The Erawan Shrine, formally the Thao Maha Phrom Shrine (Thai: ศาลท้าวมหาพรหม; RTGS: San Thao Maha Phrom; "Shrine of Lord Brahma the Great"), is a shrine in Bangkok, Thailand, that houses a statue of Phra Phrom, the Thai representation of the Hindu god of creation Lord Brahma. A popular worship attraction, it often features performances by resident Thai dance troupes, who are hired by worshippers in return for seeing their prayers at the shrine answered.
The shrine is near the Grand Hyatt Erawan Hotel, at the Ratchaprasong intersection of Ratchadamri Road in Lumphini Subdistrict, Pathum Wan District. It is near the BTS Skytrain's Chitlom Station, which has an elevated walkway overlooking the shrine. The area has many shopping malls nearby, including Gaysorn, CentralWorld, and Amarin Plaza.
Five other shrines dedicated to Hindu deities are located in the area as well: Phra Laksami (Lakshmi), Phra Trimurati (Trimurti), Phra Khanet (Ganesha), Phra In (Indra), and Phra Narai Song Suban (Narayana on his garuda).
The Erawan Shrine was built in 1956 as part of the government-owned Erawan Hotel to eliminate the bad karma believed caused by laying the foundations on the wrong date.
The hotel's construction was delayed by a series of mishaps, including cost overruns, injuries to laborers, and the loss of a shipload of Italian marble intended for the building. Furthermore, the Ratchaprasong intersection had once been used to put criminals on public display.
An astrologer advised building the shrine to counter the negative influences. The Brahma statue was designed and built by the Department of Fine Arts and enshrined on 9 November 1956. The hotel's construction thereafter proceeded without further incident. In 1987, the hotel was demolished and the site used for the Grand Hyatt Erawan Hotel.
In the early hours of 21 March 2006, the shrine was vandalised by a Thai man who destroyed the statue with a hammer. The vandal, 27-year-old Thanakorn Pakdeepol, was then beaten to death by angry bystanders. Two street sweepers who worked for the Pathum Wan District office were arrested and charged with the fatal beating.
Witnesses said Thanakorn stood on the base of the statue with a large hammer in his hands, and smashed the hollow statue of Brahma to pieces. The deity's four-faced head, torso, six arms and weapons were fragmented. Only part of the lap and base of the statue were left intact. The incident occurred at about 01:00.
During the autopsy of Thanakorn Pakdeepol, doctors found Arabic characters tattooed on his back and arms, prompting police to investigate if the attack had a religious motive and if the vandal or his family had ties to Muslim extremists. However, the vandal's father, Sayant Pakdeepol, said his son had received treatment for psychiatric problems and that mental illness was the cause of the attack. Sayant described the fatal beating of his son as an "overreaction". "Doing something like this is not the act of people with good beliefs, of those with real faith in Brahma", Sayyant told The Nation newspaper. "Murder is an immoral act and people with morality would not have done what they did".
In the days immediately after the destruction of the Erawan Shrine, then Thai Prime Minister Thaksin Shinawatra visited and paid his respects to the broken fragments of the Hindu deity. A white cloth was used to conceal the absence of the statue. Officials later reopened the site to the public, displaying photographs of the statue so worshippers could pay their respects.
At an anti-Thaksin rally on the following day, government critic Sondhi Limthongkul charged the destruction of the statue was a plot by the admittedly superstitious Thaksin to maintain his political power through black magic. However, Thanakorn's father rejected the claim, telling The Nation that Sondhi "is the biggest liar I have ever seen." When asked to comment the accusation, Thaksin simply replied, "That's insane."
A new Brahma statue was placed in the shrine on 21 May 2006 at 11:39, the moment the sun was directly above the shrine. Officials with the Religious Affairs Department and the Maha Brahma Foundation said it was made of plaster, mixed with a mixture of gold, bronze and other precious metals, along with fragments of the original statue. Another duplicate statue, made entirely of metal, was cast in the same mold, and is kept in the national museum.
On 17 August 2015, at 18:55 local time, an explosive device composed of three kilograms of TNT stuffed in a metal pipe and wrapped in white cloth inside a backpack, detonated near Erawan Shrine, killing 20 people and injuring 125. Bomb disposal units checked two suspicious objects but found no other bombs. The bombing is suspected[by whom?] of having been carried out by the Pan-Turkic Turkish ultra-nationalist organization Grey Wolves in retaliation for Thailand's deportation of Uyghur terrorist suspects back to China instead of allowing them to travel to Turkey for asylum.
