Eric Campbell Geddes

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The Right Honourable
Sir Eric Campbell Geddes
GCB GBE
Sir Eric Campbell-Geddes in 1917.jpg
Geddes, illustration from a newspaper of 1917
First Lord of the Admiralty
In office
17 July 1917 – 10 January 1919
Monarch George V
Prime Minister David Lloyd George
Preceded by Sir Edward Carson
Succeeded by Walter Long
Minister of Transport
In office
19 May 1919 – 7 November 1921
Monarch George V
Prime Minister David Lloyd George
Preceded by New office
Succeeded by The Viscount Peel
Personal details
Born 26 September 1875 (1875-09-26)
British India
Died 22 June 1937 (1937-06-23)
Nationality British
Political party Conservative
Spouse(s) Gwendolen Stokes

Sir Eric Campbell-Geddes GCB, GBE, PC (26 September 1875 – 22 June 1937) was a British businessman and Conservative politician. With a background in railways, he served as head of Military Transportation on the Western Front, with the rank of Major-General. He then served as First Lord of the Admiralty (with the rank of Vice-Admiral, despite its being a political position) between 1917 and 1919. He then served as the first Minister of Transport between 1919 and 1921, in which position he was responsible for the deep public spending cuts known as the "Geddes Axe".

Background and education[edit]

Born in British India, Geddes was the son of Auckland Campbell Geddes, of Edinburgh, Scotland, and the elder brother of Auckland Geddes, 1st Baron Geddes. He was educated at Oxford Military College and Merchiston Castle School, Edinburgh,[1] until asked to leave.[2] -...

Business career[edit]

Geddes then spent 2½ years drifting between jobs like lumberjack and steelworker in the United States, eventually becoming a station master for the Baltimore and Ohio Railroad, rising to car-tracer. When he abruptly returned home his older sister gave him a firm talking to, late in 1895 he was sent to India for a minor job in estate management where he built light railways before moving to the Rohilkund and Kumaon railway; he became superintendent in 1901.[2] Returning to England because of his wife's poor health, he joined the North-Eastern Railway,[1][3] and rose to be Deputy General Manager in 1911.[1][4]

Political career[edit]

During the First World War Geddes was one of the "men of push and go" brought into government service by Minister of Munitions David Lloyd George. Made responsible for small arms production, he established rational goals for rifles, light and heavy machine guns; production soared. They made many more automatic weapons than the army had requested. Shell production was also booming but they were not getting filled with explosive, Geddes was made responsible in December 1916; in six months the number of filled shells increased tenfold to two million per week. The filled shells piled up on French docks. Lloyd George, now Minister of War, persuaded Sir Douglas Haig, Commander of the British Expeditionary Force, to invite Geddes and his three-man team over for two days in August 1916 to advise on transportation. Haig was so impressed that the visit was extended to a month and then Geddes was appointed Director General of Military Railways and Inspector-General of Transportation with the rank of Major General. They got the ports and railways working efficiently and built light railways to bring materials to the front. He was knighted in 1916 and appointed a Knight Commander of the Order of the Bath and Knight Grand Cross of the Order of the British Empire in 1917. He was promoted to inspector general of transportation in all theaters of war.

The German U-boat Campaign (World War I) unleashed unrestricted attacks in February 1917. As their merchant fleet was going to the bottom, Lloyd George transferred Geddes to the Admiralty as Civilian Lord with the rank of Vice-Admiral. He was given control of British shipbuilding, charged with making up for as many of the losses as possible.[1] He found the Admiralty in disarray and wrote to his friend Field Marshal Haig about the lack of drive. On 19 June 1917 First Sea Lord Jellicoe confessed to the War Cabinet that they were losing.[5] Haig and Geddes breakfasted with Lloyd George to demand a new administration in the Admiralty.

