Coordinates: 9°58′53.8″N 76°17′59.6″E / 9.981611°N 76.299889°E / 9.981611; 76.299889
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Downtown (CBD)
Ernakulam marina
Ernakulam marina
Ernakulam is located in Kerala
Ernakulam (Kerala)
Ernakulam is located in India
Ernakulam (India)
Coordinates: 9°58′53.8″N 76°17′59.6″E / 9.981611°N 76.299889°E / 9.981611; 76.299889[1]
Country India
 • BodyKochi Municipal Corporation
22.36 m (73.36 ft)
 • OfficialMalayalam
Time zoneUTC+5:30 (IST)
Telephone code+91484xxxxxxx
Vehicle registrationKL-07
Lok Sabha constituencyErnakulam

Ernakulam (Malayalam: [erɐɳɐːkuɭɐm] ) is the central business district of the city of Kochi, Kerala, India. It is the namesake of Ernakulam district. The eastern part of Kochi city is mainly known as Ernakulam, while the western part of it after the Venduruthy Bridge is called as Western Kochi.[1] Many major establishments, including the Kerala High Court, the office of the Kochi Municipal Corporation and the Cochin Shipyard are situated in Ernakulam. It is also the most urbanized area in the city of Kochi.


The word Ernakulam has a varied derivation, with some references to mythology and others to temples. According to Komattil Achutha Menon, the word Erangiyal got its start from a particular kind of mud. In the past, Lord Shiva was referred to as Erayanar in Chennai. This was done in Kerala as well, and it became known as Ernakulam after that. There are also other opinions about the origin of the name, saying that Rishinagakulam became Ernakulam after losing it, but that the word Ernakulam came from Ernakulathappan Temple , and that it came from the word Kulam (Pond) for a long time because it was full of water bodies.[2]


Classical history[edit]

The region can claim to have played a significant part in fostering the trade relations between Kerala and the outside world in the ancient and medieval period.[3] The early political history of Ernakulam is interlinked with that of the Chera Dynasty of the Sangam age, who ruled over vast portions of Kerala and Tamil Nadu. After the Cheras, the place was later ruled by the Kingdom of Cochin (Perumpadapu Swaroopam).[4]

Princely State of Cochin[edit]

Although under British suzerainty (specifically the East India Company) since the Anglo-Dutch Treaty of 1814,[5] Rama Varma XII of the Kingdom of Cochin moved his capital from Mattancherry to Tripunithura in about 1840.[6] Fort Cochin Municipality was established in 1866 under the Madras Town Improvement Act of 1865, and municipal elections were first held in 1883.[6] Ernakulam became a municipality in 1910.[6] In the first state census of 1911, the population of Ernakulam was 21,901; 11,197 Hindus, 9,357 Christians, 935 Muslims, and 412 Jews.[7]


The Ernakulam District is situated in Central Kerala in India. Ernakulam is located at the geographic coordinates of 9°58′53.8″N 76°17′59.6″E / 9.981611°N 76.299889°E / 9.981611; 76.299889[8] and at an elevation of 22.36 m (73.4 ft) above the mean sea level.


Under the Köppen climate classification, the city of Ernakulam features a Tropical monsoon climate. Since the region lies in the south western coastal state of Kerala, the climate is tropical, with only minor differences in temperatures between day and night, as well as over the year. Summer lasts from March to May, and is followed by the South-west monsoon from June to September. October and November form the post monsoon or retreating monsoon season. Winter from December through February is slightly cooler, and windy, due to winds from the Western Ghats.

The city is drenched in the monsoonal season by heavy showers. The average annual rainfall is 3,000 mm (120 in). The South-west monsoon generally sets in during the last week of May. After July the rainfall decreases. On an average, there are 124 rainy days in a year. The maximum average temperature of the city in the summer season is 33 °C (91 °F) while the minimum temperature recorded is 22.5 °C (72.5 °F). The winter season records a maximum average of 29 °C (84 °F) and a minimum average of 20 °C (68 °F).[9]

Climate data[edit]

Below is the climate data for Kochi Naval Base, which is situated nearby to Ernakulam.

