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For publications that are accessed electronically, see Electronic article.
Electronic Publication (EPUB)
Filename extension .epub
Internet media type application/epub+zip
Magic number PK 0x03 0x04
Developed by International Digital Publishing Forum (IDPF)
Initial release September 2007; 8 years ago (2007 -09)
Latest release
(June 26, 2014; 14 months ago (2014-Error: Invalid time.-26)[1])
Type of format e-book file format
Contained by OEBPS Container Format (OCF; Zip)
Extended from Open eBook, XHTML, CSS, DTBook
Standard ISO/IEC TS 30135
Open format? Yes
Website www.idpf.org/epub

EPUB (short for electronic publication; sometimes styled ePub) is a free and open e-book standard by the International Digital Publishing Forum (IDPF). Files have the extension .epub.

EPUB is designed for reflowable content, meaning that an EPUB reader can optimize text for a particular display device. EPUB also supports fixed-layout content. The format is intended as a single format that publishers and conversion houses can use in-house, as well as for distribution and sale. It supersedes the Open eBook standard.[2]


The EPUB logo.

EPUB became an official standard of the IDPF in September 2007, superseding the older Open eBook standard.[3]

In August 2009, the IDPF announced that they would begin work on maintenance tasks of the EPUB standard.[4] Two broad objectives were defined by this working group: "One set of activities governs maintenance of the current EPUB Standards (i.e. OCF, OPF, and OPS), while another set of activities addresses the need to keep the Standards current and up-to-date." The working group expected to be active through 2010, publishing updated standards throughout its lifetime.[5] On April 6, 2010, it was announced that this working group would complete their update in April 2010. The result was to be a minor revision to EPUB 2.0.1 that "...corrects errors and inconsistencies and does not change functionality."[6] On July 2, 2010, drafts of the version 2.0.1 standards appeared on the IDPF website.

On April 6, 2010, it was announced that a working group would form to revise the EPUB specification.[6] In the working group's charter draft, 14 main problems with EPUB were identified, which the group was to address. The group was chartered through May 2011, and was scheduled to submit a final draft on May 15, 2011.[7] An initial Editors Draft for EPUB3 was published on November 12, 2010,[8] and the first public draft was published on February 15, 2011.[9] On May 23, 2011, the IDPF released its proposed specification for final review. On October 10, 2011, the IDPF announced that its membership had approved EPUB 3 as a final Recommended Specification.[10]

In September 2012, ISO/IEC JTC1/SC34 re-established Ad Hoc Group 4 on EPUB of IDPF to prepare the creation of a Joint Working Group (JWG) for EPUB. EPUB 3 will be submitted as a Draft Technical Specification by the Korean National Body via the JTC 1 fast-track procedure and it will be assigned to the SC 34/JWG when approved.[11] In November 2014, EPUB3 was published under the formal name ISO/IEC TS 30135 – Information technology – Digital publishing – EPUB3.[12]

ISO/IEC TS 30135 – Information technology – Digital publishing – EPUB3
Part Number First public release date (first edition) Title Description
Part 1 ISO/IEC TS 30135-1 2014-11-05 EPUB3 Overview
Part 2 ISO/IEC TS 30135-2 2014-11-05 Publications
Part 3 ISO/IEC TS 30135-3 2014-11-05 Content Documents
Part 4 ISO/IEC TS 30135-4 2014-11-05 Open Container Format
Part 5 ISO/IEC TS 30135-5 2014-11-05 Media Overlay
Part 6 ISO/IEC TS 30135-6 2014-11-05 EPUB Canonical Fragment Identifier
Part 7 ISO/IEC TS 30135-7 2014-11-05 EPUB3 Fixed-Layout Documents


  • Free and open
  • Reflowable (word wrap) and resizable text or fixed layout (FXL)[13]
  • Inline raster and vector images
  • Embedded metadata
  • CSS styling
  • Support for alternative renditions in the same file
  • Use of out-of-line and inline XML islands to extend the functionality of EPUB
  • Support for Audio and Video content (dependent on device support).
  • Support for digital rights management

File format[edit]

Version 3.0.1 (current version)[edit]

The EPUB 3.0 Recommended Specification was approved on 11 October 2011. On June 26, 2014 EPUB 3.0.1 was approved as a minor maintenance update to EPUB 3.0. EPUB 3.0 supersedes the previous release 2.0.1.[a]

