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|First appearance||Action Comics Annual #2 (1989)|
|Created by||Roger Stern|
|Alter ego||Dr. David Connor|
|Place of origin||Krypton|
|Partnerships||Superman (Clark Kent)
Superboy (Connor Kent)
Cyborg Superman (Hank Henshaw)
|Supporting character of||Clark Kent (Superman)|
|Notable aliases||The Krypton Man,
The Last Son of Krypton,
The Visored Superman
(Reign of the Supermen),
|Abilities||Super-strength, flight, energy projection, invulnerability, enhanced senses, computer-like analytical ability|
The Eradicator is name used by three fictional DC comic book characters. The first was a Flash antihero character while the second was a superhero (and sometimes supervillain) character having a recurring role in Superman stories published by DC Comics with the third being the New 52 version.
The first Superman Eradicator was originally created as a weapon by an ancient alien race, he is over 200,000 years old and is considered an artifact of Krypton. The Flash Eradicator was created by Carmine Infantino and Cary Bates and first appeared in The Flash #314. The first Superman character was created by writer Roger Stern, and first appeared in Action Comics Annual #2 (1989).
- 1 The Eradicator (Flash)
- 2 Eradicator I (Superman) Publication history
- 3 Fictional character biography
- 4 Other versions
- 5 Powers and abilities
- 6 In other media
- 7 See also
- 8 References
- 9 External links
The Eradicator (Flash)
The Eradicator was the name used by Senator Creed Phillips. He patrolled the streets of Keystone and Central City as a vigilante who killed villains with his touch (which turned them to protoplasm) and had a split personality. He finally killed himself as his evil personality was trying to kill The Flash
Eradicator I (Superman) Publication history
The Eradicator first appeared in Action Comics Annual #2 in 1989. The Day of the Krypton Man story arc prominently featured the Eradicator in the pages of Superman, Adventures of Superman, and Action Comics. The story arc ran for six issues cover-dated March and April 1990, and was collected in Superman: Eradication!  The Eradicator reappeared in Superman: The Man of Steel #1 as a humanoid being composed of energy.
In The Adventures of Superman #500 (June 1993), the character appeared as The Visored Superman or The Last Son of Krypton, and became the featured character in Action Comics through the Reign of the Supermen story arc, beginning with Action Comics #687-689. The character was "resurrected" in Action Comics v.1 #693 and then featured regularly in Outsiders, first appearing as a member of the team in issue 3. The character was featured in his own three-issue eponymous limited series in 1996.
Fictional character biography
In the distant past, a dying alien race creates a number of containment devices in which to preserve their culture. They send them into space with contact teams, intent on meeting other civilizations. When a small group of these aliens arrive on the planet Krypton, they are met by the militant Kem-L, who kills them and corrupts one of the devices. Its new mission is to preserve his ideal of Kryptonian culture by eradicating all others — and thus the device becomes known as the "Eradicator."
In its original form, the Eradicator resembles a stylized small rocket. Its top section is a prolate spheroid, which exudes a blue glow and is approximately three times the size of an egg.[clarification needed] This is connected via four thin mount brackets to a glossy orange tail fin section of equal length. The ten equally spaced fins each have the shape of a pointed quarter ellipse, with the tapered end extending slightly beyond the rear of the squat main cylindrical body tube.
On Krypton, the Eradicator does all that it could over the years to protect Kryptonians, even from themselves. When a group of Kryptonian explorers leave Krypton in search of a new planet to colonize, the Eradicator alters their birthing matrices and makes them fatally allergic to lead, thus creating Daxamites. To further ensure that nobody left Krypton, the Eradicator alters Kryptonians by encoding in them a genetic defect so that they will instantly perish if they leave their world.
One of the surviving aliens, known as the Cleric, takes the Eradicator and leaves Krypton with a group of followers. Unfortunately, they die soon thereafter, as the Kryptonian genetic link to their home planet precludes their survival off-world. The Cleric keeps the Eradicator for 200,000 years, until he encounters Superman on Warworld, Superman currently in self-imposed exile from Earth due to his guilt over executing three Kryptonians from a pocket universe. With the device, the two exchange memories - which explains that Kal-El was able to leave Krypton thanks to genetic treatments his father had undergone to cure his DNA of the Eradicator's defect - and the Cleric has a vision of Superman in combat with Mongul. The Cleric wishes to save Superman's life, and the Eradicator transports Superman to the Cleric's asteroid. The Cleric notices that the device has changed to protect Krypton's sole survivor, and he and Superman use it to heal their wounds, both physical and spiritual. As they talk about their pasts, the Cleric assures Superman that his departure has only deprived his world of a great hero rather than sparing it from the threat he perceived he had become, confident that Kal-El would only have killed when he had no other choice to preserve justice. When the Cleric gives the Eradicator to Superman, he rapidly ages and dies as the link to the Eradicator extending his life is severed. Superman marks the Cleric's grave with his symbol to reflect the impact the Cleric had on him.
