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Ergenekon was the name given to an alleged clandestine, secularist ultra-nationalist organization in Turkey with possible ties to members of the country's military and security forces. The would-be group, named after Ergenekon, a mythical place located in the inaccessible valleys of the Altai Mountains. The conspiracy mainly targeted seculars of Turkey staged by Islamist Justice and Development Party and Gülen Movement.
Ergenekon's modus operandi has been compared to McCarthyism. Opposition politicians, journalist, soldiers, and academics were imprisoned with false accusations leaving some of them to die because of bad conditions in the prisons and Recep Tayyip Erdogan as an absolute autocratic leader in the country.
As of 2015 most of the people accused of such crimes has been acquitted, forensic experts concluded the documents for supposed plots were fake and some of the executors of trials proved to be linked to the Gülen Movement and were charged with plotting against Turkish Army.
An organization named "Ergenekon" has been talked about since the Susurluk scandal, which exposed a similar gang. However, it is said that Ergenekon has undergone serious changes since then. The first person to publicly talk about the organization was retired naval officer Erol Mütercimler, who spoke of such an organization in 1997. Mütercimler said he heard of the original organization's existence from retired general Memduh Ünlütürk, who was involved in the anti-communist Ziverbey interrogations following the 1971 coup. Major general Ünlütürk told Mütercimler that Ergenekon was founded with the support of the CIA and the Pentagon. Mütercimler was detained during the Ergenekon investigation for questioning before being released.
Mütercimler and others, however, draw a distinction between the Ergenekon of today and the original one, which they equate with the Counter-Guerrilla; Operation Gladio's Turkish branch. Today's Ergenekon is said to be a "splinter" off the old one. The person whose testimony contributed most to the indictment, Tuncay Güney, described Ergenekon as a junta related to the Turkish Resistance Organization (Turkish: Türk Mukavemet Teşkilatı, TMT) operating in North Cyprus; the TMT was established by founding members of the Counter-Guerrilla. Former North Cyprus President Rauf Denktaş denied any connection of the TMT to Ergenekon.
Another position is that while some of the suspects may be guilty of something, there is no organization to which they are all party, and that the only thing they have in common is opposition to the AKP. There is evidence to suggest that some – but only some – of the defendants named in the indictments have been engaged in illegal activity and that others – again far from all – hold eccentric or distasteful political opinions and worldviews. There are also allegations that Ergenekon's agenda is in line with the policies of the National Security Council, elaborated in the top-secret "Red Book" (the National Security Policy Document).
- Secret and civil cells liaisons: Veli Küçük and Muzaffer Tekin
- Lobbyists: M. Zekeriya Öztürk, Kemal Kerinçsiz, İsmail Yıldız, and Erkut Ersoy
- NGO head: Sevgi Erenerol, Kemal Kerinçsiz (assistant)
- Theory, Propaganda, and Disinformation Department head: Doğu Perinçek
- Mafia structuring head: Veli Küçük, Muzaffer Tekin (assistant)
- Underground contacts: Ali Yasak, Sami Hoştan, Semih Tufan Gülaltay, and Sedat Peker
- Terrorist organizations heads: Veli Küçük and Doğu Perinçek
- University structuring: Kemal Yalçın Alemdaroğlu, Emin Gürses, Habib Ümit Sayın
- Research and information gathering head: Mehmet Zekeriya Öztürk
- Judicial branch heads: Kemal Kerinçsiz, Fuat Turgut, and Nusret Senem
Some have called Veli Küçük the leader in the organization. Şamil Tayyar of the Star daily says that Küçük is not "even among the top ten". Turkey's National Intelligence Organization (MİT) reportedly informed the prosecutor about the identity of the "number one" in the organization, but this will not be made public.
In most cases the name is shown as having derived from the Ergenekon myth; a place in Eurasia of mythological significance, esp. among nationalists (see Agartha). The legend was vigorously promulgated during the early years of the Turkish Republic as Atatürk sought to create a nation state in which national consciousness rather than religion served as the primary determinant of identity. With the growing number of detentions and subsequent court cases (see: Ergenekon (trials)) not many people still really understand what is happening. (also see chapter: Debate on Ergenekon)
Although the investigation was officially launched in 2007, the existence of the organization was known beforehand. The files on Ergenekon were discovered after a spy called Tuncay Güney was detained in March 2001 for petty fraud. Some say the crime was a ploy to set the investigation in motion. A police search of his house turned up the six sacks of evidence on which the indictment is based.
