Erich von dem Bach-Zelewski
|Erich von dem Bach-Zelewski|
|Birth name||Erich Julius Eberhard von Zelewski|
|Born||1 March 1899
Lauenburg, Prussia, German Empire
|Died||8 March 1972
Munich, West Germany
|Allegiance|| German Empire
|Years of service||1914–45|
|Service number||NSDAP #489,101
|Commands held||SS and police leader for Silesia|
Erich von dem Bach-Zelewski (1 March 1899 – 8 March 1972) was a high-ranking Schutzstaffel (SS) commander during World War II in charge of so-called anti-partisan warfare (Bandenkampf (literally: "bandit fighting")) against "bandits" and any other persons assumed to present danger to the Nazi rule or Wehrmacht's security in the occupied territories of Eastern Europe. It mostly involved the civilian population. In 1944 he led the brutal suppression of the Warsaw Uprising.
Despite his responsibility for numerous war crimes and crimes against humanity, Bach-Zelewski did not stand trial in Nuremberg. He was convicted for politically motivated murders after the war and died in prison in 1972.
Erich von dem Bach-Zelewski was born as "Erich Julius Eberhard von Zelewski" on 1 March 1899 to Kashubian parents, Otto Jan Józefat von Zelewski and Elżbieta Ewelina Szymańska. He legally added "von dem Bach" to the family name late in 1933. In November 1941, he removed "Zelewski" part of his surname because of its Polish-sounding origin. Apparently, Bach-Zelewski manipulated his genealogy numerous times in his career, to impress his superiors.
Despite his aristocratic genealogy, he grew up in poverty. In November 1914, he volunteered for the Prussian Army and served throughout World War I. He was awarded the Iron Cross. After the war, Zelewski remained in the Reichswehr and fought against the Polish Silesian Uprisings. In 1924 he resigned his army commission (or most likely was discharged) and returned to his farm in Düringshof (Polish Bogdaniec in Gorzów Wielkopolski county). Zelewski enrolled with the border guards (Grenzschutz) the same year.
On 23 October 1925 he legally changed his surname to von dem Bach-Zelewski. In 1930 he left the Grenzschutz, joined the Nazi Party, and became a member of the SS in 1931, achieving the rank of SS-Brigadeführer in late 1933. During this period he reportedly quarreled with his staff officer, Anton von Hohberg und Buchwald.
A source of considerable embarrassment for him was the fact that all three of his sisters had married Jewish men. After the war he claimed under interrogation that this had ruined his reputation in the army, forcing him to leave the Reichswehr. A Nazi Party member of the Reichstag from 1932–44, Bach-Zelewski participated in the Night of the Long Knives in 1934, using the opportunity to have his rival Buchwald murdered. From 1934 on he served as leader of SS main districts (SS-Oberabschnitten), initially in East Prussia and after 1936 in Silesia. In 1937 he was named Senior SS and Police Leader (HSSPF) in Silesia, and also served as Commander of SS main district South East (SS-Oberabschnitt Südost).
World War II
In November 1939 SS chief Heinrich Himmler offered Bach-Zelewski the post of "Commissioner for the Strengthening of Germandom" in Silesia. His duties included mass resettlement and the confiscation of Polish private property. By August 1940 some 18,000–20,000 Poles from Żywiec County were forced to leave their homes in what became known as the Action Saybusch (German name for Żywiec).
Bach-Zelewski provided the initial impetus for the building of Auschwitz concentration camp at the former Austrian artillery barracks in the Zasole suburb of Oświęcim due to overcrowding of prisons. The location was scouted by his subordinate Oberführer Arpad Wigand. The first transport arrived at KL Auschwitz on 14 June 1940, and two weeks later Bach-Zelewski personally visited the camp. In June 1941 he resumed his duties as HSSPF in Silesia.
