Erebuni District

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Coordinates: 40°08′23″N 44°31′40″E / 40.13972°N 44.52778°E / 40.13972; 44.52778

Erebuni
Էրեբունի
Erebuni as seen from Erebuni fortress (Arin Berd)
Erebuni as seen from Erebuni fortress (Arin Berd)
Location of Erebuni
Coordinates: 40°08′23″N 44°31′40″E / 40.13972°N 44.52778°E / 40.13972; 44.52778
Country Armenia
Marz (Province) Yerevan
Government
 • Mayor of District Armen Harutyunyan
Area
 • Total 48 km2 (19 sq mi)
Population (2011 census)
 • Total 123,092
 • Density 2,600/km2 (6,600/sq mi)
Time zone AMT (UTC+4)

Erebuni (Armenian: Էրեբունի վարչական շրջան, Erebuni varčakan šrĵan), is one of the 12 districts of Yerevan, the capital of Armenia. It is situated southeast of the city centre where Erebuni Fortress is located. The name of Yerevan itself is derived from ancient Erebuni.

Erebuni is bordered by Shengavit District from the west, Kentron, Nork-Marash and Nor Nork districts from the north, Kotayk Province from the east, Nubarashen district and Kotayk Province from the south.[1]

Overview[edit]

General view of the district with the Erebuni street within the Nor Aresh neighbourhood

Erebuni has an area of 48 km² (21.52% of Yerevan city area), out of which 29 km² are occupied by residential or commercial buildings. Erebuni is the largest district of Yerevan in terms of area. The district is unofficially divided into smaller neighborhoods such as Erebuni neighbourhood, Nor Aresh, Saritagh, Vardashen, Mushavan, Verin Jrashen and Nor Butania. Sasuntsi Davit Square along with the metro station form the core of the district. The main streets of the district are Erebuni Street, Sasuntsi Davit Street, Liberators' Street, Ivan Ayvazovsky Street, Rostov-on-Don Street, David Bek Street, Arin Berd Street, Artsakh Avenue (formerly Baku Avenue), and the southern half of Movses Khorenatsi Street.

Saritagh neighbourhood of Erebuni

Erebuni is a highly industrialized district within Yerevan with many large factories. However, the district is mainly home to low-income residents of Yerevan.

Recently, many abandoned parks were replenished to become a favourite destination of the residents of the city, such as the Lyon Park and its artificial Vardavar lake, the Liberators' park, etc.[2] The central cemetery of Yerevan as well as the Military cemetery are also located in the Erebuni Dsitrict.

The district is served by the Sasuntsi Davit metro station, while the Yerevan Railway Station is located on Sasuntsi Davit Square of the district. Erebuni is also home to the central prison of Yerevan known as the Erebuni Criminal-Executive Institution.

As of 2016, the population of the district is around 126,500.

History[edit]

Aintiquity[edit]

Archaeological evidences[3] indicate that the Urartian military fortress of Erebuni (Armenian: Էրեբունի was founded in 782 BC by the orders of King Argishti I at the Arin-Berd hill within modern-day Erebuni dsitrict, to serve as a fort and citadel guarding against attacks from the north Caucasus.[4]

During the height of the Urartian power, irrigation canals and an artificial reservoirs were built in Erebuni and its surrounding territories. In 585 BC, the fortress of Teishebaini (Karmir Blur) located around 45 km north of Yerevan, was destroyed by an alliance of Medes and the Scythians.

Modern history[edit]

Erebuni District administration
Verin Jrashen and parts of Mushavan

After the Sovietization of Armenia, the administrative area of Erivan (Yerevan) was gradually expanded to include the ancient territories of Erebuni, commonly known as Arin-Berd.

The first settlers of around 60 families of the area were survivors of the Armenian Genocide who escaped from the town of Butaniya in Western Armenia. In 1925, they founded the neighborhood of Nor Butaniya. The neighbourhood of Nor Aresh was named after an ancient Armenian town known as "Aresh". The first inhabitants of Nor Aresh arrived from Nukha, Azerbaijan.

On 20 July 1939, based on a decision passed by the Supreme Soviet of the Armenian SSR, a new district was formed in Yerevan city named as the Molotov raion (Молотовский район) after Vyacheslav Molotov. On 25 September 1957, the district was renamed after as the Lenin raion (Ленинский район) after Vladimir Lenin. On 13 November 1961, a new district was formed on parts of modern-day Erebuni Dsitrict, named as the Ordzhonikidze raion (Орджоникидзевский район), after Grigoriy Ordzhonikidze.

As a result of the Armenian repatriation process, Nor Aresh and Vardashen neighbourhoods were resettled by Armenian migrants from Syria, Lebanon, Greece, France, Bulgaria and Egypt, during the 1950s and 1960s.

Mushavan and Verin Jrashen, originally villages at the eastern outskirts of Yerevan, were eventually absorbed by the city in 1965.