One month later, a columnist on good terms with the government, Fehmi Koru, was the first to break the news, under his usual pen name, Taha Kıvanç. His article was based on a key Ergenekon report dated October 29, 1999, and titled "Ergenekon: Analysis, Structuring, Management, and Development Project".
Tuncay Güney's testimony (2001)
The person whose statements to the police in 2001 formed "the backbone of the indictment" was a spy named Tuncay Güney, alias "İpek". Güney is believed to be subordinate to Mehmet Eymür, formerly of the National Intelligence Organization (MİT)'s Counterterrorism Department. Eymür was discharged and his department disbanded in 1997. Güney's relationship to the MİT has been a matter of confusion; his boss was once a MİT employee, while the MİT says Güney was not (specifically, he was not a "registered informant") and that the MİT considered him a suspicious person.
He had allegedly been tasked with infiltrating the gendarmerie's intelligence agency (JITEM) and Ergenekon in 1992. Güney was apprehended in 2001 for issuing fake licenses and plates for luxury cars. He is still sentenced in absentia for this offense. No charges have been brought against him in the frame of the Ergenekon investigation, some say as a result of a bargain struck with the authorities. However, he is currently under investigation, and State Prosecutor Ziya Hurşit Karayurt has proposed that he be subpoenaed. The court is deliberating whether to consolidate his earlier case with the Ergenekon one. In addition, legal proceedings have been initiated to obtain his testimony from abroad using Interpol. Prosecutor Öz has prepared a list of 37 questions for Güney, who says he will cooperate if the questioning is done by the Canadian police.
Güney has been said to conflate fact and fiction, casting doubt over the indictment, which names him a "fugitive suspect" (Turkish: firari şüpheli). Güney is seen as such an important figure that rival press groups have exchanged columns accusing one another of attempting to influence public opinion by questioning his credibility. It is alleged that one the parties, Aydın Doğan, was asked not to publish material about Ergenekon, by Veli Küçük through Doğu Perinçek. In December 2008, Güney said that a Hürriyet reporter offered him a bribe not to talk about the newspaper, one of whose senior members is allegedly in Ergenekon. Hürriyet denied the allegations.
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The first hearing was held on October 20, 2008. Retired public prosecutor Mete Göktürk estimated that they would last at least one year. Most of the cases related to Ergenekon are handled by Istanbul Heavy Penal Court 12 and 13 (formerly Istanbul State Security Court 4 and 5). The original three prosecutors were Zekeriya Öz (prosecutor-in-chief), Mehmet Ali Pekgüzel and Nihat Taşkın. The judge was Köksal Şengün. Most trials are held at a prison complex in Istanbul's Silivri neighborhood. At the beginning the courtroom could accommodate about 280 people.
The investigation drew alleged links between an armed attack on the Turkish Council of State in 2006 that left a judge dead, a bombing of a secularist newspaper, threats and attacks against people accused of being unpatriotic and the 1996 Susurluk incident, as well as links to the plans of some groups in the Turkish Armed Forces (TSK) to overthrow the present government. According to the investigation, Ergenekon had a role in the murder of Hrant Dink, a prominent journalist of Armenian descent Italian priest Father Andrea Santoro in February 2006 and the brutal murders of three Christians, one a German national, killed in the province of Malatya in April 2007. Furthermore, files about JİTEM related the assassination of former JİTEM commander Cem Ersever, killed in November 1993, to Ergenekon. A former JİTEM member, Abdülkadir Aygan, said that JİTEM is the military wing of Ergenekon.
The indictment also suggests questionable connections between Ergenekon and the outlawed Kurdistan Workers' Party (PKK) and the Revolutionary People's Liberation Party/Front (DHKP/C), raising some suspicions that Ergenekon might have played a role in inciting ethnic hatred between Turks and Kurds and increasing sectarian tensions between Sunnis and Alevis. The Gülen movement-affiliated Zaman newspaper quoted a senior intelligence officer, Bülent Orakoğlu, as having said that the PKK, Dev Sol, Hezbollah, and Hizb ut-Tahrir are artificial organizations set up by the network, and that Abdullah Öcalan himself was an Ergenekon member. However, Zaman's claims have been disputed, and the role of the broader Gülen movement in the trials has come under scrutiny.