The Eradicator's Fortress
After Superman returns to Earth with the Eradicator, the device causes a number of bizarre events, including altering Jimmy Olsen into a malleable form, causing him extreme pain in the process. Superman throws the device into a crevasse in Antarctica, where it alters the ice to create the Fortress of Solitude, and possesses two scientists to create a portal to the Phantom Zone, whence it draws Kryptonian artifacts to the Fortress. When Superman recovers the Eradicator, he learns that one of his ancestors, Kem-L, created it to prevent aliens from influencing Kryptonian culture. The Eradicator tries to transform Earth into a new Krypton, and erases Superman's memory of the device when he tries to interfere.
Professor Hamilton, who had previously examined the Eradicator, restores Superman's memory, and Superman then goes into the Phantom Zone to stop the device. He encounters a projection of Kem-L and learns that only the House of El can control the Eradicator, but he first had to undergo a Kryptonian rite of passage. When Superman completes it, he commands the Eradicator to shut down, and it complies.
The Krypton Man
The Eradicator later alters Superman's psyche, turning him into the ideal Kryptonian and alienating his closest friends. Superman nearly kills the alien gladiator Draaga, but when the Eradicator endangers Jonathan and Martha Kent, Clark breaks the machine's programming, fights it, and throws it into the Sun.
The Eradicator later returns as an energy being. It tries to turn the Sun into a red dwarf (similar to Rao the star Krypton once orbited prior to its destruction), but Superman stops it with help from Professor Hamilton and using a mystical crystal that belonged to the villainous Mr. Z. They drew the Eradicator's essence into the crystal and dispersed it just before it shattered.
Reign of the Supermen
The Eradicator returns again in Action Comics #687 (June 1993), part of the Reign of the Supermen story arc, as "the Last Son of Krypton." Having its residual energies regathered by the Fortress robots after Superman's demise, it creates a body for itself based on Superman's, by tapping into the solar energy reserves of Superman's corpse and by creating an energy matter flux through which it is able to grant itself a pseudo-organic form. This experience causes the Eradicator to briefly believe itself to be Superman himself. He even seems to have Superman's memories, revealing to Lois when she questions him about his identity, that he remembers their relationship, but because of his death and rebirth, cannot be with her as he is only Superman, not Clark anymore.
During this time, due to its enhanced senses, the Eradicator has to wear a special visor designed to cut down visible light, since its eyes are particularly sensitive to it; the Eradicator, unlike the real Superman, does not possess heat vision, although he can generate energy blasts from his hands. Also, he cannot absorb yellow sunlight directly, instead tapping into Superman's reserves and using him as a conduit for solar radiation. As a humanoid, the Eradicator proves to be a more brutal version of Superman, who shows no hesitation in killing a potential rapist and brutally breaking the hands of a safecracker. However, after a fight with Steel, in which the armored man fights to stop the Eradicator from killing potential adversaries, the Eradicator begins to reconsider his more brutal approach, temporarily relocating to Coast City before it is destroyed by Mongul and the Cyborg Superman. Using Kryptonian blasters in his cybernetic components, the Cyborg nearly kills the Eradicator in an attempt to frame him for the attack. Returning to the Fortress only to discover that Superman has revived thanks to the Eradicator's use of him as a conduit restoring his own solar energy and reviving his body, the Eradicator drains all the power out of the Fortress of Solitude, regenerating and changing the appearance of its humanoid body, its personality now altered to show a greater compassion for the human race while lacking his earlier resemblance to Kal-El. Returning to Coast City, the Eradicator joins forces with Superman, Steel, Superboy, Supergirl and Green Lantern to fight Mongul and the Cyborg Superman and stop him from destroying Metropolis. The Eradicator is seemingly killed in an attempt to shield Superman from a lethal blast of Kryptonite-based fuel from Warworld's engines, fully recharging the Man of Steel's powers in the process as the Eradicator's mass somehow alters the kryptonite radiation to allow Superman to absorb power from the kryptonite and restore his presently-depleted powers.