Occupied Soviet Union
During Operation Barbarossa Bach-Zelewski served as HSSPF in the territory of Belarus. From July to September 1941 he oversaw the extermination of Jews in Riga and Minsk by the Einsatzgruppe B, led by Arthur Nebe, also visiting other sites of mass killings such as Bialystok, Grodno, Baranovichi, Mogilev, and Pinsk. He regularly cabled to headquarters on the extermination progress; for example, the 22 August message stated: "Thus the figure in my area now exceeds the thirty thousand mark".
In February 1942 he was hospitalized in Berlin for treatment of "intestinal ailments", and was described as suffering from "hallucinations connected with the shooting of Jews". Before resuming his post in July, Bach-Zelewski petitioned Himmler for reassignment to anti-partisan warfare duty.
In June 1942 Reinhard Heydrich, acting Reich-Protector of Bohemia and Moravia, was assassinated in Prague. Hitler chose Bach-Zelewski as his replacement, but Himmler protested that he could not be spared due to the prevailing military situation. Hitler relented and appointed Kurt Daluege to the position. Through 1943, Bach-Zelewski remained in command of "anti-partisan" units on the central front, a special command created by Hitler. He was the only HSSPF in the occupied Soviet territories to retain genuine authority over the police after Hans-Adolf Prützmann and Jeckeln lost theirs to the civil administration.
Sometime in June 1943, Himmler issued the Bandenbekämpfung (bandit fighting) order, simultaneously announcing the existence of the Bandenkampfverbände (bandit fighting formations), with Bach-Zelewski as its chief. Employing troops primarily from the SS police and Waffen-SS, the Bandenkampfverbände had four principal operational components: propaganda, centralized control and coordination of security operations, training of troops, and battle operations. Once the Wehrmacht had secured territorial objectives, the Bandenkampfverbände first secured communications facilities, roads, railways, and waterways. Thereafter, they secured rural communities and economic installations such as factories and administrative buildings. An additional priority was securing agricultural and forestry resources. The SS oversaw the collection of the harvest, which was deemed critical to strategic operations. Any Jews in the area were rounded up and killed. Communists and people of Asiatic descent were killed presumptively under the assumption that they were Soviet agents. Under Bach-Zelewski, the formations were responsible for the mass murder of 35,000 civilians in Riga and more than 200,000 in Belarus and eastern Poland.
Bach-Zelewski's methods produced a high civilian death toll and relatively minor military gains. In fighting irregular battles with the partisans, his units slaughtered civilians in order to inflate the figures of "enemy losses"; indeed, far more fatalities were usually reported than weapons captured. The German troops would encircle areas controlled by the partisans in time-consuming manner, allowing real partisans to slip away. After an operation was completed, no permanent military presence was maintained, which gave the partisans a chance to resume where they had left off. Even when successful in pacification actions, Bach-Zelewski usually accomplished little more than to force the real enemy to relocate and multiply their numbers with civilians enraged by the massacres.
In July 1943 Bach-Zelewski received command of all anti-partisan actions in Belgium, Belarus, France, the General Government, the Netherlands, Norway, Ukraine, Yugoslavia, and parts of the Bezirk Bialystok. In practice, his activities remained confined to Belarus and contiguous parts of Russia.
On 2 August 1944, Bach-Zelewski took command of all German troops fighting Bor-Komorowski's Home Army that had staged the Warsaw Uprising. The German forces were made up of 17,000 men arranged in two battle groups: under Hanns von Rohr, and under Reinefarth – the latter included the Dirlewanger Brigade of convicted criminals. This command group was named after Bach-Zelewski, as Korpsgruppe Bach. Units under his command killed approximately 200,000 civilians (more than 65,000 in mass executions) and an unknown number of POWs.
After more than two months of heavy fighting and the total destruction of Warsaw, Bach-Zelewski managed to take control of the city, committing atrocities in the process, notably the Wola massacre. For his exploits in Warsaw, Bach-Zelewski was awarded the Knight's Cross of the Iron Cross on 30 September 1944 and was mentioned in the Wehrmachtbericht, a propaganda radio report, on 1 October 1944. Incidentally, during the slaughter and razing of Warsaw, he is alleged to have personally saved Fryderyk Chopin's heart, by taking it for his own collection of curiosities. The recovered heart is held at a Warsaw church. Between 26 January and 10 February 1945, Bach-Zelewski commanded X SS Armeekorps, one of the "paper-corps", in Germany, but this unit was annihilated after less than two weeks.
