Erik Gnupsson or Eiríkr Gnúpsson, also known as Henricus (late 11th to early 12th centuries), was born in Iceland. He became a clergyman and later was appointed the Bishop of Greenland, residing at Garðar.  He has been considered as the first bishop of America. He was appointed during the papacy of Pope Paschal II (1099-1118), nearly four centuries before Columbus' first voyage across the Atlantic. Gnupsson was given the province of Greenland and Vinland, the latter believed to refer to what is now Newfoundland.
- Richard H. Clarke (1872): "Lives of the deceased bishops of the Catholic Church of the United States", vol.1, s. 16. Archive.org. 31 December 2014.
- Historical Records and Studies, volume 12 (1918)