Following Superman's return, the Eradicator's apparently dead body is examined at S.T.A.R. Labs, and merged with Dr. David Connor, currently dying of a fatal disease. The merged Eradicator joins the Outsiders, and occasionally teams up with Superman.
The original Eradicator program is revealed to still exist in the Fortress of Solitude's computers and, following the destruction of the Fortress in Superman's battle with Dominus, the Eradicator program takes the form of Kem-L, and again attempted to brainwash Superman. The David Connor Eradicator realizes that the program is still active, and, when the Fortress Eradicator attempts to merge with the Brainiac-13 program to use the futuristic technology to recreate Krypton once again, merges with the remains of the Fortress to control it and take it from Earth.
The Fortress-Eradicator takes the form of a gigantic Kryptonian battlesuit, and gains a form of multiple personality disorder based on his conflicting programming. In the run-up to the "Our Worlds at War" crossover, the Eradicator returns to Earth as a "prophet" with a fierce religious mania, warning of the coming of Imperiex. When it learns of the "Krypton" created by Brainiac 13, the shock to the original directive of Kryptonian purity stuns him enough for Superman to freeze him in an absolute zero staging chamber. He briefly emerges and, infected with Joker venom, attempts to reach the alternate Krypton; however, after a brief tussle with Krypto (a representative of this "blasphemous" Krypton), the Eradicator is placed in a "null chamber" in Superman's new Fortress of Solitude; he is eventually released and brought back to sanity after Superman learns the true origins of the alternate Krypton.
Later, the Eradicator returns to his humanoid state of being. Where he wears a new outfit similar to the "Krypton Man" costume. Which is a combination of elements from Superman's costume and Kryptonian robes. He than gains the ability to sense beings that should not be in the DC Universe, such as Mr. Majestic. The Eradicator is seriously injured by an OMAC, and is left in a coma.
During the events of the Reign of Doomsday crossover, the other members of the Outsiders attempt to convince Geo-Force to fire Eradicator from the team. Before they can reach a consensus, Doomsday arrives and attacks the team. After all of his teammates are defeated, Eradicator makes his last stand against the creature, only to be impaled through the stomach and seemingly killed. Doomsday then takes Eradicator's lifeless body and runs off to an unknown destination. The Eradicator, along with Supergirl, Superboy and Steel, are brought to an alien spaceship. There, they discover that the Doomsday that beat the Eradicator was one of several clones of the original. With Superman's help, they flee to the ship's control deck, where they meet a Doomsday-like creature that calls itself Doomslayer. After learning that Doomslayer intends to crash the ship into Earth, killing everything, Eradicator attempts to force him to stop. However, Doomslayer absorbs his energies and rips his body apart, killing him. Eradicator is later revealed to have transferred his program into the body of Doomsday, who had been rendered comatose by Doomslayer. As Eradicator helps to battle the Doomsday clones that Doomslayer sent around the world, he notes that Doomsday's mind is beginning to awaken. In the final battle, Eradicator and the heroes defeat the Doomsday clones and throw them back into the pit the Tower is located in, since the Tower wills teleport things that are close to it. Eradicator arrives and helps Superman fight Doomslayer, and as he tells Superman that it was an honor to fight alongside him, Eradicator throws him out of the Tower, allowing himself to be trapped and teleported away.
Eradicator II (Superman) Publication history (DC Comics Rebirth)
The Eradicator makes its debut in the post Rebirth DC Universe in Superman #2. After Superman and his son, Jonathan, defeat a aquatic creature forced to terrorize a crew aboard an icebreaker, the Eradicator (in its spherical form) absorbs blood leftover from Jonathan, detecting that he is human and Kryptonian, and originates from the House of El. It flies to the Fortress of Solitude and is allowed to enter due to it containing Jonathan's genome. It begins to assimilate more Kryptonian genome as well as items belong to Clark Kent. The Eradicator takes on a Superman-like appearance and declares that it is here and will also save Kal-El. 
