Erforsche mich, Gott, und erfahre mein Herz, BWV 136

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Erforsche mich, Gott, und erfahre mein Herz
BWV 136
Church cantata by J. S. Bach
Thomaskirche-1885.png
Thomaskirche, Leipzig
Related Missa in A major
Occasion Eighth Sunday after Trinity
Performed 18 July 1723 (1723-07-18) – Leipzig
Movements 6
Cantata text anonymous
Bible text Psalms 139:29
Chorale by Johann Heermann
Vocal
  • SATB choir
  • solo: alto, tenor and bass
Instrumental
  • corno
  • 2 oboes (1 oboe d'amore)
  • 2 violins
  • viola
  • continuo

Erforsche mich, Gott, und erfahre mein Herz (Examine me, God, and know my heart),[1] BWV 136,[a] is a church cantata by Johann Sebastian Bach. He composed it in 1723 in Leipzig for the eighth Sunday after Trinity and first performed it on 18 July 1723.

The work is part of Bach's first annual cycle of cantatas, begun when he took up office as Thomaskantor in May 1723. The cantata is structured in six movements: two choral movements frame a sequence of alternating recitatives and arias. The opening movement is based on a verse from a psalm, the closing chorale on a stanza from Johann Heermann's hymn "Wo soll ich fliehen hin". The cantata is scored for three vocal soloists (alto, tenor and bass), a four-part choir, corno, two oboes, strings and basso continuo.

History and words[edit]

Bach composed the cantata in his first year as Thomaskantor in Leipzig for the eighth Sunday after Trinity.[2] The prescribed readings for the Sunday are from the Epistle to the Romans, "For as many as are led by the Spirit of God, they are the sons of God" (Romans 8:12–17), and from the Gospel of Matthew, the warning of false prophets from the Sermon on the Mount (Matthew 7:15–23).[3] An unknown librettist wrote the text, closely related to the prescribed gospel. His text is the first in a group of ten cantatas following the same structure of biblical text – recitativearia – recitative – aria – chorale. The ten cantatas were dedicated to the 8th to 14th and 21st to 22nd Sunday after Trinity and the second Sunday after Easter.[4]

The opening chorus is based on Psalms 139:29, focused on the examination of the believer's heart by God.[5] The closing chorale is stanza 9 of Johann Heermann's hymn "Wo soll ich fliehen hin" (1630) on the melody of "Auf meinen lieben Gott",[6] which Bach used again in 1724 as the base for his chorale cantata Wo soll ich fliehen hin, BWV 5.[3][7]

The sources show that only the middle section of movement 3 and the chorale were composed in 1723 with certainty.[3] The other parts may rely on a former unknown secular or church cantata.[2][8]

Scoring and structure[edit]

The cantata in six movements is scored for three vocal soloists (alto (A), tenor (T) and bass (B)), a four-part choir (SATB), corno (horn, Co), two oboes (Ob), two violins (Vl), viola (Va) and basso continuo (Bc).[9] One oboe is marked "d'amore" (Oa) in the autograph kept by the Staatsbibliothek zu Berlin.[5][10] Some scholars believe that the second oboe part in the choral movements 1 and 6 should also be played by oboe d'amore. The title on the original parts reads: "Domin: 8 post Trinit: / Erforsche mich Gott, und erfahre mein ect. / â / 4 Voci / Corno / 2 Hautbois / 2 Violini / Viola / e / Continuo / di Sign: / J.S.Bach".[11]

In the following table of the movements, the scoring and keys and time signatures are taken from Alfred Dürr, using the symbol for common time (4/4).[3] The instruments are shown separately for winds and strings, while the continuo, playing throughout, is not shown.