Öcalan dismissed allegations made by intelligence officer Bülent Orakoğlu concerning himself, but he did say that a group inside the PKK, which he called the Zaza Group, had links with Ergenekon. He said that this group was led by Sait Çürükkaya and tried to seize control of the PKK, adding "Particularly in the Diyarbakır-Muş-Bingöl triangle, they have staged intensive and bloody attacks". The brother of Sait Çürükkaya, Selim Çürükkaya had earlier written a book "When secrets get decoded" (tr: Sırlar Çözülürken) accusing Abdullah Öcalan of being a member of Ergenekon.
Responding to allegations in Taraf, DHKP/C issued a press release ridiculing claims of its connection to Ergenekon.
By May 2009, 142 people had been formally charged with membership of the "Ergenekon armed terrorist organization" in two massive indictments totalling 2,455 and 1,909 pages respectively. Further trials followed and in March 2011 the state-owned Turkish Radio and Television Corporation (TRT) presented the following figures:
- So far 176 hearing in the first trial. After the case was merged with the case related to an armed attack on the Turkish Council of State in 2006 the number of defendants increased to 96
- So far 107 hearings in the second trial
- Investigation under the titles of "cage action plan" (tr: Kafes Eylem Planı), "planned assassination of admirals" (tr: Amirallare Suikast) and "Poyrazköy" (village in Beykoz district of Istanbul) were merged as the Poyrazköy case. There are 69 defendants, seven of them in pre-trial detention
- An indictment as part of the Ergenekon investigations carries the title: "Plans to intervene in democracy" (tr: Demokrasiye Müdahale Planı)
- Another court case around the Association for Support of Contemporary Life (tr: Çağdaş Yaşamı Destekleme Derneği ÇYDD) and the Foundation for Contemporary Education (tr: Çağdaş Eğitim Vakfı ÇEV) was to start on March 18, 2011, with eight board members on trial
- Arms found in Şile on July 28, 2008, resulted in a trial with four defendants, two of them in pre-trial detention
- A trial has been ongoing following several raids of the offices of OdaTV and the homes of many of its personnel in 2011. In the case, fourteen journalists are charged with conspiring with Ergenekon
Debate on Ergenekon
In August 2008, 300 intellectuals from Turkey declared their support for the investigation and called upon all civil and military institutions to deepen the investigation in order to reveal the rest of the people tied to Ergenekon. This initial wave of optimism has since waned, and there is a growing mass of intellectuals and policy analysts who dismiss the possibility of Ergenekon carrying out the deeds attributed to it by the public prosecution as laid out in the indictment and trial proceedings. Many people have criticized the manner in which the Ergenekon investigation is being conducted, citing in particular the length of the indictment, wiretapping in breach of privacy laws, and illegal collection of evidence.
Some commentators have suggested the trials are being used to suppress opponents and critics of the AKP government, particularly in the Odatv case. Commenting on the arrest of former chief of staff İlker Başbuğ in January 2012, former United States Ambassador to Turkey Eric S. Edelman said the Ergenekon arrests "underscore the serious questions about Turkey's continued commitment to press freedom and the rule of law".
Involvement of Gülen Movement
Gülen movement's possible involvement in Ergenekon plot has always been a debate of issue, which critics have characterized as "a pretext" by the government "to neutralize dissidents" in Turkey. In March 2011, seven Turkish journalists were arrested, including Ahmet Şık, who had been writing a book, "Imamin Ordusu" (The Imam's Army), which alleges that the Gülen movement has infiltrated the country's security forces. As Şık was taken into police custody, he shouted, "Whoever touches it [the movement] gets burned!". Upon his arrest, drafts of the book were confiscated and its possession was banned. Şık has also been charged with being part of the alleged Ergenekon plot, despite being an investigator of the plot before his arrest.
In a reply, Abdullah Bozkurt, from the Gülen movement newspaper Today's Zaman, accused Ahmet Şık of not being "an investigative journalist" conducting "independent research," but of hatching "a plot designed and put into action by the terrorist network itself."
