Erith

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Jump to: navigation, search
Erith
Erith, William Cory Promenade - geograph.org.uk - 717068.jpg
William Cory Promenade along the River Thames frontage and Riverside Gardens
Erith is located in Greater London
Erith
Erith
Erith shown within Greater London
Population 68,662 
OS grid reference TQ505775
• Charing Cross 13.3 mi (21.4 km) WNW
London borough
Ceremonial county Greater London
Region
Country England
Sovereign state United Kingdom
Post town ERITH
Postcode district DA8
Dialling code 01322
Police Metropolitan
Fire London
Ambulance London
EU Parliament London
UK Parliament
London Assembly
List of places
UK
England
London
51°28′48″N 0°10′40″E / 51.480°N 0.1778°E / 51.480; 0.1778Coordinates: 51°28′48″N 0°10′40″E / 51.480°N 0.1778°E / 51.480; 0.1778

Erith (Listeni/ˈrθ/) is a town next to the River Thames, in the London Borough of Bexley, south-east London, and the historic county of Kent, north-east of Bexleyheath and north-west of Dartford. Erith town centre has undergone modernisation and an increase in dwellings since 1961. The curved riverside high street contains three listed buildings, including the Church of England church and the Carnegie Building, while the district otherwise consists primarily of suburban homes. Erith is linked to central London and Kent by rail and a dual carriageway. It has the longest pier in London, and retains a coastal environment with salt marshes as well as industrial land.

History[edit]

Mudflats on the Thames, with the Queen Elizabeth II Bridge in the far background

Pre-medieval[edit]

Work carried out at the former British Gypsum site in Church Manorway by the Museum of London Archaeological Service shows that the area was covered by a dense forest of oak, yew, and alder during the Neolithic Period, which by the Bronze Age had given way in part to sedge fen.[1]

The museum's work at the former site of Erith School in Belmont Road revealed traces of prehistoric settlement, and of a substantial community or farmstead in the first century AD.[2]

Anglo-Saxons[edit]

Following the collapse of Roman rule at the beginning of the 5th century, Britain was colonised by Anglo-Saxon invaders from northern Europe. The Anglo-Saxon Chronicle records that they won the Battle of Crecganford (thought to be modern Crayford) in 457 and shortly after claimed the whole of Kent. Their different way of life was reflected in their pattern of settlement. The town and country estates of the Roman bureaucrats gave way to a network of villages, occupied by warriors and farmers. Erith was one such village and has a Saxon name, originally Ærre hyðe meaning "old haven".[3]

There was probably a church on the site of the present St John the Baptist's during the Anglo-Saxon period.[4] The early settlement was based around it, meaning that the centre of Erith was once west of its current location.

Medieval[edit]

The earliest reference to the area is in a Latin charter of 695 recording a grant by the Bishop of the East Saxons of certain lands at Erith.[citation needed] The surrounding area was known as Lesnes or Lessness, which is mentioned in the Domesday Survey. After the Norman Conquest, Lessness passed into the possession of Bishop Odo.[5] In 1315, a Royal Charter was granted for a market to be held in Erith every Thursday. However, it was noted in 1776 that the market had long been discontinued.[6]

Erith owes its existence to the Thames and was, until the 1850s, essentially a small riverside port, given prominence by King Henry VIII's decision to open a naval dockyard there, approximately where the Riverside Gardens are now. Henry's famous warship, Henri Grâce à Dieu, was fitted out there in 1515.[7] Up until the 19th century Erith remained a popular anchorage. Ships often discharged some cargo there to reduce their displacement before entering the shallows upstream.

Industrial era[edit]

In 1797 Edward Hasted described Erith as "consisting of one small street of houses, which leads to the water side", and mentions two annual fairs, at Ascension and Michaelmas.[8] In 1831 Erith's population was 1533 – it was described in 1840 as being "composed chiefly of two streets, one leading down to the water side, the other branching off to the left towards the church."[9]

A Grade II listed building in Walnut Tree Road by William Egerton, opened 7 April 1906

By 1849 Erith was enjoying a short spell as a riverside resort. Its pier and nearby hotel gave hospitality for day-trippers arriving on Thames pleasure boats or by railway.[7]

The Local Government Act 1894 brought into existence Erith Urban District, which became the Municipal Borough of Erith in 1938. It included Northumberland Heath and Belvedere.

