Erforsche mich, Gott, und erfahre mein Herz, BWV 136
|Erforsche mich, Gott, und erfahre mein Herz
|Church cantata by J. S. Bach|
|Related||Missa in A major|
|Occasion||Eighth Sunday after Trinity|
|Performed||18 July 1723Leipzig:|
|Bible text||Psalms 139:29|
|Chorale||by Johann Heermann|
Erforsche mich, Gott, und erfahre mein Herz (Examine me, God, and know my heart), BWV 136,[a] is a church cantata by Johann Sebastian Bach. Bach composed the cantata in 1723 in Leipzig to be used for the eighth Sunday after Trinity. He led the first performance on 18 July 1723.
The work is part of Bach's first annual cycle of cantatas. He began to compose cantatas for all occasions of the liturgical year when he took up office as Thomaskantor in May 1723. The cantata is structured in six movements: two choral movements at the beginning and end frame a sequence of alternating recitatives and arias. The opening movement is based on a verse from Psalm 139; the closing chorale on a stanza from Johann Heermann's hymn "Wo soll ich fliehen hin". The cantata is scored for three vocal soloists (alto, tenor and bass), a four-part choir, corno, two oboes, strings and basso continuo.
History and words
When Bach took up office as Thomaskantor (director of church music) in Leipzig in May 1723 on the first Sunday after Trinity, he began to compose cantatas for all occasions of the liturgical year. He wrote Erforsche mich, Gott, und erfahre mein Herz for the eighth Sunday after Trinity. The prescribed readings for the Sunday are from the Epistle to the Romans, "For as many as are led by the Spirit of God, they are the sons of God" (Romans 8:12–17), and from the Gospel of Matthew, the warning of false prophets from the Sermon on the Mount (Matthew 7:15–23). An unknown librettist wrote the text, closely related to the prescribed gospel. His text is the first in a group of ten cantatas following the same structure of biblical text – recitative – aria – recitative – aria – chorale. The ten cantatas were dedicated to the 8th to 14th and 21st to 22nd Sunday after Trinity and the second Sunday after Easter.
The opening chorus is based on Psalms 139:23, focused on the examination of the believer's heart by God. The closing chorale is stanza 9 of Johann Heermann's hymn "Wo soll ich fliehen hin" (1630) on the melody of "Auf meinen lieben Gott", which Bach used again in 1724 as the base for his chorale cantata Wo soll ich fliehen hin, BWV 5.
The Bach scholar Alfred Dürr concludes from the autograph that only the middle section of movement 3 and the chorale were composed in 1723 with certainty. The other parts may rely on a former unknown secular or church cantata, according to the conductor John Eliot Gardiner and the musicologist Tadeshi Isoyama.
Scoring and structure
The cantata in six movements is scored for three vocal soloists (alto (A), tenor (T) and bass (B)), a four-part choir (SATB), corno (horn, Co), two oboes (Ob), two violins (Vl), viola (Va) and basso continuo (Bc). One oboe is marked "d'amore" (Oa) in the autograph kept by the Staatsbibliothek zu Berlin. Some scholars, including Dürr and Gardiner, believe that the second oboe part in the choral movements 1 and 6 should also be played by oboe d'amore. The title on the original parts reads: "Domin: 8 post Trinit: / Erforsche mich Gott, und erfahre mein ect. / â / 4 Voci / Corno / 2 Hautbois / 2 Violini / Viola / e / Continuo / di Sign: / J.S.Bach".
In the following table of the movements, the scoring and keys and time signatures are taken from Alfred Dürr, using the symbol for common time (4/4). The instruments are shown separately for winds and strings, while the continuo, playing throughout, is not shown.
