Erik Olin Wright

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Erik Olin Wright
Erik Olin Wright lecturing at the Taras Shevchenko National University of Kyiv in 2013
Born(1947-02-09)February 9, 1947
DiedJanuary 23, 2019(2019-01-23) (aged 71)
Academic background
Alma materHarvard College (B.A. 1968)
Balliol College, Oxford (B.A. 1970)
University of California, Berkeley (Ph.D. 1976)[1]
ThesisClass Structure and Income Inequality[3] (1976)
Doctoral advisorArthur Stinchcombe[2]
Academic work
Sub-disciplineAnalytic Marxism
InstitutionsUniversity of Wisconsin–Madison (1976-2019)
Doctoral studentsAndrew Szasz, Wilmot James, Szonja (Szelényi) Ivester, Vivek Chibber, George Steinmetz, Joey Sprague, Karen Shire, Julia Adams, Devah Pager, Raka Ray, Josh Whitford, César Rodríguez Garavito[1]
Notable studentsGøsta Esping-Andersen[4], Eduardo Bonilla-Silva[5] Shamus Khan
Main interestsMarxist class analysis

Erik Olin Wright (February 9, 1947 – January 23, 2019) was an American analytical Marxist sociologist, specializing in social stratification, and in egalitarian alternative futures to capitalism. He was known for diverging from classical Marxism in his breakdown of the working class into subgroups of diversely held power and therefore varying degrees of class consciousness. Wright introduced novel concepts to adapt to this change of perspective including deep democracy and interstitial revolution.[6]

Personal life[edit]

Erik Olin Wright was born on February 9, 1947 in Berkeley, California.[1] His parents were both Jewish. He received two BAs (from Harvard College in 1968, and from Balliol College, University of Oxford in 1970), and a PhD from University of California, Berkeley in 1976. He became a professor of sociology at University of Wisconsin - Madison[1] in 1976.[7]

Wright began making contributions to the intellectual community in the mid-1970s, along with a whole generation of young academics who were radicalized by the Vietnam War and the civil rights movement.[8]

In 2012, Wright was elected President of the American Sociological Association.[9]

Wright died on January 23, 2019, from acute myeloid leukemia at a hospital in Milwaukee, Wisconsin, aged 71.[10][11]


Social classes[edit]

Wright has been described as an "influential new left theorist".[12] His work was concerned mainly with the study of social classes, and in particular with the task of providing an update to and elaboration of the Marxist concept of class, in order to enable Marxist and non-Marxist researchers alike to use "class" to explain and predict people's material interests, lived experiences, living conditions, incomes, organizational capacities and willingness to engage in collective action, political leanings, and so on. In addition, he attempted to develop class categories that would allow researchers to compare and contrast the class structures and dynamics of different advanced capitalist and "post-capitalist" societies.

Wright has stressed the importance of:

  1. control over and exclusion from access to economic/productive resources;
  2. location within production relations;
  3. market capacity in exchange relations;
  4. differential control over income derived from the use of productive resources; and,
  5. differential control over labor effort in defining 'class', while at the same time trying to account for the situation of expert, skilled, manager, and supervisory employees, taking inspiration from Weberian accounts of class and class analysis.

According to Wright, employees with sought-after and reward-inelastically supplied skills (due to natural scarcities or socially constructed and imposed restrictions on supply, such as licensing, barriers to entry into training programs, etc.) are in a "privileged [surplus] appropriation location within exploitation relations" because, while they are not capitalists, they are able to obtain more privileges through their relation to the owner of the means of production than less skilled workers and harder to monitor and evaluate in terms of labor effort. The owner(s) of the means of production or their employer in general therefore has to pay them a "scarcity" or "skill/credential" rent (thus raising their compensation above the actual cost of producing and reproducing their labor power) and tries to "buy" their loyalty by giving them ownership stakes, endowing them with delegated authority over their fellow workers and/or allowing them to more or less be autonomous in determining the pace and direction of their work. Thus, experts, managers of experts, and executive managers tend to be closer to the interests of the employers than to other workers.

Erik Olin Wright's books include Class Counts: Comparative Studies in Class Analysis (Cambridge, 1997), which uses data collected in various industrialized countries, including the United States, Canada, Norway, and Sweden. He was a professor of sociology at the University of Wisconsin–Madison until his death.

