Erbar (typeface)

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Erbar
Erbar-5.jpg
Category Sans-serif
Classification Geometric sans-serif
Designer(s) Jakob Erbar
Foundry Ludwig & Mayer
Date released 1922-30
Re-issuing foundries Linotype, Continental Type Founders Association

In typography, Erbar or Erbar-Grotesk was the first geometric sans-serif typeface ever created. Designer Jakob Erbar's aim was to design a printing type which would be free of all individual characteristics, possess thoroughly legible letter forms, and be a purely typographic creation. His conclusion was that this could only work if the type form was developed from a fundamental element, the circle.[1]

The font[edit]

Erbar was originally cast by the Ludwig & Mayer foundry of Frankfurt, Germany, with machine composition matrices later being offered by German and then American Linotype.[2][3] Erbar was later exported to the United States and sold by the Continental Type Founders Association.[4] A digital version is sold today by Linotype.

Erbar was cast in four weights with italic and condensed faces. Other variants were offered:

  • Lumina, an open face version.
  • Lux, a version with contrasting outlines.
  • Phosphor, an ultra-bold/inline display version similar to Neuland.[5]

Influence on other typefaces[edit]

The success of Erbar inspired the creation of many new geometric sans-serif faces by competing foundries including Futura, Metro, Vogue, Spartan, Twentieth Century, and Century Gothic among others. Of these, Futura proved to be the most successful and this, along with Jakob Erbar's early death, the small size of Erbar's Ludwig & Mayer Foundry and the international reach of Futura's Bauer Type Foundry, lead to the misapprehension that Futura, and not Erbar, was the first of the geometric sans-serif faces.

Phosphor, an ultra-bold and inline display adaptation of Erbar similar to Neuland was particular popular, and several imitations and revivals were created.

Zhurnalnaya roublennaya (Журнальная рубленая) or Journal Grotesque was a Russian sans-serif created in the Soviet Union by Anatoly Schukin and others, and released from 1947 onwards, quite loosely inspired by Erbar and with Cyrillic and later Latin characters.[6][7][8]

Digitisations[edit]

Erbar Condensed and Phosphor, as well as some other typefaces designed by Jakob Erbar.

As of 2016, several Erbar digitisations exist. URW++ has released a revival of seven weights (of the normal width only), and a "Neo Mini" digitisation optimised for small sizes, with an enlarged x-height and solid weight.[9][10] Linotype has digitised light and bold weights of the condensed style.[11]

Stephen Coles, an expert on digital fonts, has been critical of the Erbar digitisations on the market, writing that "there is no recommendable digital version...existing revivals neither capture the spirit or breadth of the original family. Still, if you really have a Erbar hankering, URW’s version is the most complete."[12]

Because of Phosphor's popularity, several revivals exist independently of the latter Erbar rereleases (none of which include it), by Monotype and others.[13] Phosphate, an unofficial revival created by Red Rooster Fonts, is bundled with OS X.[14] Zamenhof, by CastleType, is a large revival inspired by Russian adaptations of the style.[15]

Zhurnalnaya roublennaya has itself been digitised by Grilli Type as Eesti and (much more loosely) for ParaType as Journal Sans by Olexa Volochay, Maria Selezeneva and Alexandra Korolkova.[6][8][7]

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ Tracy, Walter.Letters of Credit: a View of Type Design. Gordon Fraser, 1998
  2. ^ Jaspert, Pincus, Berry and Johnson.The Encyclopedia of Type Faces. Blandford Press Lts.: 1953, 1983. Pp. 269-70
  3. ^ Neil Macmillan (2006). An A-Z of Type Designers. Yale University Press. p. 78. ISBN 0-300-11151-7. 
  4. ^ Specimen Book of Continental Types, Continental Type Founders Association, N.Y.C., 1929.
  5. ^ Jaspert, Pincus, Berry and Johnson.The Encyclopedia of Type Faces. Blandford Press Lts.: 1953, 1983. Pp. 269-70
  6. ^ a b Sakk, Ivar. "Zhurnalnaya Roublennaya: A Poor Man's Futura". Fonts In Use. Retrieved 23 June 2016. 
  7. ^ a b Korolkova, Alexandra; Selezeneva, Maria. "Journal Sans New". MyFonts. ParaType. Retrieved 23 June 2016. 
  8. ^ a b "GrilliType Eesti". Grilli Type. Retrieved 23 June 2016. 
  9. ^ "URW++ Erbar". MyFonts. URW++. Retrieved 23 June 2016. 
  10. ^ "Erbar Neo Mini". MyFonts. URW++. Retrieved 23 June 2016. 
  11. ^ "Erbar LT". MyFonts. Linotype. Retrieved 23 June 2016. 
  12. ^ Coles, Stephen. "Alternatives to Futura". Fontshop. Archived from the original on March 16, 2015. Retrieved 2 October 2015. 
  13. ^ "Phosphor MT". MyFonts. Monotype. Retrieved 23 January 2016. 
  14. ^ "Phosphate". MyFonts. Red Rooster Collection. Retrieved 23 January 2016. 
  15. ^ "Zamenhof". MyFonts. CastleType. Retrieved 23 June 2016. 
  • Friedl, Ott, and Stein, Typography: an Encyclopedic Survey of Type Design and Techniques Throughout History. Black Dog & Levinthal Publishers: 1998. ISBN 1-57912-023-7.
  • Jaspert, W. Pincus, W. Turner Berry and A.F. Johnson. The Encyclopedia of Type Faces. Blandford Press Lts.: 1953, 1983. ISBN 0-7137-1347-X.

External links[edit]