Erith Iron Works was established in 1864 in Anchor Bay by William Anderson.[10]

From 1881 Erith was home to a large cable works founded by William Callender. This became British Insulated Callender's Cables (BICC), and eventually Pirelli, which announced its partial closure in 2003. The remainder became Prysmian.

20th century[edit]

Engineering became an important industry around Erith, with armaments and cables being the main products. Vickers was a major employer and was linked to the Royal Arsenal at nearby Woolwich. Another local firm was Callender's Cables).[7]

A 'dancing fish' statue at the roundabout in the town centre

During the First World War Erith was an important area for the manufacture of guns and ammunition, largely due to the presence of the large Vickers works.

The town suffered heavy bomb damage in the Second World War, mainly due its position on the riverside near the Royal Arsenal. The bomb damage and a gradual decline in local trade prompted major redevelopment in the 1960s.[7]

Riverside Shopping Centre

In 1961, plans were put forward to redevelop Erith into a modern, sleek shopping and working environment. This involved clearing the sub-standard housing by the riverside and altering the street layout. Some of the buildings erected, particularly the social housing tower blocks, are of a brutalist form that typified the overspill estates put up by almost all councils in England's major cities as an affordable way of clearing the slums.[11]

In 1965, under the London Government Act 1963, Erith became part of the London Borough of Bexley.

Demolition of the old town started in 1966 and continued in phases until 1980, leaving only a few reminders of the old town centre. Many of the original Victorian buildings were lost, but some of the original townscape remains, including the White Hart in the High Street and St John's Church in West Street.[7]

Erith is the site of the Erith Oil Works, originally British Oil & Cake Mills (BOCM). It now processes various seeds into vegetable oils.[citation needed]

Riverside apartment blocks, just east of Erith town centre

Regeneration[edit]

Since the late 1990s Erith has been undergoing significant changes, with the Erith Western Thames Gateway[12] project being the culmination.

The regeneration falls within the remit of the Thames Gateway project, with Erith as a key focus[13] for Bexley Council, as its only population centre on the River Thames.

Since 2000 a significant number of new flats have been constructed by the river by private companies. The Erith Western Gateway will include a significant number of new riverside flats,[14] and is expected to continue the regeneration of the area, hitherto a large underused area of the town centre. Bexley Council is seeking to produce a mixed-use development with a potential of 6,000 sq.m of new commercial space and over 500 new homes.[14]

Geography[edit]

Erith is a post town in the DA postcode area, consisting of the DA8 and DA18 postcode districts. DA8 covers Erith, Northumberland Heath and Slade Green; and DA18 covers Erith Marshes and part of Thamesmead. The nearest areas are Abbey Wood, Bexleyheath, Crayford, Dartford, Plumstead, Sidcup, Slade Green, Thamesmead and Woolwich.

Demography[edit]

62% of the population is White British, according to the 2011 census. The second most common ethnicity is Black African, at 14%.[15]

Representation[edit]

Erith ward (green) within the London Borough of Bexley (yellow)

A large part of Erith is in the Erith ward of the London Borough of Bexley. The local councillors are Joe Ferreira (Labour), Edward Boateng (Labour), and Abena Oppong-Asare (Labour).[16] The eastern part of Erith is in North End ward, and the southern part in Colyers ward.

Most of Erith lies within the Erith and Thamesmead constituency. The current Member of Parliament is Teresa Pearce (Labour). The eastern part of Erith is within the Bexleyheath and Crayford constituency, whose MP is David Evennett (Conservative).

Erith is in the Bexley and Bromley London Assembly constituency and is represented on the London Assembly by James Cleverly (Conservative).