After the war
After the war in Europe ended, Bach-Zelewski went into hiding and tried to leave the country. US military police arrested him on 1 August 1945. In exchange for his testimony against his former superiors at the Nuremberg Trials, Bach-Zelewski never faced trial for any war crimes. Similarly, he never faced extradition to Poland or to the USSR. During his testimony at the Nuremberg Trials, Bach-Zelewski stated that he disapproved of Himmler's aim to exterminate 30 million Slavs.
Bach-Zelewski left prison in 1949. In 1951, Bach-Zelewski claimed that he helped Hermann Göring commit suicide in 1946. As evidence, he produced cyanide capsules to the authorities with serial numbers not far removed from the one used by Göring. The authorities never verified Bach-Zelewski's claim, however, and did not charge him with aiding Göring's death. Most modern historians dismiss Bach-Zelewski's claim and agree that a U.S. Army contact within the Palace of Justice's prison at Nuremberg most likely aided Göring in his suicide.
Trials and convictions
In 1951, Bach-Zelewski was sentenced to 10 years in a labor camp for the murder of political opponents in the early 1930s; however, he did not serve prison time until 1958, when he was convicted of killing Anton von Hohberg und Buchwald, an SS officer, during the Night of the Long Knives, and was sentenced to four and a half years imprisonment.
In 1961, Bach-Zelewski was sentenced to an additional 10 years in home custody for the murder of 6 German Communists in the early 1930s. None of the sentences referred to his role in Poland, in the Soviet Union, or his participation in the Holocaust, although he openly denounced himself as a mass murderer. Bach-Zelewski died in a Munich prison on 8 March 1972, a week after his 73rd birthday.
Bach-Zelewski gave evidence for the defence at the trial of Adolf Eichmann in Israel in May 1961. His evidence was to the effect that operations in Russia and parts of Poland were conducted by Operations Units of the Security Police and were not subject to the orders of Eichmann's office, nor was Eichmann able to give orders to the officers in charge of these units, who were responsible for the murder of Jews and Gypsies. The evidence was provided at a hearing in Nuremberg in May 1961.
- German Cross on 23 February 1942 as SS-Obergruppenführer and Höhere SS- und Polizeiführer of Russland-Mitte
- Knight's Cross of the Iron Cross on 30 September 1944 as SS-Obergruppenführer and General der Polizei and commanding general of Korpsgruppe "von dem Bach" in Warsaw
- Mentioned in the Wehrmachtbericht radio report on 1 October 1944.
- Halik Kochanski, The Eagle Unbowed: Poland and the Poles in the Second World War, pp. 404-405
- Tomasz Żuroch-Piechowski. "Eryk z Bogdańca, niewinny w Norymberdze (Innocent man at the Nuremberg Trials)". Tygodnik Powszechny (in Polish). 39/2006 (24 September 2006). Archived from the original (Internet Archive) on February 19, 2009. Retrieved 26 June 2012.
- Henrik Eberle, Matthias Uhl: Das Buch Hitler
David T. Zabecki: Germany at war
- Goldensohn, Leon, The Nuremberg Interviews: Conversations with the Defendants and Witnesses, Random House Publishing, 2010.
- Blood 2006, p. 40.
- Blood 2006, p. 41.
- Mirosław Sikora (20 September 2011). "Saybusch Aktion - jak Hitler budował raj dla swoich chłopów". OBEP Institute of National Remembrance, Katowice (in Polish). Redakcja. Retrieved 5 May 2012.
- Żuroch-Piechowski. "Innocent man at the Nuremberg Trials". Tygodnik Powszechny. Archived from the original (ibidem, page 2) on February 19, 2009. Retrieved 26 June 2012.