EPUB 3 consists of a set of four specifications:[14]

  • EPUB Publications 3.0, which defines publication-level semantics and overarching conformance requirements for EPUB Publications
  • EPUB Content Documents 3.0, which defines profiles of XHTML, SVG and CSS for use in the context of EPUB Publications
  • EPUB Open Container Format (OCF) 3.0, which defines a file format and processing model for encapsulating a set of related resources into a single-file (ZIP) EPUB Container.
  • EPUB Media Overlays 3.0, which defines a format and a processing model for synchronization of text and audio

The EPUB 3.0 format is intended to address the following criticisms:

  • While good for text-centric books, EPUB may be unsuitable for publications that require precise layout or specialized formatting, such as comic books.[15]
  • A major issue hindering the use of EPUB for most technical publications is the lack of support for equations formatted as MathML. They are currently included as bitmap or SVG images, precluding proper handling by screen readers and interaction with computer algebra systems. Support for MathML is included in the EPUB 3.0 specification.
  • Other criticisms of EPUB are the specification's lack of detail on linking within or between EPUB books, and its lack of a specification for annotation. Such linking is hindered by the use of a ZIP file as the container for EPUB. Furthermore, it is unclear if it would be better to link by using EPUB's internal structural markup (the OPF specification mentioned above) or directly to files through the ZIP's file structure.[16] The lack of a standardized way to annotate EPUB books could lead to difficulty sharing and transferring annotations and therefore limit the use scenarios of EPUB, particularly in educational settings, because it cannot provide a level of interactivity comparable to the web.[17]

On June 26, 2014, the IDPF published EPUB 3.0.1 as a final Recommended Specification.[18]

Version 2.0.1[edit]

EPUB 2.0 was approved in October 2007, with a maintenance update (2.0.1) intended to clarify and correct errata in the specifications being approved in September 2010.[19] EPUB version 2.0.1 consists of three specifications:

  • Open Publication Structure (OPS) 2.0.1, contains the formatting of its content.[20]
  • Open Packaging Format (OPF) 2.0.1, describes the structure of the .epub file in XML.[21]
  • Open Container Format (OCF) 2.0.1, collects all files as a ZIP archive.[22]

EPUB internally uses XHTML or DTBook (an XML standard provided by the DAISY Consortium) to represent the text and structure of the content document, and a subset of CSS to provide layout and formatting. XML is used to create the document manifest, table of contents, and EPUB metadata. Finally, the files are bundled in a zip file as a packaging format.

Open Publication Structure 2.0.1[edit]

An EPUB file uses XHTML 1.1 (or DTBook) to construct the content of a book as of version 2.0.1. This is different from previous versions (OEBPS 1.2 and earlier), which used a subset of XHTML. There are, however, a few restrictions on certain elements. The mimetype for XHTML documents in EPUB is application/xhtml+xml.[20][b]

Styling and layout are performed using a subset of CSS 2.0, referred to as OPS Style Sheets. This specialized syntax requires that reading systems support for only a portion of CSS properties and adds a few custom properties. Custom properties include oeb-page-head, oeb-page-foot, and oeb-column-number. Font-embedding can be accomplished using the @font-face property, as well as including the font file in the OPF's manifest (see below). The mimetype for CSS documents in EPUB is text/css.[20][c]

EPUB also requires that PNG, JPEG, GIF, and SVG images be supported using the mimetypes image/png, image/jpeg, image/gif, image/svg+xml. Other media types are allowed, but creators must include alternative renditions using supported types.[20] For a table of all required mimetypes, see Section 1.3.7 of the specification.

Unicode is required, and content producers must use either UTF-8 or UTF-16 encoding.[20] This is to support international and multilingual books. However, reading systems are not required to provide the fonts necessary to display every unicode character, though they are required to display at least a placeholder for characters that cannot be displayed fully.[20]

An example skeleton of an XHTML file for EPUB looks like this:

<?xml version="1.0" encoding="UTF-8" ?>
<!DOCTYPE html PUBLIC "-//W3C//DTD XHTML 1.1//EN" "http://www.w3.org/TR/xhtml11/DTD/xhtml11.dtd">
<html xmlns="http://www.w3.org/1999/xhtml" xml:lang="en">
    <meta http-equiv="Content-Type" content="application/xhtml+xml; charset=utf-8" />
    <title>Pride and Prejudice</title>
    <link rel="stylesheet" href="css/main.css" type="text/css" />

Open Packaging Format 2.0.1[edit]

The OPF specification's purpose is to "...[define] the mechanism by which the various components of an OPS publication are tied together and provides additional structure and semantics to the electronic publication."[21] This is accomplished by two XML files with the extensions .opf and .ncx.