According to Gareth H. Jenkins, a Senior Fellow of the Central Asia-Caucasus Institute & Silk Road Studies Joint Center at Johns Hopkins University:
From the outset, the pro-AKP media, particularly the newspapers and television channels run by the Gülen Movement such as Zaman, Today's Zaman and Samanyolu TV, have vigorously supported the Ergenekon investigation. This has included the illegal publication of "evidence" collected by the investigators before it has been presented in court, misrepresentations and distortions of the content of the indictments and smear campaigns against both the accused and anyone who questions the conduct of the investigations.
There have long been allegations that not only the media coverage but also the Ergenekon investigation itself is being run by Gülen's supporters. In August 2010, Hanefi Avcı, a right-wing police chief who had once been sympathetic to the Gülen Movement, published a book in which he alleged that a network of Gülen's supporters in the police were manipulating judicial processes and fixing internal appointments and promotions. On September 28, 2010, two days before he was due to give a press conference to present documentary evidence to support his allegations, Avcı was arrested and charged with membership of an extremist leftist organization. He remains in jail. On March 14, 2011, Avcı was also formally charged with being a member of the alleged Ergenekon gang.
The Gülen movement has also been implicated in what both Prime Minister Recep Tayyip Erdoğan as well as the opposition Republican People's Party (CHP) have said were illegal court decisions against members of the Turkish military, including many during the Ergenekon investigation.
- "Turkish Leader Disowns Trials That Helped Him Tame Military". The New York Times. 27 February 2014.
- "CRIME - Former chief of general staff says Bush administration supported plot against Turkish army".
- Maman, Kamil (2008-07-07). "Ergenekon is above General Staff, MİT". Today's Zaman. Archived from the original on 2008-07-09. Retrieved 2008-07-12.
- Can Dündar (1997-01-07). "Ergenekon". 40 Dakika. 13:40 minutes in. Show TV.
- Zelyut, Rıza (2008-03-30). "Türk Ordusu'nu sivil yargıya mahkum ettirecekler". Akşam (in Turkish). Archived from the original on 2008-04-02. Retrieved 2008-08-26.
Bu işkencehane, İstanbul Erenköy’deki meşhur Ziverbey Köşkü’dür.
İşkencecilerin başında General Memduh Ünlütürk bulunmaktadır.
- "Kim kimdir? İşadamı, gazeteci, profesör, emekli komutan". Radikal (in Turkish). 2008-07-02. Retrieved 2008-08-26.
Ünlütürk Paşa kendisinin de Ergenekon’un içinde olduğunu söyledi ve dedi ki, ‘Ergenekon Genelkurmay’ın da, hükümetlerin de, bürokrasinin de herkesin üstünde bir örgüt. Yasayla falan kurulmuş değil. 27 Mayıs darbesinden sonra CIA, Pentagon tarafından kurdurtulmuş. Bunun içindeki insanlar da buraya hizmet eden insanlar. Ama bunlar vatana ihanet olsun diye hizmet etmez. ‘Biz vatanı kurtarıyoruz’ düşüncesiyle örgütün içinde yer almışlardır. Ben daha başka insanlardan Ergenekon’u araştırdığımda şunu gördüm. İçinde subaylar var, emniyetçiler var, profesörler var, gazeteciler var, işadamları var, sıradan insanlar var. Bugün çeteler dediğimiz bu küçük birimler var ya, işte bu birimler Ergenekon’un içinde birer bölüm, birer parça.
- Dündar, Can (2008-11-05). "Bizim Ergenekon". Milliyet (in Turkish). Retrieved 2008-07-10.
- Jenkins, Gareth (2008-07-29). "Ergenekon Indictment Dashes Hopes Of Final Reckoning With Turkey's "Deep State"". Eurasia Daily Monitor. Jamestown Foundation. 5 (144). Retrieved 2008-11-15.
- Maman, Kamil (2008-11-26). "Ergenekon is a tiny piece of the deeper state, says Mihri Belli". Today's Zaman. Retrieved 2008-11-25.
Ergenekon must merely be a part of the counter guerrilla that they discarded. The main body is still active.