The bomb was placed in the shrine grounds next to a metal railing. The statue was slightly damaged. Within two days all repairs had been completed and the shrine reopened. Rather than being commended for the swift reopening of the shrine, the government's actions have been subject to criticism. The government's perceived lack of progress in the investigation has stimulated critics to propose a number of theories as to who is responsible for the bombing, including elements of the government itself.
- Devasathan, the main Hindu temple in Bangkok
- Spirit house, the general practice of establishing shrines to appease local spirits
- "Bangkok bomb horror: At least 20 die, 125 hurt in Erawan shrine blast". Bangkok Post. 18 August 2015. Retrieved 19 August 2015.
- Lim, Eric. "Lakshmi Shrine – guardian angel of Ratchaprasong". Tour Bangkok Legacies. Retrieved 19 August 2015.
- "Thailand's World: Hindu Shrines at Ratchaprasong". thailandsworld.com. Archived from the original on 21 August 2015. Retrieved 19 August 2015.
- "Hindu Shrines Around the Ratchaprasong Junction". Life's Indulgences. 16 November 2007. Retrieved 19 August 2015.
- McGirk, Jan (22 March 2006). "Attack on Thai statue seen as bad omen for beleaguered Thaksin". The Independent. Archived from the original on 2 January 2007. Retrieved 4 January 2007.
- "A visit to the old Erawan Hotel". 2Bangkok.com. Archived from the original on 13 January 2007. Retrieved 4 January 2007.
- "อาเพศร้ายทุบท้าวมหาพรหม" [Ominous of collapsed Thao Maha Phrom]. Manager Online (in Thai). 21 March 2006. Retrieved 13 January 2019.
- "Much-revered Phra Prom statue destroyed". The Nation. 21 March 2006. Archived from the original on 19 August 2015. Retrieved 19 August 2015.
- "ท้าวมหาพรหมถูกทำลาย มิอาจทำลายหัวใจพรหม" [Thao Maha Phrom was destroyed but could not destroy Phromheart]. Manager Online (in Thai). 22 March 2006. Retrieved 13 January 2019.
- Wannabovorn, Sutin (22 March 2006). "Police probing whether attacker of sacred shrine in Thailand was Muslim extremist". San Diego Union-Tribune. Retrieved 19 August 2015.
- "Vandal's dad distraught". The Nation. 23 March 2006. p. 4A.
- Poo, Monthathip (22 March 2006). "Man beaten to death after desecrating the Erawan Shrine". The Nation. Archived from the original on 20 August 2015. Retrieved 19 August 2015.
- Kaewmorakot, Chatrarat (22 May 2006). "Erawan Shrine statue restored". The Nation. Archived from the original on 12 June 2008. Retrieved 19 August 2015.
- Holmes, Oliver (17 August 2015). "Bangkok explosion: fatal blast at Erawan shrine". The Guardian. Retrieved 19 August 2015.
- Akkoc, Raziye (19 August 2015). "Bangkok bomb: Suspect 'didn't do it alone' and 'may not be in Thailand'". The Telegraph. Retrieved 19 August 2015.
- Forgan, Duncan; Bacon, John (17 August 2015). "Death toll rises in Bangkok bomb blast". USA Today. Retrieved 19 August 2015.
- Beech, Hannah (17 August 2015). "Bangkok Bombing: At Least 20 Dead at Erawan Shrine". Time. Retrieved 19 August 2015.
- McLaughlin, Eliott C.; Olarn, Kocha (17 August 2015). "Bangkok shrine explosion kills 22, including tourists". CNN. Retrieved 19 August 2015.
- "Bangkok bomb: Deadly blast rocks Thailand capital". BBC News. 17 August 2015. Retrieved 19 August 2015.
- "Bangkok bomb: What do we know?". BBC.
- "Bangkok bomb-hit Erawan shrine reopens". BBC. 18 August 2015. Retrieved 20 August 2015.
- "Thailand's investigation of deadly Bangkok bombing dogged by unsavory police legacy". Fox News. Associated Press. 25 August 2015. Retrieved 28 August 2015.
- Ngarmboonanant, Geng (27 August 2015). "The Thai Government Is Whitewashing the Bangkok Bombing to Reassure Tourists". The New Republic. Retrieved 28 August 2015.
- Ruiz, Todd (28 August 2015). "Floundering Bomb Investigation Deepens Doubts About Competency". Khaosod English. Retrieved 28 August 2015.
|Wikimedia Commons has media related to Erawan Shrine.|