||This article needs more medical references for verification or relies too heavily on primary sources. (August 2014)|
Anhydrous magnesium sulfate
Epsom salt (heptahydrate)
|Jmol 3D model||Interactive image|
|Molar mass||120.366 g/mol (anhydrous)
138.38 g/mol (monohydrate)
174.41 g/mol (trihydrate)
210.44 g/mol (pentahydrate)
228.46 g/mol (hexahydrate)
246.47 g/mol (heptahydrate)
|Appearance||white crystalline solid|
|Density||2.66 g/cm3 (anhydrous)
2.445 g/cm3 (monohydrate)
1.68 g/cm3 (heptahydrate)
1.512 g/cm3 (11-hydrate)
|Melting point||anhydrous decomposes at 1,124°C
monohydrate decomposes at 200°C
heptahydrate decomposes at 150°C
undecahydrate decomposes at 2°C
26.9 g/100 mL (0 °C)
35.1 g/100 mL (20 °C)
50.2 g/100 mL (100 °C)
71 g/100 mL (20 °C)
|Solubility||1.16 g/100 mL (18°C, ether)
slightly soluble in alcohol, glycerol
insoluble in acetone
Refractive index (nD)
|A06AD04 (WHO) A12CC02 (WHO) B05XA05 (WHO) D11AX05 (WHO) V04CC02 (WHO)|
|Safety data sheet||External MSDS|
Except where otherwise noted, data are given for materials in their standard state (at 25 °C [77 °F], 100 kPa).
|what is ?)(|
Magnesium sulfate is an inorganic salt (chemical compound) containing magnesium, sulfur and oxygen, with the formula MgSO4. It is often encountered as the heptahydrate sulfate mineral epsomite (MgSO4·7H2O), commonly called Epsom salt, taking its name from a bitter saline spring in Epsom in Surrey, England, where the salt was produced from the springs that arise where the porous chalk of the North Downs meets non-porous London clay. The monohydrate, MgSO4·H2O is found as the mineral kieserite. The overall global annual usage in the mid-1970s of the monohydrate was 2.3 million tons, of which the majority was used in agriculture.
Anhydrous magnesium sulfate is used as a drying agent. The anhydrous form is hygroscopic (readily absorbs water from the air) and is therefore difficult to weigh accurately; the hydrate is often preferred when preparing solutions (for example, in medical preparations). Epsom salt has been traditionally used as a component of bath salts. Epsom salt can also be used as a beauty product. Athletes use it to soothe sore muscles, while gardeners use it to improve crops. It has a variety of other uses: for example, Epsom salt is also effective in the removal of splinters.
Magnesium sulfate is a common mineral pharmaceutical preparation of magnesium, commonly known as Epsom salt, used both externally and internally. In a 2004 non-peer reviewed article Dr. Rosemary Waring observed a slight increase in both magnesium and sulfates absorbed through the skin to improve blood levels. A 2009 peer reviewed study of a randomized placebo-controlled, double-blind phase I clinical study of a skin protectant lotion with a high magnesium content contradicted Dr. Waring's findings and showed that with repeated application there was no transdermal permeation of magnesium. Magnesium sulfate is highly water-soluble and solubility is inhibited with lipids typically used in lotions. Lotions often employ the use of emulsions or suspensions to include both oil and water-soluble ingredients. Hence, magnesium sulfate in a lotion may not be as freely available to migrate to the skin nor to be absorbed through the skin, hence both studies may properly suggest absorption or lack thereof as a function of the carrier (in a water solution vs. in an oil emulsion/suspension). Temperature and concentration gradients may also be contributing factors to absorption.
Internal uses include:
- Oral magnesium sulfate is commonly used as a saline laxative or osmotic purgative.
- Replacement therapy for hypomagnesemia
- Magnesium sulfate is a antiarrhythmic agent for torsades de pointes in cardiac arrest under the ECC guidelines and for managing quinidine-induced arrhythmias.
- As a bronchodilator after beta-agonist and anticholinergic agents have been tried, e.g. in severe exacerbations of asthma, magnesium sulfate can be nebulized to reduce the symptoms of acute asthma. It is commonly administered via the intravenous route for the management of severe asthma attacks.
- Magnesium sulfate is effective in decreasing the risk that pre-eclampsia progresses to eclampsia. IV magnesium sulfate is used to prevent and treat seizures of eclampsia. It is also commonly used for eclampsia where compared to diazepam or phenytoin it results in better outcomes.
- In those who are at risk of a preterm birth. A systematic review suggested that intravenous magnesium sulfate before birth could reduce the risk of cerebral palsy and motor dysfunction in preterm infants by 30%.
- Magnesium sulfate has been used as an experimental treatment of Irukandji syndrome caused by envenomation by certain species of Irukandji jellyfish, but the efficacy of this treatment remains unproven.