|1||Erforsche mich, Gott, und erfahre mein Herz||Psalms 139:29||Chorus||SATB||Co 2Ob||2Vl Va||A major||12/8|
|2||Ach, daß der Fluch, so dort die Erde schlägt||anon.||Recitative||T|
|4||Die Himmel selber sind nicht rein||anon.||Recitative||B|
|5||Uns treffen zwar der Sünden Flecken||anon.||Aria||T B||2Vl (unis.)||B minor||12/8|
|6||Dein Blut, der edle Saft||Heermann||Chorale||SATB||Co 2Ob||2Vl Va||B minor|
The opening chorus expands on a psalm verse, "Erforsche mich, Gott, und erfahre mein Herz" (Examine me, God, and discover my heart). The music in the style of a Gigue expresses confidence facing the examination. In 1739 it was characterized by Johann Mattheson 1739 as "somewhat like the rapid arrow of a stream" ("etwa wie der glattfortschiessende Strom-Pfeil eines Bachs"). The movement is structure in two parts (A and A'), with choral fugues on the same themes, both presenting the complete text. An extended instrumental ritornello, dominated by the horn, is heard before, between and after the choral sections. The first fugue is preceded by a choral Devise (statement). Throughout the movement the two oboes never play independently but double the violins in the ritornelli and the soprano in the vocal sections. The virtuoso horn parts may have been intended for the exceptional Gottfried Reiche.
A secco recitative, "Ach, daß der Fluch, so dort die Erde schlägt" (Alas, that the curse, which strikes the earth there), renders a contrasting change of mood. Bach interprets the curse of sin, and the hopeless situation of the humans and the threat of the Last Judgment in music full of dissonances.
The alto aria, "Es kömmt ein Tag" (A day will come), is accompanied by an oboe, an oboe d'amore according to Alfred Dürr and John Eliot Gardiner. The middle section, "Denn seines Eifers Grimm vernichtet" (For the wrath of His vengeance will annihilate), is certainly composed in 1723. The middle section is marked Adagio and in common time, contrasting to the first section, marked with Presto and with a 12/8 time signature.
The violins in unison accompany the duet of tenor and bass, "Uns treffen zwar der Sünden Flecken" (Indeed, the stains of sin cling to us). The voices sing sometimes in imitation, sometimes in homophony, in the style of duets Bach wrote at Köthen earlier in his career.
The chorale, "Dein Blut, der edle Saft" (Your blood, the noble juice), is expanded to five parts with a combination of the four-part chorus and an accompanying violin part, similar to the chorale of Erschallet, ihr Lieder, erklinget, ihr Saiten! BWV 172, written earlier by Bach for Pentecost 1714 in Weimar.
The sortable listing is taken from the selection provided by Aryeh Oron on the Bach-Cantatas website. Choirs and instrumental ensembles are roughly marked as large by red background, such as boys' choirs and the Bach orchestras of the 1950s, while instrumental groups playing period instruments in historically informed performances are highlighted green under the header Instr..
|Title||Conductor / Choir / Orchestra||Soloists||Label||Year||Choir type||Instr.|
|J. S. Bach: Cantatas BWV 136 & BWV 138||Hellmann, DiethardDiethard Hellmann Choir of Christuskirche, Mainz Bach-Orchester Mainz||Cantate||1960||Bach|
|Die Bach Kantate Vol. 44||Rilling, HelmuthHelmuth Rilling Gächinger Kantorei Bach-Collegium Stuttgart||Hänssler||1978||Bach|
|J.S. Bach: Das Kantatenwerk · Complete Cantatas · Les Cantates, Folge / Vol. 34 - BWV 136–139||Harnoncourt, NikolausNikolaus Harnoncourt Tölzer Knabenchor Concentus Musicus Wien||Teldec||1983||Boys||Period|
|J. S. Bach: Complete Cantatas Vol. 73||Koopman, TonTon Koopman Amsterdam Baroque Choir Amsterdam Baroque Orchestra||Antoine Marchand||1997||Period|
|J. S. Bach: Cantatas Vol. 11 – Cantatas from Leipzig 1723 IV||Suzuki, MasaakiMasaaki Suzuki Bach Collegium Japan||BIS||1998||Period|
|Bach Edition Vol. 12 – Cantatas Vol. 15||Leusink, Pieter JanPieter Jan Leusink Holland Boys Choir Netherlands Bach Collegium||Brilliant Classics||2000||Boys||Period|
|Bach Cantatas Vol. 5: Rendsburg/Braunschweig / For the 8th Sunday after Trinity / For the 10th Sunday after Trinity||Gardiner, John EliotJohn Eliot Gardiner Monteverdi Choir English Baroque Soloists||Soli Deo Gloria||2000||Period|
|J. S. Bach: Kantate BWV 136 Erforsche mich, Gott, und erfahre mein Herz||Lutz, RudolfRudolf Lutz Vocal ensemble of Schola Seconda Pratica Schola Seconda Pratica||Gallus Media||2011||Period|
- "BWV" is Bach-Werke-Verzeichnis, a thematic catalogue of Bach's works.