Real utopias[edit]

Later in his career, Wright was associated with a renewed understanding of a socialist alternative, deeply rooted on social associativism.[13] The transition to this alternative, according to Wright, depends on designing and building "real utopias", the name of a research and book of his. Examples of "real utopias" that counter prevailing institutions by advancing democratic and egalitarian principles, thereby pointing in the direction of a more just and humane world, include Wikipedia and the Mondragon Corporation.

Selected works[edit]


  • Wright, Erik Olin (1973). The politics of punishment: a critical analysis of prisons in America. New York: Harper & Row. ISBN 9780060903183.
  • Wright, Erik Olin (1978). Class, crisis, and the state. London: New Left Books. ISBN 9780902308930.
  • Wright, Erik Olin (1979). Class structure and income determination. New York: Academic Press. ISBN 9780127649504.
  • Wright, Erik Olin (1997) [1985 Verso]. Classes. London New York: Verso. ISBN 9781859841792.
  • Wright, Erik Olin (1989). The debate on classes. London New York: Verso. ISBN 9780860919667.
  • Wright, Erik Olin (1997). Class counts: comparative studies in class analysis. Cambridge New York Paris: Cambridge University Press Maison des Sciences de l'homme. ISBN 9780521556460.
  • Wright, Erik (2010). Envisioning real utopias. London New York: Verso. ISBN 9781844676170.
  • Wright, Erik Olin. Alternatives to Capitalism: proposals for a democratic economy with Robin Hahnel (2014) New Left Project.
  • Wright, Erik (2015). Understanding Class. London New York: Verso. ISBN 9781781689455.

Collected works[edit]

  • Wright, Erik Olin; Fung, Archon (2003). Deepening democracy: institutional innovations in empowered participatory governance. London New York: Verso. ISBN 9781859844663.
This is part of the Real Utopias Project
  • Wright, Erik (2005). Approaches to class analysis. Cambridge, UK New York: Cambridge University Press. ISBN 9780521603812.
  • Wright wrote the preface for: Gornick, Janet C.; Meyers, Marcia (2009). Gender equality: transforming family divisions of labor. London New York: Verso. ISBN 9781844673254. Wright is also the book series' editor.

Journal articles[edit]

See also[edit]


  1. ^ a b c d Wright, Erik Olin (June 2016). "Curriculum Vitae" (PDF). University of Wisconsin, Madison Department of Sociology. Retrieved June 20, 2017.
  2. ^ Wright 1976, p. xiv.
  3. ^ Wright, Erik Olin (1976). Class Structure and Income Inequality (Ph.D.). University of California, Berkeley. OCLC 175174677. Retrieved June 20, 2017.
  4. ^ Esping-Andersen, Gøsta (1978). Social Class, Social Democracy AND State Policy: Parity Policy and Party Decomposition in Denmark and Sweden (Ph.D.). University of Wisconsin-Madison. p. iii. OCLC 705977095. Retrieved November 10, 2018.
  5. ^ Bonilla-Silva, Eduardo (1993). Squatters, Politics, and State Responses: The Political Economy of Squatters in Puerto Rico, 1900-1992 (Ph.D.). University of Wisconsin-Madison. OCLC 30612010. Retrieved November 13, 2018.
  6. ^ Wright, Erik Olin (2010). Envisioning Real Utopias. London, New York: Verso. p. 321. ISBN 978-1-84467-618-7.
  7. ^ "Erik Olin Wright: Challenging - and Maybe Transcending - Capitalism Through Real Utopias". Goethe Universität.
  8. ^ Ritzer, George (September 15, 2007). Encyclopedia of Social Theory. London: SAGE Publications, Inc. pp. Wright, Erik Olin. ISBN 9780761926115.
  9. ^ "American Sociological Association". Archived from the original on May 4, 2012. Retrieved June 15, 2012.
  10. ^ Szetela, Adam (January 23, 2019). "Remembering Erik Olin Wright". Dissent. Retrieved January 24, 2019.
  11. ^ "Renowned UW-Madison sociology professor Erik Olin Wright dies at 71". Madison State Journal. Retrieved January 28, 2019.
  12. ^ Meiksins, Peter F. "A Critique of Wright's Theory of Contradictory Class Locations". In Wright, Erik Olin. The Debate on Classes. New York: Verso Books. pp. 173–183. ISBN 978-1-85984-280-5.
  13. ^ Wright, Erik Olin (2012). "Transforming Capitalism through Real Utopias". American Sociological Review. 78 (1): 1–25. doi:10.1177/0003122412468882.

Further reading[edit]

External links[edit]