- Ergenekon İddianamesi (in Turkish). Milliyet. p. 887.
- "Ergenekon'un Kıbrıs'la bağlantısı yok". CNN TÜRK (in Turkish). 2008-11-11. Retrieved 2008-12-10.
Söylerler, bağlantısı var diye, bana kadar galiba parmağını gösterenler oldu. Alakası yok, nedir yani bu. Türk Mukavemet Teşkilatı'na (TMT) bulaştırmak istediler, alakası yok bunların. Bunlar safsata.
- Berlinski, Claire (2008-11-13). "Ergenekon: Turkey's conspiracy to end them all". First Post. Retrieved 2008-11-29.
- Gareth Jenkins, Between Fact and Fantasy: Turkey's Ergenekon Investigation (Silk Road Studies, August 2009); accessed on 16 May 2011
- Çiftçi, Çetin (2008-08-21). "Yayınevi cinayetinde Ergenekon izleri". Zaman (in Turkish). Retrieved 2009-01-06.
Ayrıca Ergenekon'un, emirleri şahıslardan değil direkt olarak 'Milli Güvenlik Siyaset Belgesi'nden aldığı belirtiliyor.
- Sariboga, Veli (2008-09-21). "'Bir Numara' örgütü 6 hücreden yönetiyor". Sabah (in Turkish). Retrieved 2008-09-22.
- "Ergenekon organization chart mapped out". Today's Zaman. 2008-09-22. Retrieved 2008-11-15.
- "Beş hücre hâlâ deşifre edilemedi". Sabah (in Turkish). 2008-09-21. Retrieved 2008-09-22.
- "Ergenekon 1992'de Gebze'de kuruldu". Yeni Şafak (in Turkish). 2008-08-04. Retrieved 2008-12-17.
Ergenekon 1992'de Veli Küçük'ün Gebze'deki makam odasında yapılan bir toplantıyla birlikte kuruldu. Kurucusu Veli Küçük'tür. Toplantıda Veli Amca, Sedat Peker ve iki kişi daha vardı.
- Düzel, Neşe (2008-02-16). "EU process victim of and solution to Ergenekon". sendika.org. Retrieved 2011-05-18.
Ergenekon'da ilk ona bile zor girer Veli Küçük.
- Ocak, Serkan (2008-12-26). "1 numara'yı sadece mahkeme görebilir". Radikal (in Turkish). Retrieved 2008-12-27.
- Becerikli, Uğur (2008-02-01). "Operasyonda Ergenekon ismi MHP'lileri kızdırdı". Sabah. Retrieved 2008-11-19.
- Joost Lagendijk: Ergenekon, gut feelings and facts (1) Hürriyet Daily News of 5 January 2010; accessed on 16 May 2011
- "'Ergenekon Temel Belgesi'ni ortaya Fehmi Koru çıkarmış". Milliyet (in Turkish). 2008-09-23. Retrieved 2008-09-23.
- Kıvanç, Taha (2001-04-30). "Hayaller gerçek galiba". Yeni Şafak (in Turkish). Retrieved 2008-09-23.
- Alus, Esra (2008-07-29). "Ergenekon banka kuracak, ticaret yapacakmış!". Milliyet (in Turkish). Retrieved 2008-08-10.
- "Ergenekon İddianamesi". Milliyet (in Turkish). p. 32. Retrieved 2008-09-23.
- Güney, Sedat (2008-09-25). "Ex-police chief Saçan probed over Ergenekon cover-up allegations". Today's Zaman. Archived from the original on 17 October 2008. Retrieved 2008-11-15.
- Arslan, Adem Yavuz (2009-01-07). "İşte Türkiye'yi sarsacak o gizli belge". Bugün (in Turkish). Retrieved 2009-01-07.
- Berkan, Ismet (2009-01-08). "Manipülasyon ve Ergenekon". Radikal. Retrieved 2009-01-07.
- Undersecretariat (2008-11-26). "Response to an article in the newspaper Sabah" (Press release) (in Turkish). Milli İstihbarat Teşkilatı. Retrieved 2008-11-27.