- Mincham, Julian (2010). "Chapter 10 BWV 136 Erforsche mich, Gott, und erfahre mein Herz / Examine me, God, and know my heart.". jsbachcantatas.com. Retrieved 23 July 2014.
- Gardiner, John Eliot (2004). "Cantatas for the Eighth Sunday after Trinity / Christkirche, Rendsburg" (PDF). Bach Cantatas Website. p. 4. Retrieved 15 July 2010.
- Dürr, Alfred (1981). Die Kantaten von Johann Sebastian Bach (in German). 1 (4 ed.). Deutscher Taschenbuchverlag. pp. 379–382. ISBN 3-423-04080-7.
- Dürr, Alfred (2006). The Cantatas of J. S. Bach: With Their Librettos in German-English Parallel Text. Translated by Richard D. P. Jones. Oxford University Press. p. 27. ISBN 978-0-19-929776-4.
- Kirnbauer, Martin. "Bachkantaten in der Predigerkirche / Erforsche mich, Gott, und erfahre mein Herz (BWV 136)". bachkantaten.ch. Retrieved 27 July 2010.
- Wolff, Christoph (1997). "On the first annual cycle of Bach's cantatas for the Leipzig liturgy (1723–1724), II" (PDF). bach-cantatas.com. pp. 14, 16. Retrieved 24 July 2015.
- "Wo soll ich fliehen hin / Text and Translation of Chorale". bach-cantatas.com. 2005. Retrieved 27 July 2015.
- Isoyama, Tadeshi (1999). "BWV 136 Erforsche mich, Gott, und erfahre mein Herz" (PDF). bach-cantatas.com. p. 4. Retrieved 24 July 2015.
- Bischof, Walter F. "BWV 136 Erforsche mich, Gott, und erfahre mein Herz". University of Alberta. Retrieved 24 July 2015.
- "Berlin, Staatsbibliothek zu Berlin – Preußischer Kulturbesitz / D-B Mus. ms. Bach St 20, Faszikel 2". bach-digital.de. Retrieved 27 July 2010.
- Grob, Jochen (2014). "BWV 136 / BC A 111" (in German). s-line.de. Retrieved 24 July 2015.
- Dellal, Pamela. "136 – Erforsche mich, Gott, und erfahre mein Herz". Emmanuel Music. Retrieved 21 July 2014.
- "Chorale Melodies used in Bach's Vocal Works / Wo soll ich fliehen hin / Auf meinen lieben Gott". bach-cantatas.com. 2008. Retrieved 27 June 2015.
- Oron, Aryeh. "Cantata BWV 136 Erforsche mich, Gott, und erfahre mein Herz". bach-cantatas.com. Retrieved 24 July 2015.
- "Bach: Cantatas Vol 11 / Suzuki, Bach Collegium Japan". ArkivMusic. 1999. Retrieved 15 July 2010.
- Quinn, John (2009). "Johann Sebastian Bach (1685–1750) The Bach Cantata Pilgrimage – Volume 5 Cantatas for the Eighth Sunday after Trinity". MusicWeb International. Retrieved 15 July 2010.
- Erforsche mich, Gott, und erfahre mein Herz, BWV 136: Scores at the International Music Score Library Project
- Erforsche mich, Gott, und erfahre mein Herz BWV 136; BC A 111 / Sacred cantata (8th Sunday after Trinity) Leipzig University
- Erforsche mich, Gott, und erfahre mein Herz history, scoring, Bach website (in German)
- BWV 136 Erforsche mich, Gott, und erfahre mein Herz English translation, University of Vermont
- Günther Zedler: Die erhaltenen Kirchenkantaten Johann Sebastian Bachs (in German)