.opf file

The OPF file, traditionally named content.opf, houses the EPUB book's metadata, file manifest, and linear reading order. This file has a root element package and four child elements: metadata, manifest, spine, and guide. Furthermore, the package node must have the unique-identifier attribute. The .opf file's mimetype is application/oebps-package+xml.[21]

The metadata element contains all the metadata information for a particular EPUB file. Three metadata tags are required (though many more are available): title, language, and identifier. title contains the title of the book, language contains the language of the book's contents in RFC 3066 format or its successors, such as the newer RFC 4646 and identifier contains a unique identifier for the book, such as its ISBN or a URL. The identifier's id attribute should equal the unique-identifier attribute from the package element.[21][d]

The manifest element lists all the files contained in the package. Each file is represented by an item element, and has the attributes id, href, media-type. All XHTML (content documents), stylesheets, images or other media, embedded fonts, and the NCX file should be listed here. Only the .opf file itself, the container.xml, and the mimetype files should not be included.[21] Note that in the example below, an arbitrary media-type is given to the included font file, even though no mimetype exists for fonts.

The spine element lists all the XHTML content documents in their linear reading order. Also, any content document that can be reached through linking or the table of contents must be listed as well. The toc attribute of spine must contain the id of the NCX file listed in the manifest. Each itemref element's idref is set to the id of its respective content document.[21]

The guide element is an optional element for the purpose of identifying fundamental structural components of the book. Each reference element has the attributes type, title, href. Files referenced in href must be listed in the manifest, and are allowed to have an element identifier (e.g. #figures in the example).[21][e]

An example OPF file:

<?xml version="1.0"?>
<package version="2.0" xmlns="http://www.idpf.org/2007/opf" unique-identifier="BookId">

  <metadata xmlns:dc="http://purl.org/dc/elements/1.1/" xmlns:opf="http://www.idpf.org/2007/opf">
    <dc:title>Pride and Prejudice</dc:title>
    <dc:identifier id="BookId" opf:scheme="ISBN">123456789X</dc:identifier>
    <dc:creator opf:file-as="Austen, Jane" opf:role="aut">Jane Austen</dc:creator>

    <item id="chapter1" href="chapter1.xhtml" media-type="application/xhtml+xml"/>
    <item id="stylesheet" href="style.css" media-type="text/css"/>
    <item id="ch1-pic" href="ch1-pic.png" media-type="image/png"/>
    <item id="myfont" href="css/myfont.otf" media-type="application/x-font-opentype"/>
    <item id="ncx" href="toc.ncx" media-type="application/x-dtbncx+xml"/>

  <spine toc="ncx">
    <itemref idref="chapter1" />

    <reference type="loi" title="List Of Illustrations" href="appendix.html#figures" />


.ncx file

The NCX file (Navigation Control file for XML), traditionally named toc.ncx, contains the hierarchical table of contents for the EPUB file. The specification for NCX was developed for Digital Talking Book (DTB), is maintained by the DAISY Consortium, and is not a part of the EPUB specification. The NCX file has a mimetype of application/x-dtbncx+xml.

Of note here is that the values for the docTitle, docAuthor, and meta name="dtb:uid" elements should match their analogs in the OPF file. Also, the meta name="dtb:depth" element is set equal to the depth of the navMap element. navPoint elements can be nested to create a hierarchical table of contents. navLabel's content is the text that appears in the table of contents generated by reading systems that use the .ncx. navPoint's content element points to a content document listed in the manifest and can also include an element identifier (e.g. #section1).[21][23]

A description of certain exceptions to the NCX specification as used in EPUB is in Section 2.4.1 of the specification. The complete specification for NCX can be found in Section 8 of the Specifications for the Digital Talking Book.[23]

An example .ncx file:

<?xml version="1.0" encoding="UTF-8"?>
<!DOCTYPE ncx PUBLIC "-//NISO//DTD ncx 2005-1//EN"