Amenities[edit]

For education in Erith see the main London Borough of Bexley article

Erith Leisure Centre, including swimming facilities, was opened in 2005.[17]

The David Ives Stadium is next to the Leisure Centre. It is often called Erith Stadium and is home to Bexley Athletic Club.[18][19]

The Erith Playhouse Theatre is the largest in Bexley.[20]

Erith has a Health Centre and a library with a meeting room.[citation needed]

Fishing from Erith Deep Wharf

Erith is the location of the longest pier in Greater London. The pier has recently[when?] been adapted from commercial to leisure use, and is popular with anglers.

The annual Erith Riverside Festival has been held for a number of years in Riverside Gardens alongside the Thames.[citation needed] Erith is the starting point for the LOOP (London Outer Orbital Path) and one of the starting points for the Green Chain Walk.[21] The Thames Path National Trail,[22] which runs to the source of the River Thames at Kemble, begins at nearby Crayford Ness.

Erith Rowing Club is located on the Erith waterfront. Erith Yacht Club is based a short distance downstream from Erith on the edge of Crayford Marshes.

There are two senior football clubs named for Erith, neither of which are actually based in the town. Erith & Belvedere play at Park View Road in Welling, and Erith Town play at Oakwood in Crayford.

Notable people[edit]

A rhyme by William Cosmo Monkhouse:

"There are men in the village of Erith that nobody seeth or heareth,
and there looms on the marge of the river a barge, that nobody roweth or steereth".[45]

Places of worship[edit]

St. John the Baptist Church
  • Barnehurst Methodist Church, Erith
  • Christ Church, Victoria Rd. Erith
  • Christadelphian Hall, Lesney Park Rd. Erith
  • Northend Baptist Church, Larner Rd, Erith
  • Northumberland Road Baptist Church, Belmont Road, Erith
  • Our Lady of the Angels, Carlton Road, Erith
  • Queen Street Baptist Church, Erith
  • St. Augustines Church (Slade Green), Slade Green Rd, Erith
  • St. Johns the Baptist Church, West Street, Erith
  • St. Paul's Church, Mill Road, Erith
  • The Treasure House, Bexley Road, Erith

Transport[edit]

Buses[edit]

Erith is served by London Buses routes 99, 229, 428, 469, B12 and N89.

Rail[edit]

Erith Railway Station

The nearest station is Erith for Southeastern services towards Barnehurst, Crayford, Dartford, Gillingham, Gravesend, London Cannon Street and London Charing Cross.

Road[edit]

The A2016 road bisecting Erith, is a dual carriageway stretching across the Erith Marshes.

References[edit]