This Eradicator was part of a group created by General Zod to seek out and arrest Kryptonian law breakers. They were directed to draw out the lawbreaker's life force and transfer them to a Phantom Zone projector, with the bodies being put into cryo-chambers to await trial. Seeing Superman's rocket leave Krypton as it explodes, the Eradicator sought out the passenger, going from solar system to solar system until discovering the Kryptonian DNA of Jonathan on Earth. Stating that the Kryptonian line must remain pure, the Eradicator attempts to purge the human DNA and starts to absorb Jonathan, but Krypto jumps in front of the beam and is absorbed. Superman then attacks the Eradicator.
In a 2001–2002 storyline, Superman visited a version of Krypton which resembles the Silver Age version of the planet. However, unlike the Silver Age incarnation of the planet, this version includes "Eradicator assassins", giant robots used by General Zod and the Science Council as part of "the Eradicator solution", and later by Jor-El against Kryptonian religious zealots. Superman eventually discovered that this version of Krypton had been created as a trap for him by the villainous Brainiac 13, using "the Eradicator Matrix", which he had stolen from the true Krypton along with Jor-El's diaries. The Eradicator Matrix is described as having been "designed to save Krypton by transforming a nearby husk of a planet into a habitable paradise"; Brainiac 13 uses it to transform a planet in the Phantom Zone into a replica of Krypton based on Jor-El's favorite period in Kryptonian history, and its inhabitants into Kryptonians.
In Action Comics #850, a flashback shows Jor-El muttering about "damned Eradicators" while preparing to send Kal-El into space.
Powers and abilities
In its original technological form, the Eradicator is able to teleport Superman from Warworld to Earth; manipulate molecular structures to create the Fortress of Solitude, synthetic kryptonite, and the virus which gave Jimmy Olsen temporary stretching powers; retrieve Kryptonian technology through space and time (implied to be through the Phantom Zone); manipulate vast quantities of energy; keep the Cleric alive for millennia; and influence the minds of Superman and Matrix.
The Eradicator's body is created from the genetic template of Superman's when the latter dies at the hands of Doomsday, giving the Eradicator physiology similar to a Kryptonian's (and to Superman's in particular). As a result, the Eradicator possesses similar powers to that of Superman, such as incredible strength, speed, invulnerability, and flight. He also possesses ultra-acute senses but to a limited degree. Being a program from Krypton, the Eradicator possesses extensive knowledge of Krypton and is extremely intelligent, as well as having the ability to compute and process information at incredible speed. After his adoption of a Superman-derived body, he retains at least some of Superman's memories, as described above.
Eradicator has abilities to absorb, convert, and release various forms of energy greater than those of natural Kryptonians, typically projecting energy as powerful blasts from his hands or eyes. He was able to survive exposure to massive amounts of kryptonite radiation. After the Eradicator and Mr. Majestic fought, Mr. Majestic altered the Eradicator's programming to make him more aware. The full extent of his programming alteration is unclear, although it has been shown that he can sense beings and gateways from alternate realities such as the Bleed.
In other media
- The Eradicator was in Kevin Smith's script for Superman Lives.
- In the animated film Superman: Doomsday, which was based on The Death and Return of Superman, the Eradicator does not appear, but elements of his character are incorporated into the cloned Superman, and a robot butler in the Fortress of Solitude fulfills some of the Eradicator's plot functions.
British radio producer Dirk Maggs produced a Superman radio series for BBC Radio 5 in the 1990s. When the "Death of Superman" story arc happened in the comics, Maggs presented a very faithful, though much pared down version of the tale, which featured Stuart Milligan as Clark Kent/Superman, Lorelei King as Lois Lane, and William Hootkins as Lex Luthor. In the death-and-rebirth storyline, Milligan was double-cast as the Eradicator. The story arc was packaged for sale on cassette and CD as Superman: Doomsday and Beyond in the UK and as Superman Lives! in the USA.
- Wallace, Dan (2008). "Eradicator". In Dougall, Alastair. The DC Comics Encyclopedia. New York: Dorling Kindersley. p. 116. ISBN 0-7566-4119-5. OCLC 213309017.