<ncx version="2005-1" xml:lang="en" xmlns="http://www.daisy.org/z3986/2005/ncx/">

<!-- The following four metadata items are required for all NCX documents,
including those that conform to the relaxed constraints of OPS 2.0 -->

    <meta name="dtb:uid" content="123456789X"/> <!-- same as in .opf -->
    <meta name="dtb:depth" content="1"/> <!-- 1 or higher -->
    <meta name="dtb:totalPageCount" content="0"/> <!-- must be 0 -->
    <meta name="dtb:maxPageNumber" content="0"/> <!-- must be 0 -->

    <text>Pride and Prejudice</text>

    <text>Austen, Jane</text>

    <navPoint class="chapter" id="chapter1" playOrder="1">
      <navLabel><text>Chapter 1</text></navLabel>
      <content src="chapter1.xhtml"/>


Open Container Format 2.0.1[edit]

An EPUB file is a group of files that conform to the OPS/OPF standards and are wrapped in a ZIP file.[2] The OCF specifies how to organize these files in the ZIP, and defines two additional files that must be included.

The mimetype file must be a text document in ASCII that contains the string application/epub+zip. It must also be uncompressed, unencrypted, and the first file in the ZIP archive. This file provides a more reliable way for applications to identify the mimetype of the file than just the .epub extension.[22]

Also, there must be a folder named META-INF, which contains the required file container.xml. This XML file points to the file defining the contents of the book. This is the OPF file, though additional alternative rootfile elements are allowed.[22]

Apart from mimetype and META-INF/container.xml, the other files (OPF, NCX, XHTML, CSS and images files) are traditionally put in a directory named OEBPS.

An example file structure:

--ZIP Container--

An example container.xml, given the above file structure:

<?xml version="1.0" encoding="UTF-8" ?>
<container version="1.0" xmlns="urn:oasis:names:tc:opendocument:xmlns:container">
    <rootfile full-path="OEBPS/content.opf" media-type="application/oebps-package+xml"/>

Digital rights management[edit]

An EPUB file can optionally contain DRM as an additional layer, but it is not required by the specifications.[24] In addition, the specification does not name any particular DRM system to use, so publishers can choose a DRM scheme to their liking. However, future versions of EPUB (specifically OCF) may specify a format for DRM.[22]

The EPUB specification does not enforce or suggest a particular DRM scheme. This could affect the level of support for various DRM systems on devices and the portability of purchased e-books. Consequently, such DRM incompatibility may segment the EPUB format along the lines of DRM systems, undermining the advantages of a single standard format and confusing the consumer.[25][26][27][28][29][30]

DRMed EPUB files must contain a file called rights.xml within the META-INF directory at the root level of the ZIP container.[22][clarification needed]


An open source tool called epubcheck exists for validating and detecting errors in the structural markup (OPS, OPF, OCF) as well as the XHTML and image files. The tool can be run from the command line, or used in webapps and applications as a library. A large part of the original work on the tool was done at Adobe Systems.[31]


Software reading systems[edit]

The following software can read and display EPUB files:

Reading Systems and Software[2]
Software License Platform DRM formats supported Notes
Adobe Digital Editions Proprietary Microsoft Windows, Apple Mac OS X Adobe Content Server Requires online activation for ePub files with DRM.
Lektz Readers Proprietary Web application, Google Android, Apple Mac OS X, iOS, Windows Lektz DRM eBook Readers for PDF, ePUB/2 and ePUB3 providing uniform experience across different platforms - iOS, Android, Windows PC, Mac Desktop and Web.
Aldiko Proprietary Google Android Adobe Content Server Supports ePub for Android devices.
Sumatra PDF GPL Windows Adobe Content Server Supports ePub for devices.
STDU Viewer Freeware Windows Supports many documents format including ePub.
AZARDI Freeware Windows, Apple Mac OS X, Linux, Google Android, Apple iOS Package Obfuscation Supports ePub 3, ePub 2. Fixed Layout, SMIL, DRM, MathML, Online and Mobile versions are available when used with AZARDI:Content Fulfilment Server.
Bluefire Reader Proprietary Apple iOS, Google Android Adobe Content Server Supports ePub for Android and iOS devices.
calibre GPL Windows, Apple Mac OS X, Linux None Primarily for library management, conversion, and transferring to devices, it includes a reader. "About". Calibre. 
DocProtect Proprietary Windows, Mac OS X, Android Excel Software Generates a Mac, Windows or Android app that includes EPUB and reader with optional protection and licensing features.
EPUBReader Custom Mozilla Firefox None Firefox add-on, so runs on any OS that Firefox runs on. EPUBReader home page
FBReader GPL Windows, Linux, Google Android, PDAs, Apple Mac OS X None
Google Play Books Proprietary Web application, Google Android, Apple iOS Lektz DRM Supports downloading purchased books as ePub and/or PDF.
iBooks Proprietary Apple Mac OS X, iOS FairPlay[32] Supports EPUB 2 and EPUB 3. Books not readable directly on computers other than Macs.
Kobo Proprietary Windows, Apple Mac OS X, Google Android, Apple iOS, Kobo eReader Software, Adobe Content Server Supports EPUB 2 and EPUB 3.
Lexcycle Stanza Proprietary Windows, Apple Mac OS X, iOS ? Acquired by Amazon in 2009.
Lucifox GPL Windows, Apple Mac OS X, Linux None Ebook reader add-on with annotations for Firefox. Supports open standard ebooks in EPUB 3- and EPUB 2 format and retrieval of books from OPDS book catalogues.
Mobipocket Proprietary Windows, RIM BlackBerry, Nokia Symbian, Windows Mobile None Converts EPUB into .PRC on import.
Okular GPL Windows, Apple Mac OS X, Linux ?
Snapplify Proprietary All Web browsers, Apple iOS, Google Android Adobe Content Server Snapplify SnappSafe DRM Supports downloading purchased books as ePub and/or PDF. Supports PDF, ePUB2 and ePUB3 standard of ebooks.
Kitabu GPL Apple Mac OS X None Supports ePub3, ePub2, Fixed layout.
Mantano Ebook Reader

See also the Wikipedia category for articles about EPUB readers.

Editing systems[edit]