  1. ^ Museum of London summary of archaeological work carried out in 2001 accessed 6 April 2008
  2. ^ Museum of London summary of archaeological work carried out in 1996 accessed 6 April 2008
  3. ^ Hasted, Edward. "'Parishes: Erith', in The History and Topographical Survey of the County of Kent: Volume 2". British History Online. Canterbury. pp. 227–263. Retrieved 1 January 2016. 
  4. ^ Good Stuff IT Services (20 May 1953). "Parish Church of St John the Baptist – Bexley – Greater London – England". British Listed Buildings. Retrieved 24 August 2012. 
  5. ^ "The Bexley Area in the Domesday Book". Bexley borough council. Retrieved 11 February 2017. 
  6. ^ Bexley Local Studies Note 51 – Historical References to Erith Market accessed 6 June 2008
  7. ^ a b c d e "History of Erith | History of Bexley and Districts". Ideal Homes. Retrieved 24 August 2012. 
  8. ^ 'The History and Topographical Survey of the County of Kent: Volume 2' (E.Hasted) Retrieved 6 March 2008.
  9. ^ 'Pigots 1840', on website freepages.genealogy.rootsweb.com/~shebra/pigots_1840 Retrieved 5 December 2007.
  10. ^ Bexley Local Studies Note 66 'Sir William Anderson'[permanent dead link] accessed 6 June 2008
  11. ^ Urban regeneration: the essentials The Guardian
  12. ^ [1] Archived 7 October 2008 at the Wayback Machine.
  13. ^ "London – Places – Why Thames Gateway is good for Bexley". BBC. 15 May 2008. Retrieved 24 August 2012. 
  14. ^ a b "Erith Western Gateway". Retrieved 17 September 2007. [permanent dead link]
  15. ^ http://www.ukcensusdata.com/erith-e05000075
  16. ^ "Erith Councillors". London Borough of Bexley. Retrieved 12 October 2015. 
  17. ^ http://www.bexley.gov.uk/article/11854/Erith-Leisure-Centre
  18. ^ http://www.bexleyac.org.uk/?page_id=67
  19. ^ "Erith Stadium". Runtrackdir.com. 31 March 2005. Retrieved 24 August 2012. 
  20. ^ "Erith Playhouse". Playhouse.org.uk. 21 January 2012. Archived from the original on 29 July 2012. Retrieved 24 August 2012. 
  21. ^ "Explore South East London's Green Chain". Greenchain.com. Retrieved 24 August 2012. 
  22. ^ Ramblers. "Thames Path National Trail | Paths by name | Ramblers, Britain's Walking Charity". Ramblers.org.uk. Archived from the original on 28 September 2008. Retrieved 24 August 2012. 
  23. ^ "Surnames beginning with A". bexley.gov.uk. Retrieved 13 November 2016. 
  24. ^ "William Auld". The Scotsman. 15 September 2006. Retrieved 25 November 2016. 
  25. ^ "Sir William Anderson, 1834–1898". bexley.gov.uk. Retrieved 23 November 2016. 
  26. ^ "Tony Brise". historicracing.com. Retrieved 23 November 2016. 
  27. ^ Lewis, Helen (3 December 2011). "Wendy Cope interview: "I can't die until I've sorted out the filing cabinets"". The New Statesman. Retrieved 23 November 2016. 
  28. ^ "Awards entry catches the eye". Kent Online. 19 November 2012. Retrieved 23 November 2016. 
  29. ^ "Author Interview - Elaine Everest talking to Karen Aldous". karenaldous.co.uk. 16 May 2014. Retrieved 27 February 2017. 
  30. ^ "Chatham Town unveil former Manchester City midfielder Kevin Horlock, 42, as their new manager". Kentish Football. 15 October 2015. Retrieved 25 November 2016. 
  31. ^ Joyce, Michael (2004). Football League Players' Records. soccerdata. p. 137. ISBN 1-899468-63-3. 
  32. ^ Adrian, Jack (22 December 2007). "James Leasor: Journalist and thriller writer". The Independent. Retrieved 23 November 2016. 
  33. ^ Hugman, Barry J., ed. (2009). The PFA Footballers' Who's Who 2009–10. Mainstream Publishing. ISBN 978-1-84596-474-0. 
  34. ^ "Douglas McWhirter bio, stats and results". sports-reference.com. Retrieved 25 November 2016. 
  35. ^ Musical Times through Google Books. 37. 1 February 1896. p. 98. Retrieved 7 February 2011. 
  36. ^ "Players: Alan Morton". The Historical Don. Retrieved 25 November 2016. 
  37. ^ Hughes, Mark (19 December 2008). "Rachel Nickell: Six mistakes in hunt for serial killer". The Independent. Retrieved 25 November 2016. 
  38. ^ Rollin, Glenda; Rollin, Jack, eds. (2012). Sky Sports Football Yearbook 2012–2013 (43rd ed.). London: Headline. p. 439. ISBN 978-0-7553-6356-8. 
  39. ^ "Linda Smith – Obituary". The Daily Telegraph. 1 March 2006. Retrieved 13 November 2016. 
  40. ^ Jim Sterling (11 April 2012). "Beautifully bleak, a quasi-defense of "dark and gritty" games". gamefront.com. Retrieved 23 November 2016. 
  41. ^ "The Ukulele Orchestra Players - The Ukulele Orchestra of Great Britain". www.ukuleleorchestra.com. Retrieved 24 February 2017. 
  42. ^ "Surnames beginning with T". bexley.gov.uk. Retrieved 23 November 2016. 
  43. ^ Christopher Winn: I Never Knew That about the Thames (London: Ebury Press, 2010).
  44. ^ "The Wheatley's Housekeeper's accounts, 1792–1817". bexley.gov.uk. Retrieved 25 November 2016. 
  45. ^ Nonsense Rhymes, Cosmo Hamilton, R. Brimley Johnson, London, 1900

External links[edit]