Movements of Erforsche mich, Gott, und erfahre mein Herz, BWV 236
No. Title Text Type Vocal Winds Strings Key Time
1 Erforsche mich, Gott, und erfahre mein Herz Psalms 139:29 Chorus SATB Co 2Ob 2Vl Va A major 12/8
2 Ach, daß der Fluch, so dort die Erde schlägt anon. Recitative T common time
3
  • Es kömmt ein Tag (Adagio)
  • Denn seines Eifers Grimm vernichtet (Presto)
anon. Aria A Oa F-sharp minor
  • common time
  • 12/8
4 Die Himmel selber sind nicht rein anon. Recitative B common time
5 Uns treffen zwar der Sünden Flecken anon. Aria T B 2Vl (unis.) B minor 12/8
6 Dein Blut, der edle Saft Heermann Chorale SATB Co 2Ob 2Vl Va B minor common time

Music[edit]

1[edit]

The opening chorus expands on a psalm verse, "Erforsche mich, Gott, und erfahre mein Herz" (Examine me, God, and discover my heart).[12] The music in the style of a Gigue expresses confidence facing the examination. In 1739 it was characterized by Johann Mattheson 1739 as "somewhat like the rapid arrow of a stream" ("etwa wie der glattfortschiessende Strom-Pfeil eines Bachs").[5] The movement is structure in two parts (A and A'), with choral fugues on the same themes, both presenting the complete text. An extended instrumental ritornello, dominated by the horn, is heard before, between and after the choral sections. The first fugue is preceded by a choral Devise (statement). Throughout the movement the two oboes never play independently but double the violins in the ritornelli and the soprano in the vocal sections.[3] The virtuoso horn parts may have been intended for the exceptional Gottfried Reiche.[5]

Bach used the same material as in this movement later in the "Cum Sancto Spiritu" of his Missa in A major.[2][6]

2[edit]

A secco recitative renders in contrast "Ach, daß der Fluch, so dort die Erde schlägt" (Alas, that the curse, which strikes the earth there).[12] Bach interprets the curse of sin, and the hopeless situation of the humans and the threat of the Last Judgment in music full of dissonances.[5]

3[edit]

The alto aria, "Es kömmt ein Tag" (A day will come),[12] is accompanied by an oboe, an oboe d'amore according to Alfred Dürr and John Eliot Gardiner. The middle section, "Denn seines Eifers Grimm vernichtet" (For the wrath of His vengeance will annihilate),[12] is certainly composed in 1723.[3] It contrasts to the beginning in both marking, Presto vs. Adagio, and time, 12/8 vs. common time.[8]

4[edit]

A secco recitative, "Die Himmel selber sind nicht rein" (The heavens themselves are not pure),[12] tends to an arioso in the last measures.[3]

5[edit]

The violins in unison accompany the duet of tenor and bass, "Uns treffen zwar der Sünden Flecken" (Indeed the stains of sin cling to us).[12] The voices sing sometimes in imitation, sometimes in homophony, in the style of duets Bach wrote in Köthen.[3]

6[edit]

The chorale, "Dein Blut, der edle Saft" (Your blood, the noble juice),[12] is expanded to five parts by an independent violin,[1][6] [13] similar to the chorale of Erschallet, ihr Lieder, erklinget, ihr Saiten! BWV 172.[3]

Recordings[edit]

The sortable listing is taken from the selection provided by Aryeh Oron on the Bach-Cantatas website.[14]

Recordings of Erforsche mich, Gott, und erfahre mein Herz, BWV 136
Title Conductor / Choir / Orchestra Soloists Label Year Choir type Orch. type
J. S. Bach: Cantatas BWV 136 & BWV 138 Hellmann, DiethardDiethard Hellmann
Choir of Christuskirche, Mainz
Bach-Orchester Mainz
Cantate 1960 (1960) Bach
Die Bach Kantate Vol. 44 Rilling, HelmuthHelmuth Rilling
Gächinger Kantorei
Bach-Collegium Stuttgart
Hänssler 1978 (1978) Bach
J.S. Bach: Das Kantatenwerk · Complete Cantatas · Les Cantates, Folge / Vol. 34 - BWV 136–139 Harnoncourt, NikolausNikolaus Harnoncourt
Tölzer Knabenchor
Concentus Musicus Wien
Teldec 1983 (1983) Boys Period
J. S. Bach: Complete Cantatas Vol. 73 Koopman, TonTon Koopman
Amsterdam Baroque Choir
Amsterdam Baroque Orchestra
Antoine Marchand 1997 Period
J. S. Bach: Cantatas Vol. 11 – Cantatas from Leipzig 1723 IV[15] Suzuki, MasaakiMasaaki Suzuki
Bach Collegium Japan
BIS 1998 (1998) Period
Bach Edition Vol. 12 – Cantatas Vol. 15 Leusink, Pieter JanPieter Jan Leusink
Holland Boys Choir
Netherlands Bach Collegium
Brilliant Classics 2000 (2000) Boys Period
Bach Cantatas Vol. 5: Rendsburg/Braunschweig / For the 8th Sunday after Trinity / For the 10th Sunday after Trinity[16] Gardiner, John EliotJohn Eliot Gardiner
Monteverdi Choir
English Baroque Soloists
Soli Deo Gloria 2000 (2000) Period
J. S. Bach: Kantate BWV 136 Erforsche mich, Gott, und erfahre mein Herz[16] Lutz, RudolfRudolf Lutz
Vocal ensemble of Schola Seconda Pratica
Schola Seconda Pratica
Gallus Media 2011 (2011) Period