Creation Software
Software Platform License Notes
ABBYY FineReader Microsoft Windows Proprietary Version 11 exports to EPUB format.
Abiword FreeBSD, Linux, Windows GPL Support EPUB 2.0 format export since 2.9.1 release[33]
Adobe InDesign Windows, Apple Mac OS X Proprietary Exports to EPUB format. Versions prior to 5.5 create EPUBs that require significant editing to pass ePubCheck or ePubPreFlight. As from InDesign CC 2014, InDesign can export in ePub3 fixed-layout format.
Adobe RoboHelp Windows Unknown Online documentation tool that supports export to EPUB format
Atlantis Word Processor Windows, Portable app Shareware Converts any document to EPUB; supports multilevel TOCs, font embedding, and batch conversion.
Booktype Web GPL Book production platform that outputs to many formats, including ePub. The platform can import content in various formats and supports collaborative editing.
calibre Windows, Apple Mac OS X, FreeBSD, Linux GPL Conversion software and e-book organizer. Allows plugins, including for editing EPUB files; there is for instance a plugin to merge several EPUB files into one.[34]
epub-tools Windows, Apple Mac OS X, FreeBSD, Linux 2-clause BSD A suite of command-line utilities for creating and manipulating epub book files. Written in Haskell[35]
eLML Windows, Apple Mac OS X, FreeBSD, Linux Unknown The eLesson Markup Language is a platform-independent XML-based open source framework to create eLearning content. It supports various output formats like SCORM, HTML, PDF and also eBooks based on the ePub format.
Feedbooks Web Unknown Free cloud service for downloading public domain works and for self-publishing.
Help & Manual Windows Proprietary Single source publishing tool that generates ePUB amongst several other documentation formats.
HelpNDoc Windows Free for personal use, commercial otherwise. Help authoring tool that generates EPUB files and other formats.
iBooks Author Apple Mac OS X Unknown Desktop publishing and page layout application. Free from Apple. Can export .ibooks format, which is a proprietary format based on EPUB.[36] There are restrictions on the commercial distribution of works created with iBooks in the .ibooks format.[37] These restrictions apply to the .ibooks format only[38] and it can be argued that a file renamed to .epub is not distributed in the .ibooks format.
IGP:Digital Publisher Web Proprietary Portal Cloud Service or licence application for digital content publishing to all formats. Generates ePub 2 and ePub 3 fixed and flow layout plus other formats.
iStudio Publisher Apple Mac OS X Proprietary Desktop publishing and page layout application.
LibreOffice + eLaix plugin Windows, Apple Mac OS X, Linux GPL Text processor with the eLaix plugin can export to ePub3 format.[39]
Lulu.com Web Unknown Converts .doc, .docx, or PDF manuscripts to an ePub in order that they may be sold on the Website in question.
Madcap Flare Windows Proprietary Single source publishing tool that can export content as ePUB.
oXygen XML Editor Apple Mac OS X, Windows, FreeBSD, Linux Proprietary oXygen XML Editor is the first tool that supports creating, transforming, and validating the documents that comprise the EPUB package.
Pages Apple Mac OS X Unknown Word processor (part of the iWork '09 suite) that can export to EPUB format (Pages '09 only, and only with the iWork 9.0.4 update).
Pages Apple iOS Unknown Word processor for mobile devices that can export to EPUB format
Playwrite Apple Mac OS X Proprietary Native EPUB-based word processor. Native to EPUB 3 with EPUB 2 compatibility.
Publitory Web Free Online platform for creating and editing ebooks publitory.com. You can upload word documents to convert them to ePUB.
QuarkXPress Apple Mac OS X, Windows Proprietary Desktop publishing tool, page layout application. Exports also to the ePUB format.
Serif PagePlus Windows Proprietary Desktop publishing program that can export to the EPUB 2 and EPUB 3 format. Comes with built-in output conversion profiles for targeting specific devices, as well as generic devices. Also includes pre-tested blank eBook templates, or can open and edit existing PDF files and publish as EPUB.
Scrivener Windows, Apple Mac OS X Proprietary Program for writers. Includes organization capabilities for fiction writers. Publishes to multiple formats.
Sigil Windows, FreeBSD, Linux, Apple Mac OS X GPLv3 Can open and edit EPUB books, instead of just converting from other formats to EPUB. Since version 0.7, supports embedding video or audio in EPUB. Development was stopped in February 2014, and launched again in September 2014 with version 0.8.0 released[40]
ePUBee Maker Windows GPLv3 Word Addin, Create ePUB, MOBI, PDF books with the same quality as Word. epubee.com
eXeLearning Windows, Linux, Apple Mac OS X GPLv2 Can be used to create educational interactive Web content, HTML5, IMS, SCORM and EPUB3 books[41]
Viewporter SUN Windows, Apple Mac OS X Free EPUB3 creating and editing ebooks with various Templates and can make android APP [1]
genebook Web Free Online platform for creating and editing ebooks genebook.de

Hardware reading systems[edit]

Most dedicated e-book readers support the EPUB format, although the Amazon Kindle line of devices is a notable exception. EPUB reading software is also available for all modern smartphones. Devices that support EPUB include:

See also[edit]


  1. ^ Detailed descriptions of the differences between 3.0 and 2.0.1 can be found on ePub 3.0 spec changes, IDPF .
  2. ^ For a table of the required XHTML modules and a description of the restrictions, see "Section 2.2", ePub OPS 2.0.1 (specification draft), IDPF .
  3. ^ For a table of supported properties and detailed information, see "Section 3.0", ePub OPS 2.0.1 (specification draft), IDPF .
  4. ^ For a full listing of metadata, see "Section 2.2", ePub OPF 2.0.1 (specification draft), IDPF .
  5. ^ A list of possible values for type is in "Section 2.6", ePub OPDF 2.0.1 (specification draft), IDPF .


