sì, English: the Fourth Star of Left Wall of Supreme Palace Enclosure.), representing 東次將 (Dōngcìjiāng), meaning The Second Eastern General. 東次將 (Dōngcìjiāng), westernized into Tsze Tseang by R.H. Allen and the meaning is "the Second General".
- van Leeuwen, F. (November 2007). "Validation of the new Hipparcos reduction". Astronomy and Astrophysics. 474 (2): 653–664. Bibcode:2007A&A...474..653V. arXiv: . doi:10.1051/0004-6361:20078357.
- Gutierrez-Moreno, Adelina; et al. (1966), A System of photometric standards, 1, Publicaciones Universidad de Chile, Department de Astronomy, pp. 1–17, Bibcode:1966PDAUC...1....1G
- Morgan, W. W.; Keenan, P. C. (1973), "Spectral Classification", Annual Review of Astronomy and Astrophysics, 11: 29, Bibcode:1973ARA&A..11...29M, doi:10.1146/annurev.aa.11.090173.000333
- Wielen, R.; et al. (1999), Sixth Catalogue of Fundamental Stars (FK6). Part I. Basic fundamental stars with direct solutions, 35, Veröffentlichungen des Astronomisches Rechen-Institut Heidelberg, Bibcode:1999VeARI..35....1W
- da Silva, L.; et al. (November 2006), "Basic physical parameters of a selected sample of evolved stars", Astronomy and Astrophysics, 458 (2): 609–623, Bibcode:2006A&A...458..609D, arXiv: , doi:10.1051/0004-6361:20065105
- Nordgren, Tyler E.; et al. (December 1999), "Stellar Angular Diameters of Late-Type Giants and Supergiants Measured with the Navy Prototype Optical Interferometer", The Astronomical Journal, 118 (6): 3032–3038, Bibcode:1999AJ....118.3032N, doi:10.1086/301114
- Mallik, Sushma V. (December 1999), "Lithium abundance and mass", Astronomy and Astrophysics, 352: 495–507, Bibcode:1999A&A...352..495M
- Setiawan, J.; et al. (July 2004), "Precise radial velocity measurements of G and K giants. Multiple systems and variability trend along the Red Giant Branch", Astronomy and Astrophysics, 421: 241–254, Bibcode:2004A&A...421..241S, doi:10.1051/0004-6361:20041042-1
- Pizzolato, N.; Maggio, A.; Sciortino, S. (September 2000), "Evolution of X-ray activity of 1-3 Msun late-type stars in early post-main-sequence phases", Astronomy and Astrophysics, 361: 614–628, Bibcode:2000A&A...361..614P
- Database entry for Epsilon Viginis, SIMBAD. Accessed online May 10, 2010.
- "IAU Catalog of Star Names". Retrieved 28 July 2016.
- Garrison, R. F. (December 1993), "Anchor Points for the MK System of Spectral Classification", Bulletin of the American Astronomical Society, 25: 1319, Bibcode:1993AAS...183.1710G, retrieved 2012-02-04
- Soubiran, C.; et al. (2008), "Vertical distribution of Galactic disk stars. IV. AMR and AVR from clump giants", Astronomy and Astrophysics, 480 (1): 91–101, Bibcode:2008A&A...480...91S, arXiv: , doi:10.1051/0004-6361:20078788
- Richard Hinckley Allen: Star Names — Their Lore and Meaning: Virgo
- "IAU Working Group on Star Names (WGSN)". Retrieved 22 May 2016.
- "Bulletin of the IAU Working Group on Star Names, No. 1" (PDF). Retrieved 28 July 2016.
- Allen, R. H. (1963), Star Names: Their Lore and Meaning (Reprint ed.), New York, NY: Dover Publications Inc, p. 469, ISBN 0-486-21079-0, retrieved 2010-12-12
- (in Chinese) 中國星座神話, written by 陳久金. Published by 台灣書房出版有限公司, 2005, ISBN 978-986-7332-25-7.
- (in Chinese) 香港太空館 - 研究資源 - 亮星中英對照表 Archived August 19, 2010, at the Wayback Machine., Hong Kong Space Museum. Accessed on line November 23, 2010.
- (in Chinese) English-Chinese Glossary of Chinese Star Regions, Asterisms and Star Name Archived August 10, 2010, at the Wayback Machine., Hong Kong Space Museum. Accessed on line November 23, 2010.
- Kaler, james B., "Vindemiatrix", Stars, retrieved 2011-01-12