On 8 August 1991, based on a decision passed by the National Assembly of Armenia, the territory of the Lenin raion was renamed Erebuni. In 1996, Yerevan was divided into 12 local communities. In 1997, the territory of Erebuni District was defined to include the former Lenin raion and parts of the former Ordzhonikidze raion.

Demographics[edit]

Street view in Erebuni

As of the 2011 census, the district had a population of 123,092 (11.61% of Yerevan city population). According to the 2016 official estimate, the population of the district is around 126,500 (ranked 4th among the Yerevan districts).

Until 1988, Erebuni had around 3,000 Azeri minority. However, the vast majority of the members of the Azeri community had migrated to Azerbaijan as a result of the population exchange during the Karabakh conflict.

Currently, Erebuni is mainly populated by Armenians who belong to the Armenian Apostolic Church. The Surp Mesrop Mashtots Church of the district is still under construction since 2004.

Culture[edit]

The statue of Argishti I

Erebuni has many public libraries including the Library №3 named after Okro Okoryan (1937), Library №10 (1951), Library №10 (1956), Library №11 (1960), and the Music library (1966).[5] The Children and Youth Creativity Center №3 of is also operating in Erebuni.

Many cultural heritage monuments are located in the district, including:

  • Erebuni Fortress of 782 BC at Arin Berd.
  • The Urartian water reservoir known as Vardavar lake in the Lyon park, dating back to the 8th century BC. The park is also home to the first ever Armenian Genocide memorial erected in the city of Yerevan.
  • The statue of David of Sasun near the railway station, erected in 1959.
  • The statue of Argishti I near the Erebuni Museum, erected in 2002.

Museums[edit]

  • Erebuni Museum near the Erebuni Fortress, opened in 1968,
  • Railway Museum of Armenia within the Yerevan railway station, opened in 2009.

Transportation[edit]

Shengavit District is served by a public transport network of buses and trolleybuses. However, Erebuni has the Sasuntsi Davit station of the Yerevan underground metro, operating since March 7, 1981.[6]

Sasuntsi Davit square and the Yerevan railway station

The Yerevan railway station of the Armenian Railways is located in Erebuni since 1956 (founded in 1902). It connects Yerevan with many other stations as listed below:

Erebuni District is home to the second airport of Yerevan; the Erebuni Airport. Since the independence, "Erebuni" is mainly used for military or private flights. The Armenian Air Force has equally installed its base there and there are several MiG-29s stationed on Erebuni's tarmac.

Economy[edit]

Industry[edit]

Erebuni has a large industrial area at the south of the district. Many large industrial plants are operating since the Soviet days. Gajegorts plant for building materials is among the earliest firms opened in the district during the Soviet period. It is operating since 1930. The Yerevan meat processing factory (currently known as Urartu) was opened in 1932. It was followed by the Yerevan varnish and paint plant in 1948. In 1955, the Mixed Fodder factory was opened. In 1965, the Metal structures plant was opened, followed by the Pure iron plant in 1969. In 1990, the Armenuhi-90 Cooperative for chemical products was opened.

After the independence, many new plants were founded in Erebuni such as the Global Engineering company for metal structures in 1992, Bari Samaratsi meat processing factory in 1994, Nikol Duman metal casting factory in 1996, Mancho Group for food products in 1999, Mix-Paints for building materials in 1999, Paxan Yerevan plant for household chemicals in 2000, Narplast polymer container manufacturing enterprise in 2002, the Armenian Molybdenum Production plant in 2003, Newlita stone processing plant in 2003, the Armenian Titanium Production in 2007, the Armenian Travertine Mining Company in 2007, Astafian Wine-Brandy Factory in 2008, and Chipsella for food products in 2002.

Services[edit]

There many large shopping centres in the district such as the Erbeuni shopping centre and Eurobaza shopping centre. Erebouni Medical Center opened in 1983, is among the largest hospitals of Yerevan. The Central Military Hospital is also located in Erebuni District.

A pig-breeding farm was opened in the district in 2000.

Education[edit]

As of 2016-17, the district has 23 public education schools, 3 private schools, as well as 2 vocational schools and a school for children with special needs. There is also an Art School Named after Michael Maluntsyan, and a music school named after Tigran Chukhajyan.[7]

Sport[edit]

Erebuni FC is a football club that represents the district since 1992, with several intervals. They currently play at the Armenian First League. The Erebuni Stadium with a capacity of 544 seats is the home venue of the team.

The district is also represented to the Armenia Futsal League through the Charbakh Futsal Club.

The Vardavar artificial lake of the district is frequently used by the lovers of windsurfing sport. In 2015, the Children's and Youth's chess sport school of Erebuni was opened.

International relations[edit]

The administration of Erebuni District has an official cooperation agreement with:

Vardavar lake at the Lyon Park of Erebuni District

References[edit]