Notes[edit]

  1. ^ "BWV" is Bach-Werke-Verzeichnis, a thematic catalogue of Bach's works.

References[edit]

  1. ^ a b Mincham, Julian (2010). "Chapter 10 BWV 136 Erforsche mich, Gott, und erfahre mein Herz / Examine me, God, and know my heart.". jsbachcantatas.com. Retrieved 23 July 2014. 
  2. ^ a b c Gardiner, John Eliot (2004). "Cantatas for the Eighth Sunday after Trinity / Christkirche, Rendsburg" (PDF). Bach Cantatas Website. p. 4. Retrieved 15 July 2010. 
  3. ^ a b c d e f g h i Dürr, Alfred (1981). Die Kantaten von Johann Sebastian Bach (in German) 1 (4 ed.). Deutscher Taschenbuchverlag. pp. 379–382. ISBN 3-423-04080-7. 
  4. ^ Dürr, Alfred (2006). The Cantatas of J. S. Bach: With Their Librettos in German-English Parallel Text. Translated by Richard D. P. Jones. Oxford University Press. p. 27. ISBN 978-0-19-929776-4. 
  5. ^ a b c d e Kirnbauer, Martin. "Bachkantaten in der Predigerkirche / Erforsche mich, Gott, und erfahre mein Herz (BWV 136)". bachkantaten.ch. Retrieved 27 July 2010. 
  6. ^ a b c Wolff, Christoph (1997). "On the first annual cycle of Bach's cantatas for the Leipzig liturgy (1723–1724), II" (PDF). bach-cantatas.com. pp. 14, 16. Retrieved 24 July 2015. 
  7. ^ "Wo soll ich fliehen hin / Text and Translation of Chorale". bach-cantatas.com. 2005. Retrieved 27 July 2015. 
  8. ^ a b Isoyama, Tadeshi (1999). "BWV 136 Erforsche mich, Gott, und erfahre mein Herz" (PDF). bach-cantatas.com. p. 4. Retrieved 24 July 2015. 
  9. ^ Bischof, Walter F. "BWV 136 Erforsche mich, Gott, und erfahre mein Herz". University of Alberta. Retrieved 24 July 2015. 
  10. ^ "Berlin, Staatsbibliothek zu Berlin – Preußischer Kulturbesitz / D-B Mus. ms. Bach St 20, Faszikel 2". bach-digital.de. Retrieved 27 July 2010. 
  11. ^ Grob, Jochen (2014). "BWV 136 / BC A 111" (in German). s-line.de. Retrieved 24 July 2015. 
  12. ^ a b c d e f g Dellal, Pamela. BWV "136 – "Erforsche mich, Gott, und erfahre mein Herz"". Emmanuel Music. Retrieved 21 July 2014. 
  13. ^ "Chorale Melodies used in Bach's Vocal Works / Wo soll ich fliehen hin / Auf meinen lieben Gott". bach-cantatas.com. 2008. Retrieved 27 June 2015. 
  14. ^ Oron, Aryeh. "Cantata BWV 136 Erforsche mich, Gott, und erfahre mein Herz". bach-cantatas.com. Retrieved 24 July 2015. 
  15. ^ "Bach: Cantatas Vol 11 / Suzuki, Bach Collegium Japan". ArkivMusic. 1999. Retrieved 15 July 2010. 
  16. ^ a b Quinn, John (2009). "Johann Sebastian Bach (1685–1750) The Bach Cantata Pilgrimage – Volume 5 Cantatas for the Eighth Sunday after Trinity". MusicWeb International. Retrieved 15 July 2010. 

Sources[edit]