- Stern, Roger, Jerry Ordway, George Pérez (w), Swan, Curt, Jerry Ordway, George Pérez (p), Breeding, Brett (i). "Memories of Krypton's Past" Action Comics Annual 2 (1989), New York: DC Comics
- Flash vol 1 #314-320
- Ordway, Jerry (w), Ordway, Jerry (p), Janke, Dennis (i). "The Nature of the Beast" Superman v2, 41 (March 1990), New York: DC Comics
- Jurgens, Dan (w), Jurgens, Dan (p), Thibert, Art (i). "Blood Brawl" Adventures of Superman 464 (March 1990), New York: DC Comics
- Stern, Roger (w), Pérez, George, Kerry Gammill, Brett Breeding (a). "Not of This Earth" Action Comics 651 (March 1990), DC Comics
- Ordway, Jerry (w), Ordway, Jerry (p), Janke, Dennis (i). "Krypton Man" Superman v2, 42 (April 1990), New York: DC Comics
- Jurgens, Dan (w), Jurgens, Dan (p), Thibert, Art (i). "The Last Son of Krypton" Adventures of Superman 465 (April 1990), New York: DC Comics
- Stern, Roger (w), Pérez, George, Kerry Gammill, Brett Breeding (a). "Wayward Son" Action Comics 652 (April 1990), New York: DC Comics
- Jurgens, Dan, Jerry Ordway, Roger Stern (w), Jurgens, Dan, Jerry Ordway, George Pérez, Kerry Gammill (p), Janke, Dennis, Brett Breeding, Art Thibert, Andy Kubert (i). Superman: Eradication! (1996), New York: DC Comics, ISBN 1-56389-193-X
- Simonson, Louise (w), Bogdanove, Jon, Tom Grummett, Bob McLeod et al. (p), Janke, Dennis, Jerry Ordway, Brett Breeding et al. (i). "Man of Steel/Man of Fire!" Superman: The Man of Steel 1 (July 1991), New York: DC Comics
- Manning, Matthew K.; Dolan, Hannah, ed. (2010). "1990s". DC Comics Year By Year A Visual Chronicle. Dorling Kindersley. p. 259. ISBN 978-0-7566-6742-9.
The issue also featured four teaser comics that introduced a group of contenders all vying for the Superman name...The Eradicator returned in a preview tale by writer Roger Stern and artist Jackson Guice.
- Stern, Roger (w), Gammill, Kerry, Dennis Janke (a). "Gladiator" Superman v2, 32 (June 1989), New York: DC Comics
- Ordway, Jerry (w), Jurgens, Dan (p), Thibert, Art (i). "Heritage" Adventures of Superman 455 (June 1989), New York: DC Comics
- Stern, Roger (w), Gammill, Kerry (p), Janke, Dennis (i). "Two Destinies!" Superman v2, 33 (July 1989), New York: DC Comics
- Pérez, George, Dan Jurgens (w), Jurgens, Dan (p), Janson, Klaus (i). "I Sing the Body Elastic" Adventures of Superman 458 (September 1989), New York: DC Comics
- Pérez, George, Dan Jurgens (w), Jurgens, Dan (p), Gula, Tim (i). "Solitude" Adventures of Superman 459 (October 1989), New York: DC Comics
- Jurgens, Dan (w), Jurgens, Dan (p), Kubert, Andy (i). "Be It Ever So Deadly" Adventures of Superman 460 (November 1989), New York: DC Comics
- Jurgens, Dan (w), Jurgens, Dan (p), Perez, George (i). "Home" Adventures of Superman 461 (December 1989), New York: DC Comics
- Jurgens, Dan (w), Jurgens, Dan, Art Thibert, Jon Bogdanove et al. (p), Breeding, Brett, Dennis Janke, Denis Rodier et al. (i). "Return of the Krypton Man" Superman v2, 57 (July 1991), New York: DC Comics
- Ordway, Jerry (w), Grummett, Tom, Curt Swan, Jon Bogdanove et al. (p), Janke, Dennis, Denis Rodier, Brett Breeding et al. (i). "Dying Breed" Adventures of Superman 480 (July 1991), New York: DC Comics
- Stern, Roger (w), Ordway, Jerry, Jim Mooney, Tom Grummett et al. (p), Janke, Dennis, Denis Rodier, Art Thibert et al. (i). "The Final Chapter" Action Comics 667 (July 1991), New York: DC Comics
- Roger Stern (w), Guice, Jackson, Denis Rodier (a). "Born Again" Action Comics 687 (June 1993), New York: DC Comics