- Solutions of sulfate salts such as Epsom salt may be given as first aid for barium chloride poisoning.
An overdose of magnesium causes hypermagnesemia.
Magnesium sulfate was once used as a tocolytic, but meta-analyses have failed to support it as an anti-contraction medication. And its use for prolonged periods (more than five to seven days) may result in health problems for the baby.
Bath salts and Floatation Tanks
Magnesium sulfate is used in bath salts, particularly in flotation therapy, where high concentrations raise the bath water's specific gravity, effectively making the body more buoyant. Traditionally, it is also used to prepare foot baths, intended to soothe sore feet. The reason for the inclusion of the salt is partially cosmetic: the increase in ionic strength prevents some of the temporary skin wrinkling (partial maceration) which is caused by prolonged immersion of extremities in pure water. It is naturally present in some mineral waters. The claimed health benefits of Epsom Salt baths have not been proven.
In gardening and other agriculture, magnesium sulfate is used to correct a magnesium or sulfur deficiency in soil; magnesium is an essential element in the chlorophyll molecule, and sulfur is another important micronutrient. It is most commonly applied to potted plants, or to magnesium-hungry crops, such as potatoes, roses, tomatoes, lemon trees, carrots, and peppers. The advantage of magnesium sulfate over other magnesium soil amendments (such as dolomitic lime) is its high solubility, which also allows the option of foliar feeding. Solutions of magnesium sulfate are also nearly neutral, as compared to alkaline salts of magnesium, as found in limestone; therefore, the use of magnesium sulfate as a magnesium source for soil does not significantly change the soil pH.
Magnesium sulfate is used as a brewing salt in beer production to adjust the ion content of the brewing water and enhance enzyme action in the mash or promote a desired flavor profile in the beer.
Anhydrous magnesium sulfate is commonly used as a desiccant in organic synthesis due to its affinity for water. During work-up, an organic phase is saturated with magnesium sulfate until it no longer forms clumps. The hydrated solid is then removed with filtration or decantation. Other inorganic sulfate salts such as sodium sulfate and calcium sulfate may also be used in the same way.
Magnesium sulfate is used as the electrolyte to prepare copper sulfate. A magnesium sulfate solution is electrolyzed with a copper anode to form copper sulfate, magnesium hydroxide, and hydrogen:
- Cu + MgSO4 + 2 H2O → H2 + CuSO4 + Mg(OH)2.
Magnesium sulfate heptahydrate is also used to maintain the magnesium concentration in marine aquaria which contain large amounts of stony corals, as it is slowly depleted in their calcification process. In a magnesium-deficient marine aquarium, calcium and alkalinity concentrations are very difficult to control because not enough magnesium is present to stabilize these ions in the saltwater and prevent their spontaneous precipitation into calcium carbonate.
Magnesium sulfate is highly soluble in water. The anhydrous form is strongly hygroscopic, and can be used as a desiccant. It is the primary substance that causes the absorption of sound in seawater (acoustic energy is converted to thermal energy). Absorption is strongly dependent on frequency: lower frequencies are less absorbed by the salt, so that the sound travels much farther in the ocean. Boric acid also contributes to absorption, but the most abundant salt in seawater, sodium chloride, has negligible sound absorption.
Almost all known mineralogical forms of MgSO4 occur as hydrates. Epsomite is the natural analogue of "Epsom salt". Another heptahydrate, the copper-containing mineral alpersite (Mg,Cu)SO4·7H2O, was recently recognized. Both are, however, not the highest known hydrates of MgSO4, due to the recent terrestrial find of meridianiite, MgSO4·11H2O, which is thought to also occur on Mars. Hexahydrite is the next lower (6) hydrate. Three next lower hydrates — pentahydrite (5), starkeyite (4) and especially sanderite (2) — are more rarely found. Kieserite is a monohydrate and is common among evaporitic deposits. Anhydrous magnesium sulfate was reported from some burning coal dumps, but was never treated as a mineral.
Anhydrous magnesium sulfate is prepared only by the dehydration of a hydrate.
Magnesium sulfates are common minerals in geological environments. Their occurrence is mostly connected with supergene processes. Some of them are also important constituents of evaporitic potassium-magnesium (K-Mg) salts deposits.
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Previous ACLS guidelines addressed the use of magnesium in cardiac arrest with polymorphic ventricular tachycardia (ie, torsades de pointes) or suspected hypomagnesemia, and this has not been reevaluated in the 2015 Guidelines Update. These previous guidelines recommended defibrillation for termination of polymorphic VT (ie, torsades de pointes), followed by consideration of intravenous magnesium sulfate when secondary to a long QT interval.
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|Salts and the ester of the sulfate ion|