Eqbal Ahmad (1933 – 11 May 1999) was a Pakistani political scientist, writer, journalist, and anti-war activist. He was strongly critical of post-colonial power formations, including the Middle Eastern strategy of the United States, and of what he saw as the "twin curse" of nationalism and religious fanaticism in such countries as Pakistan.
Ahmad was born in the village of Irki in the Indian state of Bihar. When he was a young boy, his father was murdered over a land dispute in his presence. During the partition of India in 1947, he and his older brothers migrated to Pakistan.
Ahmad graduated from Forman Christian College in Lahore, Pakistan, in 1951 with a degree in economics. After serving briefly as an army officer, he enrolled at Occidental College in California in 1957. From 1958 to 1960, he studied political science and Middle Eastern history at Princeton University, later earning his PhD.
From 1960 to 1963, Ahmad lived in North Africa, working primarily in Algeria, where he joined the National Liberation Front and worked with Frantz Fanon. He was offered an opportunity to join the first independent Algerian government, but refused in favour of life as an independent intellectual.
When he returned to the United States, Ahmad taught at the University of Illinois at Chicago (1964–65) and Cornell University in the school of Labour Relations (1965–68). During these years, he became known as one of the earliest and most vocal opponents of American policies in Vietnam and Cambodia. From 1968 to 1972, he was a fellow at the Adlai Stevenson Institute in Chicago.
In 1971, Ahmad was indicted as one of the Harrisburg Seven, with the anti-war Catholic priest Philip Berrigan, Berrigan's future wife, Sister Elizabeth McAlister, and four other Catholic pacifists, on charges of conspiracy to kidnap Henry Kissinger. After fifty-nine hours of deliberations, the jury declared a mistrial, in 1972.
In 1982, Ahmad joined the faculty at Hampshire College , in Amherst, Massachusetts, a progressive school which was the first college in the nation to divest from South Africa. There, he taught world politics and political science.
In the early 1990s, Ahmad was granted a parcel of land in Pakistan by Prime Minister Benazir Bhutto's government, to build an independent, alternative university, named Khaldunia.
Ahmad was the founding chancellor of the then newly established Textile Institute of Pakistan, a textile-oriented science, design and business degree-awarding institute. The institute professes to be driven by the values Ahmad stood for and awards its most prestigious honour, the Dr. Eqbal Ahmed Achievement Award, to one graduate unanimously deemed by the faculty as reflective of Ahmad's values at its annual convocation.
Ahmad was admired as "an intellectual unintimidated by power or authority". He collaborated with such left-wing journalists, activists, and thinkers as Noam Chomsky, Edward Said, Howard Zinn, Ibrahim Abu-Lughod, Richard Falk, Fredric Jameson, Alexander Cockburn and Daniel Berrigan.
- [Ahmad was] perhaps the shrewdest and most original anti-imperialist analyst of the post-war world, especially in the dynamics between the West and the post-colonial states of Asia and Africa. —Edward Said
Death and legacy
Eqbal Ahmad died of heart failure on 11 May 1999 at an Islamabad hospital in Pakistan, where he was being treated for colon cancer. He had married Julie Diamond back in 1969, a teacher and a writer from New York. He is survived by his wife Julie Diamond, and their daughter Doha, a graduate student in 1999 at Columbia University, New York.
Noam Chomsky writes in an article, after Eqbal Ahmad's death in 1999, that Eqbal describes with warmth and feeling the Islamic Sufi tradition that he remembers from his childhood in a village in Bihar, where Islamic Sufi admiration among the public united Hindus and Muslims. Simple and unpretentious, 'they preached by example', living 'by service and by setting an example of treating people equally without discrimination'. The Sufis appealed to the most oppressed, offering 'social mobility, as well as dignity and equality to the poor'. Sufis regarded the idea of nationalism as an anti-Islamic ideology that 'proceeds to create boundaries where Islam is a faith without national boundaries. Eqbal Ahmad describes himself as a 'harshly secular' person and an 'internationalist' but he was quick to praise elements of religious thought and practice that he found admirable among the Islamic Sufis.
Eqbal Ahmad was secular and not religious. He saw Islam in particular, as concerned above all with the welfare of common people. Eqbal's secularism and leftism was his humanity and this only reinforced the pride he took in being a Pakistani in a challenging time. He brought wisdom and integrity to the cause of oppressed peoples all over the world.
- Confronting Empire (with David Barsamian), 2000, South End Press, ISBN 0-89608-615-1.
- The Selected Writings of Eqbal Ahmad edited by Carollee Bengelsdorf, Margaret Cerullo & Yogesh Chandrani, 2006, Columbia University Press, ISBN 0-231-12711-1
- Terrorism: Theirs and Ours (with David Barsamian), 2001, Seven Stories Press, ISBN 1-58322-490-4
- http://www.theguardian.com/news/1999/may/14/guardianobituaries1, Obituary of Eqbal Ahmad on The Guardian newspaper, UK, Published 11 May 1999, Retrieved 15 June 2016
- http://www.economist.com/node/208906, Profile of Eqbal Ahmad on The Economist magazine, UK, Published 27 May 1999, Retrieved 15 June 2016
- https://chomsky.info/2000____/, Noam Chomsky pays tributes to Eqbal Ahmad in 2000 after his death in 1999, Retrieved 15 June 2016
- https://web.archive.org/web/20091026205203/http://www.geocities.com/CollegePark/Library/9803/eqbal_ahmad/fea_eqbal.html, Obituary of Eqbal Ahmad on Dawn newspaper, Published 12 May 1999, Retrieved 15 June 2016
- Eqbal Ahmad materials in the South Asian American Digital Archive (SAADA), Newspaper clippings about articles on Eqbal Ahmad, Retrieved 15 June 2016
- Eqbal Ahmad, by Edward W. Said, in The Guardian newspaper, UK, Published May 14, 1999, Retrieved 15 June 2016
- Obituary. "Eqbal Ahmad, historian and rebel." The Economist magazine, UK, Published May 27, 1999 This is a link to a premium content article, Retrieved 15 June 2016