- Roger Stern (w), Guice, Jackson, Denis Rodier (a). "Lies & Revelations" Action Comics 690 (August 1993), New York: DC Comics
- Roger Stern (w), Guice, Jackson, Denis Rodier (a). "An Eye for an Eye" Action Comics 688 (July 1993), New York: DC Comics
- Stern, Roger (w), Guice, Jackson, Denis Rodier (a). "Who Is the Hero True?" Action Comics 689 (Late July 1993), New York: DC Comics
- Simonson, Louise (w), Bogdanove, Jon (p), Janke, Dennis (i). "Impact!" Superman: The Man of Steel 24 (August 1993), New York: DC Comics
- Jurgens, Dan (w), Jurgens, Dan (p), Breeding, Brett (i). "Deadly Alliance" Superman v2, 80 (August 1993), New York: DC Comics
- Roger Stern (w), Guice, Jackson, Denis Rodier (a). "Secret Weapon" Action Comics 691 (September 1993), New York: DC Comics
- Jurgens, Dan (w), Jurgens, Dan (p), Breeding, Brett (i). "Deadly Alliance" Superman v2, 82 (October 1993), New York: DC Comics
- Stern, Roger, Karl Kesel (w), Guice, Jackson, Denis Rodier (a). "The Last Purge of Krypton!" Action Comics 693 (November 1993), New York: DC Comics
- Schultz, Mark (w), Mahnke, Doug (p), Nguyen, Tom (i). "Krypton Lives" Superman: The Man of Steel 95 (December 1999), New York: DC Comics
- Schultz, Mark (w), Mahnke, Doug (p), Nguyen, Tom (i). "Home" Superman: The Man of Steel 96 (January 2000), New York: DC Comics
- Schultz, Mark (w), Mahnke, Doug (p), Nguyen, Tom (i). "Bridge the Past and Future" Superman: The Man of Steel 97 (February 2000), New York: DC Comics
- Schultz, Mark (w), Mahnke, Doug (p), Nguyen, Tom (i). "Thirty Minutes to Oblivion..." Superman: The Man of Steel 98 (March 2000), New York: DC Comics
- Schultz, Mark (w), Mahnke, Doug (p), Nguyen, Tom (i). "Poor Elijah" Superman: The Man of Steel 114 (July 2001), New York: DC Comics
- Schultz, Mark (w), Guichet, Yvel (p), Vines, Dexter, Walden Wong (i). "Snowball's Chance: Not an Imaginary Story" Superman: The Man of Steel 119 (December 2001), New York: DC Comics
- Kelly, Joe (w), Ferry, Pascual (p), Smith, Cam (i). "Return to Krypton II, Part Four: Dream's End" Action Comics 793: 20 (September 2002), New York: DC Comics
- Verheiden, Mark (w), Daniel, Tony S. (p), Alquiza, Marlo (i). "Home" Superman v2, 220 (October 2005), New York: DC Comics
- Outsiders Vol. 4, #26
- Outsiders Vol. 4, #37
- Action Comics #900
- Action Comics #901
- Action Comics #903
- Action Comics #904
- Superman #2
- Superman #3
- Casey, Joe (w), Rouleau, Duncan (p), Mendoza, Jaime, Marlo Alquiza (i). "Return to Krypton Part Two: Second Honeymoon" Adventures of Superman 589 (April 2001), New York: DC Comics
- Casey, Joe (w), Rouleau, Duncan (p), Alquiza, Marlo (i). "Return to Krypton II Part Two: Culture Shock" Adventures of Superman 606 (September 2002), New York: DC Comics
- Busiek, Kurt, Fabian Nicieza, Geoff Johns (w), Guedes, Renato (p), Magalháes, José Wilson (i). "Superman: Family" Action Comics 850: 8/2 (Late July 2007), New York: DC Comics
- Ordway, Jerry, Dan Jurgens (w), Jurgens, Dan (p), Thibert, Art (i). "Redemption!" Adventures of Superman 456 (July 1989), New York: DC Comics
- Pérez, George, Roger Stern (w), Jurgens, Dan (p), Templeton, Ty (i). "Echoes" Adventures of Superman 457 (August 1989), New York: DC Comics
- Stern, Roger, George Pérez (w), Pérez, George, Brett Breeding (a). "Doppelganger" Action Comics 644 (August 1989), New York: DC Comics
- Smith, Kevin (March 27, 1997). "Superman Lives". Drew's Script-O-Rama. Retrieved August 14, 2009.
- Cornelius, David (September 18, 2007). "Superman - Doomsday". DVD Talk. Retrieved August 14, 2009.