On 6 July 1917 Geddes, strongly recommended by Haig, returned to civilian life as First Lord of the Admiralty. To serve he had to be a member of the House of Commons and was elected for Cambridge.[6] He was sworn into the Privy Council the same month.[7] The Daily Telegraph's naval correspondent, Sir Archibald Hurd, later wrote of Geddes and Lloyd George, "No men more ignorant of naval affairs were ever associated together than the Prime Minister and Geddes".[8] Regardless of this deficiency he infused the Admiralty with determined energy, encouraged innovation, openness and initiative. Convoying was turning the tide. Geddes appointed the Belfast shipbuilder Lord Pirrie as controller-general of merchant shipbuilding,[1] and brought William Henry Bragg into the Admiralty to oversee antisubmarine science: they were working with the French to develop sonar which was ready just when the war ended. Jellicoe was replaced at the end of 1917. Convoys in home waters lost only 1.25 percent of their ships and 2,084,000 American soldiers reached Europe; only 113 were lost to U-boats, despite the German Admiralty's boast that they would destroy them all. At war's end the world supply of shipping was larger than it had been at the outset, thanks to the growth of the Japanese and American merchant fleets.[9] It was a great Allied victory.

Lloyd George's evaluation was that Geddes was "... one of the most remarkable men which the State called to its aid ..."[10] He left the Admiralty in January 1919 and was made a Knight Grand Cross of the Order of the Bath. Lloyd George then asked him to organize a new Ministry of Transport. Until the bill setting up this new office was passed in May 1919, he remained in the cabinet as Minister without Portfolio. In May 1919 he was appointed the first Minister of Transport. The new ministry was given control over railways, roads, canals and docks but was criticized in both houses of parliament for giving in to nationalization and for its large size. In the autumn of 1921 the handing back of the railways from state control to the companies was being reviewed, which put the Ministry of Transport under further pressure. Geddes had neither taste nor aptitude for political infighting, he resigned in November 1921.[1] He chaired the committee on National Expenditure which proposed heavy cuts in public expenditure to match falling national income, the austerity policy became known as Geddes Axe. When enacted it depressed the economy further. He resigned from the government and the Commons in 1922, becoming director of Dunlop Rubber. From 1924 until his death he was chairman of Imperial Airways.

Geddes' memorable quotation is "We shall squeeze the German lemon until the pips squeak!" which he introduced in a stump speech before the election of 1918. It became a major rallying call during the coalition's campaign.

Family[edit]

Geddes married Gwendolen, daughter of Reverend A. Stokes, in 1900. They had three sons, including Sir Reay Geddes, former chairman of the Dunlop Rubber Company. Sir Eric died in June 1937, aged 61, after several years of declining health.[1]

References[edit]

  1. ^ a b c d e f g www.1911encyclopedia.org Sir Eric Campbell Geddes
  2. ^ a b Geddes, Baron, The forging of a family. London: Faber & Faber, 1952 p. 124, pp.201-205, pp.221-250.
  3. ^ Tucker, S & Roberts, P M, World War I: ISBN 1-85109-420-2
  4. ^ 25 years of the NER 1898-1922. R Bell. Publisher: The Railway Gazette.
  5. ^ Van der Kloot, W., Great Scientists wage the Great War, Stroud: Fonthill Media, 2014, Chapter. 5
  6. ^ leighrayment.com House of Commons: Caernarfon to Cambridgeshire South West.
  7. ^ The London Gazette: no. 30192. p. 7337. 20 July 1917.
  8. ^ Hurd, Sir Archibald (1942). Who Goes There?. London: Hutchinson & Co. [Publishers] Ltd. p. 139. 
  9. ^ Hurd, S. A., The Merchant Navy, London: John Murray, 1929
  10. ^ Lloyd George, D., War Memoirs. London: Oldhams' Press, 1938, p. 15
  • Grieves, Keith (1989). Sir Eric Geddes: Business and Government in War and Peace. Manchester: Manchester University Press. ISBN 0-7190-2345-9. 

External links[edit]

Military offices
Preceded by
New title
Controller of the Navy
1917
Succeeded by
Sir Alan Anderson
Parliament of the United Kingdom
Preceded by
Almeric Paget
Member of Parliament for Cambridge
19171922
Succeeded by
Sir George Newton
Political offices
Preceded by
Sir Edward Carson
First Lord of the Admiralty
1917–1919
Succeeded by
Walter Long
Preceded by
Austen Chamberlain
Minister without Portfolio
1919
Vacant
Title next held by
Sir Laming Worthington-Evans, Bt
New title Minister of Transport
1919–1921
Succeeded by
The Viscount Peel