- "MİT'ten Güney açıklaması". Sabah (in Turkish). 2008-11-27. Retrieved 2008-11-27.[dead link]
- "MİT sent Güney to infiltrate Ergenekon, document shows". Today's Zaman. 2008-11-27. Retrieved 2008-11-27.[dead link]
- Gürol, Nezih (2008-08-29). "Tuncay Güney'in davası 7 yıldır sürüyor". Milliyet (in Turkish). Retrieved 2008-11-16.
- Ocak, Serkan (2008-11-07). "'Güney'in ifadesinden 42 sayfa eksik'". Radikal (in Turkish). Retrieved 2008-12-04.
Bu kişiden çıkan belgelerden dolayı birçok sanık huzurdadır. Ancak bu kişi hakkında dava açılmıyor. Bunu engelleyen nedir? Savcıyla bu kişi arasında bir anlaşmamı vardır.
- "Tuncay Güney'e terör örgütü üyeliğinden soruşturma". Radikal. Anadolu Agency. 2008-12-04. Retrieved 2008-12-04.
- "Güney'e dair davalar için 'Ergenekon' incelenecek". CNN TÜRK (in Turkish). 2008-10-27. Retrieved 2008-12-10.
- Maman, Kamil (2008-12-14). "Tuncay Güney'in cip davasının Ergenekon'la birleştirilmesi gündemde". Zaman (in Turkish). Retrieved 2008-12-18.
- "Tuncay Güney'in ifadesi için hukuki işlem başlatılacak". Zaman (in Turkish). 2008-12-18. Retrieved 2008-12-18.
- Kazanci, Murat; Canikligil, Razi (2009-01-08). "Öz'ün 37 sorusuna Güney'den jet yanıt: Ben de soracağım". Hürriyet (in Turkish). Retrieved 2009-01-07.
Güney: Beni kim sorgulayacak, Türk polisi mi? Yoksa Kanada polisi mi? Kanada’da demokrasi var. Nasıl olacağını bilmiyorum. Avukatımı da çağırırım, gelirler, oturur konuşuruz. Ben de onlara bir 37 soru hazırlarım. Bu soruları size de veririm aynı onlar gibi gazetede yayımlarız.
- Önal, Ayşe (2008-07-24). "Veli Küçük beni işten kovdurttu". Yeni Şafak (in Turkish). Retrieved 2008-11-21.
Tuncay doğruları, içine inanılmaz senaryolar ekleyerek anlatıyor.
- Semin Gümüşel; Sibel Düler; Adem Demir (2008-11-04). "Tuncay Güney kimdir?". Newsweek Türkiye (in Turkish). Retrieved 2008-12-02.
Avukatı olarak bana doğru söylemiyorsa kimseye söylemiyordur. Hakkındaki bilgi kirliliğine Tuncay bizzat sebep oluyor, popüler olmayı ve gündemde olmayı seviyor. İddialarının yüzde 90'nı kendi yarattığı dünyaya has.
- "Kilit haham iddianamede yok". Hürriyet. Dogan News Agency. 2008-07-14. Retrieved 2008-11-19.
Ceza Muhakemesi Kanununda iddianamenin iadesi için 15 günlük inceleme süresi içerisinde soruşturma dosyasındaki kısıt kararına rağmen tespit edebildiğimiz kadarıyla, Tuncay Güney'in ne sanık olarak ne de itirafçı olarak iddianamede ifadesinin alınmadığını öğrenmiş bulunmaktayız. İddianamenin iadesini düzenleyen maddede suçun sübûtuna etki edeceği mutlak sayılan mevcut bir delil toplanmadan düzenlenen iddianamenin iade edileceği hususu düzenlenmiştir. Bu çerçevede, güya Ergenekon Örgütünün kuruluş metinlerini yazdığını kendi ağzıyla ifade eden Tuncay Güney'in iddianamede ifadesinin yer almaması esaslı bir eksikliktir. Yani Tuncay Güney de var ise Ergenekon Örgütünün mensubu ve suçlusudur. Bu halde olsa olsa Tuncay Güney itirafçı olabilecektir. Ancak bunun içinde Tuncay Güney'in ifadesine başvurulmuş olması gerekmektedir.
