Erivan Governorate

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Erivan Governorate (in English)
  • Эриванская губерния (Modern Russian)
  • Эриванская губернія (Pre-1918 Russian)
Gubernias del Caucaso - Gubernia de Erevan - Imperio Ruso.png
Coat of Arms of Erivan gubernia (Russian empire).png
Coat of Arms
Established 1850
Abolished 1917
Political status Governorate
Region Caucasus
Area 27,830 verst²
Population (1897 census)
 • Total 829556
 • Density 29.8 inhab. / verst²
Government

Erivan Governorate (Old Russian: Эриванская губернія; Armenian: Երևանի նահանգ) was one of the guberniyas of the Caucasus Viceroyalty of the Russian Empire, with its centre in Erivan (present-day Yerevan). Its area was 27,830 sq. kilometres.[1] It roughly corresponded to what is now most of central Armenia, the Iğdır Province of Turkey, and the Nakhichevan exclave of Azerbaijan. At the end of the 19th century, it bordered the Tiflis Governorate to the north, the Elisabethpol Governorate to the east, the Kars Oblast to the west, and Persia and the Ottoman Empire to the south.

In 1828, the khanates of Erivan and the Nakhichevan were annexed from Persia by the Russian Empire in accordance with the Treaty of Turkmenchay. They were included into a single administrative unit named the Armenian Oblast. In 1850 the oblast was reorganized into a governorate, and by 1872, it consisted of seven uyezds. Louis Joseph Jérôme Napoléon (1864–1932), grandnephew of Napoleon I, was made governor in 1905 to help calm the governorate after the Armenian-Tatar conflicts.[2]

Administrative division[edit]

Erivan Governorate consisted of the following uyezds:

Uyezd Administrative center Area, km2 Population (1897)
1 Aleksandropol Aleksandropol 3,759.8 168,435
2 Nakhichevan Nakhichevan 3,858.8 86,878
3 Novo-Bayazet Novo-Bayazet 6,123.8 112,111
4 Surmali Igdyr 3,245.0 88,844
5 Sharur-Daralagyoz Bash-Norashen 2,972.3 76,551
6 Erivan Erivan 3,032.0 127,072
7 Echmiadzin Vagharshapat 3,858.0 124,643

Demographics[edit]

According to the Russian census of 1897, the Erivan Governorate had 829,556 inhabitants.[3] 56% of the governorate's population were Armenians, 37.5% was Tatars (modern Azerbaijanis).[4] The Azerbaijanis were in a majority in the Erivan, Nakhichevan, Sharur-Daralagyoz, and Surmali districts; the other three uyezds were predominantly Armenian. Other ethnic minorities included Kurds (5.9%), Russians (2.1%), as well as smaller numbers of Assyrians, Greeks, Georgians, Jews, Poles, and Gypsies.[3]

Ethnic groups in 1897[edit]

Ethnic groups in Erivan Governorate according to 1897 Russian census.[5]

Uyezd Armenians Azerbaijani Kurds Russians Assyrians
TOTAL 53,2% 37,8% 6,0% 1,6% ...
Aleksandropol 85,5% 4,7% 3,0% 3,4% ...
Nakhichevan 34,4% 63,7% ... ... ...
Novo-Bayazet 66,3% 28,3% 2,4% 2,2% ...
Surmali 30,4% 46,5% 21,4% ... ...
Sharur-Daralagyoz 27,1% 67,4% 4,9% ... ...
Erivan 38,5% 51,4% 5,4% 2,0% 1,5%
Echmiadzin 62,4% 29,0% 7,8% ... ...

Governors[edit]

List of the governors of Erivan Governorate.[6]

  • 1849 - 1859 Ivan Nazarov
  • 1860 - 1862 Mikhail Astafev
  • 1862 - 1863 Nikolai Kolyubakin
  • 1863 - 1865 Aleksey Kharitonov
  • 1869 - 1873 Nikolai Karmalin
  • 1873 - 1880 Mikhail Roslavlev
  • March 22, 1880 - December 22, 1890 Mikhail Shalikov
  • February 2, 1891 - November 16, 1895 Alexander Frese
  • February 20, 1896 - 1916 Vladimir Tiesenhausen
  • 1905 Louis Joseph Jérôme Napoléon
  • 1905 - 1906 Maksud Alikhanov-Avarskiy
  • 1916 - 1917 Arkady Strelbitskiy
  • March 14, 1917 - November 1917 V.A. Kharlamov
  • November 1917 Avetis Agaryan
  • 1917-1917 Sokrat Tyurosyan

References[edit]

See also[edit]

Further reading[edit]

Coordinates: 40°11′00″N 44°31′00″E / 40.1833°N 44.5167°E / 40.1833; 44.5167