- Blood 2006, p. 58.
- Lifton 1986, p. 159.
- Arendt, Hannah, Eichmann in Jerusalem: the banality of evil (New York: Viking Press 1963), p. 7.
- Żuroch-Piechowski. "Innocent man at the Nuremberg Trials". Tygodnik Powszechny. Archived from the original (ibidem, page 3) on February 19, 2009. Retrieved 26 June 2012.
- Blood 2006, p. 121.
- Blood 2006, pp. 152–154.
- Longerich 2012, pp. 628–629.
- Edgar M. Howell (1997). The Soviet Partisan Movement: 1941-1944. Merriam Press. p. 185. ISBN 1576380149. Retrieved 27 June 2013.
- Davies 2004
- "The Rape of Warsaw", Stosstruppen39-45.tripod.com; retrieved 3 February 2009.
- The Wehrmacht Reports 1939–1945 Volume 3, p. 271.
- Chopin's Heart, AFP, at The Chopin Society UK; retrieved 30 May 2012.
- The Nuremberg Trial, Ann Tusa, John Tusa, p.162
- "Guard 'gave Goering suicide pill'", BBC News, 8 February 2005.
- Hamburger Abendblatt, 4 August 1962. (German)
- The Trial Papers of Eichmann's Trial
- Patzwall & Scherzer 2001, p. 20.
- Fellgiebel 2000, p. 119.
- Wehrmachtbericht 1985.
- Władysław Bartoszewski (1961). Prawda o von dem Bachu (Truth on von dem Bach) (in Polish). Poznań: Wydawnictwo Zachodnie. p. 103.
- Blood, Phillip W. (2006). Hitler's Bandit Hunters: The SS and the Nazi Occupation of Europe. Potomac Books. ISBN 978-1597970211.
- Norman Davies, (2004). Rising '44. The Battle for Warsaw, (1st U.S. ed.), New York: Viking; ISBN 978-0-670-03284-6.
- Marek Dzięcielski (2002). Pomorskie sylwetki (Pomeranian Biographies) (in Polish). Toruń: Wydawnictwo Adam Marszałek. pp. 221–233. ISBN 83-7322-491-2.
- Fellgiebel, Walther-Peer (2000) . Die Träger des Ritterkreuzes des Eisernen Kreuzes 1939–1945 — Die Inhaber der höchsten Auszeichnung des Zweiten Weltkrieges aller Wehrmachtteile [The Bearers of the Knight's Cross of the Iron Cross 1939–1945 — The Owners of the Highest Award of the Second World War of all Wehrmacht Branches] (in German). Friedberg, Germany: Podzun-Pallas. ISBN 978-3-7909-0284-6.
- Lifton, Robert Jay, The Nazi Doctors (New York: Basic Books 1986), ISBN 0-465-04905-2.
- Longerich, Peter (2012). Heinrich Himmler: A Life. Oxford; New York: Oxford University Press. ISBN 978-0-19-959232-6.
- Tomasz Żuroch-Piechowski. "Eryk z Bogdańca, niewinny w Norymberdze (Innocent man at the Nuremberg Trials)". Tygodnik Powszechny (in Polish). 39/2006 (2006-09-24). Archived from the original (Internet Archive) on February 19, 2009. Retrieved June 26, 2012.
- Patzwall, Klaus D.; Scherzer, Veit (2001). Das Deutsche Kreuz 1941 – 1945 Geschichte und Inhaber Band II [The German Cross 1941 – 1945 History and Recipients Volume 2] (in German). Norderstedt, Germany: Verlag Klaus D. Patzwall. ISBN 978-3-931533-45-8.
- Die Wehrmachtberichte 1939–1945 Band 3, 1. Januar 1944 bis 9. Mai 1945 [The Wehrmacht Reports 1939–1945 Volume 3, 1 January 1944 to 9 May 1945] (in German). München, Germany: Deutscher Taschenbuch Verlag GmbH & Co. KG. 1985. ISBN 978-3-423-05944-2.