- Altintas, E Baris (2008-12-03). "Ergenekon critics use Güney as ploy". Today's Zaman. Retrieved 2008-12-02.[dead link]
- Ergin, Sedat (2008-12-02). "Tuncay Güney ve Zaman gazetesi". Milliyet (in Turkish). Retrieved 2008-12-04.
- Ergin, Sedat (2008-12-04). "Zaman gazetesine yanıtlar -ikinci bölüm". Milliyet (in Turkish). Retrieved 2008-12-04.
- Tayyar, Şamil (2008-11-12). "Aydın Doğan Ergenekon'dan nasıl sıyırdı?". Star (in Turkish). Retrieved 2008-11-16.
- Güney, Tuncay (2008-12-10). "Tuncay Güney Hürriyet'i yalanladı" (Press release) (in Turkish). FarukArslan.com. Retrieved 2008-12-11.
- "Hürriyet: Tuncay Güney iftira atıyor". Yeni Şafak (in Turkish). 2008-12-12. Retrieved 2008-12-13.
- Tanış, Tolga (2008-12-12). "HÜRRİYET MUHABİRİ, YENİ ŞAFAK'IN İDDİALARINA YANIT VERDİ". Medyatava (in Turkish). Retrieved 2008-12-24.
- Kilic, Ecevit (2008-10-19). "Dava 1 yıldan önce bitmez". Sabah (in Turkish). Retrieved 2008-11-29.
- See for instance http://tr.wikisource.org/wiki/1._Ergenekon_%C4%B0ddianamesi
- "Ergenekon indictment reopens gendarmerie major's murder case". Today's Zaman. 2008-08-13. Retrieved 2008-08-14.
- Erdogan, Eyup (2008-07-25). "Ergenekon düğümünü o çözecek". Radikal (in Turkish). Retrieved 2008-09-15.
- Trial of 86 militants accused of trying to topple Turkish prime minister opens amid court chaos Daily Mail of 20 October 2008; accessed on 17 May 2011
- "Turkey charges 86 for 'coup plot'". BBC News. 2008-07-14. Retrieved 2009-01-09.
- Rainsford, Sarah (2008-02-04). "'Deep state plot' grips Turkey". BBC News. Retrieved 2008-05-06.
- Montgomery, Devin (2008-07-12). "Turkey arrests two ex-generals for alleged coup plot". JURIST. Retrieved 2008-07-07.
- Ergenekon indictment reopens gendarmerie major’s murder case, Today's Zaman, 13 August 2008.
- Kuseyri, Murat (2008-10-04). "JİTEM Ergenekon'un askeri kanadıdır". Evrensel (in Turkish). Retrieved 2008-10-21.
- Shocking Ergenekon Indictment Star International of 8 August 2008; accessed on 16 May 2011
- "İstihbaratçıdan şok iddia: Apo Ergenekon üyesidir". Zaman (in Turkish). 2008-09-22. Retrieved 2008-09-22.
- Jenkins, Gareth (2008-09-22). "Fact, Fantasy, And Farce As More Are Detained In Ergenekon Probe". Eurasia Daily Monitor. Jamestown Foundation. 5 (181). Retrieved 2008-11-15.
Nevertheless, the pro-AKP media continue to claim that virtually every act of terrorism in Turkey attributed to Islamist militants over the last 20 years was actually a “false flag” operation by Ergenekon, including those that occurred before the organization was even formed.
- Senior general knew about lieutenants’ Ergenekon contacts, Today's Zaman, 24 September 2008
- Publishing House DOZ, March 2007, ISBN 978-975-6876-95-4
- "The old theories about the Sabanci Center have gone mouldy!" (Press release). DHKP/C. 2008-05-18.
- "TRT - Anasayfa".
- [dead link]
- "300 Intellectuals Make A Declaration To Support Ergenekon Investigation". Bianet. 2008-08-13. Retrieved 2008-08-17.
- Chasing Ergenekon Ebru İlhan in Revolver Magazine of 13 May 2011; accessed on 18 May 2011
- "Release Of "Ergenekon" Indictment Postponed Again; File To Be As Tall As 26-40 Storey Building". KanalD TV, Vatan. MEMRI Turkish Media Blog. 2008-07-11. Retrieved 2008-07-31.
- "Ergenekon indictment may trouble Turkey". Turkish Daily News. 2008-09-03.