  1. ^ "Specifications". IDPF. Retrieved January 25, 2012. 
  2. ^ a b c "EPUB 101" (PDF). eBook Technologies. Retrieved 10 July 2014. 
  3. ^ "OPS 2.0 Elevated to Official IDPF Standard". IDPF. eBooklyn. Oct 15, 2007. 
  4. ^ "IDPF Launches EPUB Standards Maintenance Work" (press release). IDPF. August 16, 2009. 
  5. ^ "Charter for EPUB Standards Maintenance WG". IDPF. August 12, 2009. Archived from the original on 27 January 2011. 
  6. ^ a b "Draft Charter for revision to EPUB Standard for IDPF Comment". IDPF. April 6, 2010. [dead link]
  7. ^ "EPUB 2.1 Working Group Charter – DRAFT 0.11". IDPF. May 7, 2010. Retrieved June 6, 2010. [dead link]
  8. ^ "ePub revision" (Google Code). EPUB3 Working Group. November 12, 2010. 
  9. ^ "EPUB 3". IDPF. Retrieved 21 February 2011. 
  10. ^ "EPUB 3". IDPF. Retrieved 8 Dec 2012. 
  11. ^ Resolutions of the ISO/IEC JTC 1/SC 34 Plenary Meeting, Brasilia, Brazil, 2012-06-25, 29 (PDF), retrieved 2012-10-21, Resolution 8: Re-establishment of Ad Hoc Group 4 on EPUB. SC 34 re-establishes Ad Hoc Group 4 on EPUB of IDPF* with the following terms of reference: – to prepare the creation of a Joint Working Group (JWG) for EPUB (and possibly other related topics) under JTC 1/SC 34 with ISO TC 46 and IEC TC 100 /TA 10 involved. SC 34 notes that EPUB 3 will be submitted as a Draft Technical Specification by the Korean National Body via the JTC 1 fast-track procedure and it will be assigned to the SC 34/JWG when approved. 
  12. ^ ISO/IEC DTS 30135-1 – Information technology – Digital publishing – EPUB3, Part 1: EPUB3 Overview, ISO, retrieved 2013-06-05 
  13. ^ "Fixed layout", ePub, IPDF, available since version 3.0 .
  14. ^ "EPUB 3 Overview Draft". EPUB 3 Working Group. IDPF. 11 October 2011. Retrieved 11 October 2011. 
  15. ^ Rothman, David (July 27, 2008). "The ePub torture test: Starring ‘Three Shadows,’ a graphic novel". TeleRead: Bring the E-Books Home. 
  16. ^ "Links, pointers, bookmarks, highlights: How should .epub do it?". FrontMatters. BookGlutton. March 29, 2008. 
  17. ^ Rothman, David (November 5, 2007). "'Social annotation and the marketplace of ideas': Time for an IDPF annotation standard for books and other e-pubs!". TeleRead: Bring the E-Books Home. 
  18. ^ EPUB 3.0.1 Changes, IDPF, retrieved July 8, 2014 .
  19. ^ "1.1 EPUB Revision History". IDPF. 11 October 2011. 
  20. ^ a b c d e f "Open Publication Structure (OPS) 2.0.1 – Recommended Specification". IDPF. September 4, 2010. Retrieved February 21, 2011. 
  21. ^ a b c d e f g h "Open Packaging Format (OPF) 2.0.1 – Recommended Specification". IDPF. September 4, 2010. Retrieved February 21, 2011. 
  22. ^ a b c d e "Open Container Format (OCF) 2.0.1 – Recommended Specification". IDPF. September 4, 2010. Retrieved February 21, 2011. 
  23. ^ a b "Specifications for the Digital Talking Book". NISO. April 21, 2005. 
  24. ^ "Digital Book Standards FAQs". IDPF. November 20, 2006. 
  25. ^ Gelles, David (January 29, 2010). "Walls close in on e-book garden". The Financial Times. 
  26. ^ Rothman, David (August 13, 2009). "Adobe-DRMed ePub isn’t ‘open’: Why the New York Times urgently needs to clarify its Sony eBook Store article". TeleRead: Bring the E-Books Home. 
  27. ^ Biba, Paul (December 21, 2009). "Does the Nook use its own incompatible DRM scheme?". TeleRead: Bring the E-Books Home. 
  28. ^ Biba, Paul (January 28, 2010). "iPad adds to the DRM mess? Apple ebook DRM exclusive to Apple hardware". TeleRead: Bring the E-Books Home. 
  29. ^ Kendrick, James (January 28, 2010). "Who Really Needs an iPad?". JK On The Run. 
  30. ^ Dickson, Dave (January 27, 2010). "EPUB, iPad and Content Interoperability". Digital Editions. Adobe. 
  31. ^ "epubcheck: Validation tool for Epub". Google Code. Retrieved January 29, 2010. 
  32. ^ Pham, Alex (February 15, 2010). "Apple to wrap digital books in FairPlay copy protection". The Los Angeles Times. 
  33. ^ 2.9.1 release notes, Abi source .
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External links[edit]