- Gokcer Tahincioglu; Esra Alus (2008-08-31). "'İddianamedeki dedikodu'ya hukukçulardan itiraz". Milliyet (in Turkish). Retrieved 2008-09-04.
- "Judiciary gears up for close look at Ergenekon". Hurriyet Daily News. 2009-01-08. Retrieved 2009-01-08.
The code of Criminal Procedure obliges the presence of a prosecutor during all house searches, confiscations, detentions and arrests. We have seen that every search and detention has been conducted solely by police. If not conducted with a prosecutor, the evidence seized is considered illegal.
- "Turkish prosecutors file indictment on controversial Ergenekon case". Hürriyet Daily News. 2008-07-14. Retrieved 2011-05-18.
The extent of the operation had widened since the closure case against the AKP filed in March. Although the closure case and the Ergenekon case are separate legal processes, Prime Minister Tayyip Erdogan had linked the two cases saying the closure case against the AKP was filed due to the government’s determination in the Ergenekon case.
- Coup-plotting allegations in Turkey: Bugged Out The Economist 6 January 2012
- "Central Asia-Caucasus Institute and Silk Road Studies Program". Silkroadstudies.org. Retrieved 2013-12-18.
- Cagaptay, Soner. "Behind Turkey's Witch Hunt".
- Turkish authorities launch raids to censor book before publication in the Guardian of 5 April 2011; accessed on 11 April 2011
- Arsu, Şebnem (2011-03-03). "7 More Journalists Detained in Turkey". The New York Times.
- Details can be found in English on the site of the Democratic Turkey Forum; accessed on 5 April 2001. In the footnotes to translated passages of the book you can find other works on the subject.
- The alleged terrorist network is the Ergenekon organization, see Article of 29 March 2011; accessed on 5 April 2011
- Arango, Tim (26 February 2014). "Turkish Leader Disowns Trials That Helped Him Tame Military". The New York Times. Retrieved 27 February 2014.
In 2005, years before the trials, a man affiliated with the Gulen movement approached Eric S. Edelman, then the American ambassador, at a party in Istanbul and handed him an envelope containing a handwritten document that supposedly laid out a plan for an imminent coup. But as Mr. Edelman recounted, he gave the documents to his colleagues and they were determined to be forgeries.
|Turkish Wikisource has original text related to this article:|
- Summary of the first indictment in English
- Summary of the second indictment in English
- The Lobby (Lobi) document in English: This booklet was found in the raids to the homes of several Ergenekon suspects. It is one of the basic documents used as evidence in the second indictment.
- The Ergenekon Analysis (Analiz) document in English: This document, part of the second indictment, compromises the goals, tactics, member profiles, and financial sources of the alleged organization.
- Necati Polat, "The Anti-Coup Trials in Turkey: What Exactly is Going On?" Mediterranean Politics (Vol. 16, No. 1, 2011), pp. 213–19
- Umit Cizre and Joshua Walker, "Conceiving the New Turkey after Ergenekon," The International Spectator (Vol. 45, No. 1, 2010), pp. 89–98
- Young Civilians and Human Rights Agenda Association, Ergenekon is Our Reality (Istanbul, 2010)
- Serdar Kaya, "The Rise and Decline of the Turkish ‘Deep State’: The Ergenekon Case," Insight Turkey (Vol. 11, No. 4, 2009), pp. 99–113
- Gareth H. Jenkins, Between Fact and Fantasy: Turkey’s Ergenekon Investigation (Washington and Stockholm: Central Asia-Caucasus Institute Silk Road Studies Program, August 2009)
- The Basics of the Ergenekon Operation
- Chronology: I, II, III, IV, V. Today's Zaman.
- Network's organization chart, Today's Zaman.
- These charts were originally drawn by Tuncay Güney; see "Savcının sansürlediği şema 236. klasörde sansürsüz". Gazeteport (in Turkish). 2008-08-16.
|section=ignored (help) They are also included in the indictment's annex: folder 236, p.196-7
- Turkey -- Guide to Ergenekon An Open Source Center Report of 19 March 2010
- Politics of Principles or Principles of Politics: An Evaluation on Ergenekon Investigation by Taptuk Emre Erkoc in Global Faultlines on 30 March 2011