Climate data for Kochi (Kochi Naval Base) 1981–2010, extremes 1951–2012
Month Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Year
Record high °C (°F) 36.4
Average high °C (°F) 31.9
Average low °C (°F) 23.0
Record low °C (°F) 16.5
Average rainfall mm (inches) 24.3
Average rainy days 1.1 1.2 2.6 6.9 11.0 23.0 22.8 19.0 13.4 14.2 7.2 1.8 124.1
Average relative humidity (%) (at 17:30 IST) 61 65 68 70 73 82 83 82 79 77 72 64 73
Source: India Meteorological Department[10][11]


A view of Ernakulam side of Kochi

As of November 2012, Ernakulam was on target to become the first district in the nation of India to have 100% banking, ensuring that all families, except for voluntary exclusions, hold bank accounts. [12]

Ernakulam, aka the CBD (Central Business District) of Kochi, has seen high urbanisation in the past few decades, thus turning it into an economic hub of the city. The first traces of this transformation were seen after the MG Road connecting Ravipuram and Kacherippady was opened in 1972. The development took a new shape after the Greater Cochin Development Authority (GCDA) built the Marine Drive to the West of MG Road, in the late 70s. Marine Drive and MG Road thus became the backbone of Kochi's economic activities, and acted as the base for the city to expand in all directions thereafter. Although the current bypass of Ernakulam is quickly becoming the new,[13]



Ernakulam is a city that is connected to the North-South Corridor National Highway System via the four-laned National Highway 66 as well as National Highway 544.The MC Road starting from Thiruvananthapuram ends in Angamaly. The highway traverses through the entire length and breadth of the city from different points and provides access to the nearby cities such as Thrissur, Palakkad, Salem and Coimbatore. NH 66 was supposed to be acting as the bypass for Kochi city, but the fast-paced urban expansion of Kochi has meant that the bypass quickly became a city road passing through the middle of it, thereby forcing the NHAI to propose a new bypass for the city.[14]

The state-owned Kerala State Road Transport Corporation (KSRTC) runs inter-state, inter-district and city services, mostly from the Ernakulam KSRTC bus stand which is the busiest bus stand in Kochi after the Vytilla Mobility Hub. The Kerala State Road Transport Corporation also operates two other bus stations in Ernakulam region of Kochi city, called as Ernakulam Jetty and Thevara Depot.[15]


The Ernakulam Junction railway station is located close to the city's main shopping area situated on Ernakulam MG Road, and is connected by metro. The Southern Railway Zone of the Indian Railways operates the main rail transport system in Ernakulam.[16]

The Ernakulam Junction Railway Station is a junction and departing station of passengers and express trains, and is the stopping point for trains going towards the south side Alappuzha. Both the North and South railway stations have been selected by the Ministry of Railways to be upgraded to airport-like ones. The redevelopment of the Ernakulam Junction railway station has recently gotten underway.[17]


The Cochin International Airport is situated about 27 kilometers away from Ernakulam. The old civilian airport of Kochi was situated much closer to Ernakulam, at Willingdon Island. It is now formally known as INS Garuda, and is a part of the Southern Naval Commanheadquarters headquarters.[18]


Ernakulam region is connected with the other parts of Kochi city with the Kochi Metro, which was opened in July 2017. The first phase is being set up at an estimated cost of 51.81 billion (US$650 million),[19] and has a length of over 28 kilometres stretching from Aluva in the north to Tripunithura railway station in the southeast, passing through Ernakulam. Currently 25.6 km of phase 1 from Aluva to Pettah is open to public while the remaining 2.7 km from Pettah to Tripunithura is under construction.[20]


Ernakulam has a number of jetties where passengers can embark and disembark from ferries. Ferry services connect with Willingdon Island, Mattancherry, Fort Kochi and Mulavukadu, at intervals of 20 minutes.[21][22] Kochi Water Metro is an integrated water metro system serving the Greater Kochi region.[23]

SWTD (Govt. of Kerala Department) offers cheap ferry service on the following routes:

Ferry services in the vicinity of Ernakulam
Source Destination Route via Comments
Ernakulam Fort Kochi
Fort Kochi Embarkation (Willingdon Island)
Fort Kochi (Kamalakadavu Jetty) Embarkation (Willingdon Island) SuperFast with AC & non-AC seating
Mattancherry Fort Kochi, Terminals (Willingdon Island) Services temporarily suspended between Terminals and Mattancherry
Mattancherry Embarkation (Willingdon Island), Fort Kochi, Terminals (Willingdon Island) Services temporarily suspended between Terminals and Mattancherry
Vypeen Embarkation (Willingdon Island)
Vypeen Embarkation (Willingdon Island), Fort Kochi
High Court Mulavukadu Panchayat
Vytilla Kakkanad (near Rajagiri Campus)
Chittoor Kadamakkudy



Major Malayalam newspapers published in Ernakulam include Malayala Manorama, Mathrubhumi, Janmabhoomi, Madhyamam, Deshabhimani, Deepika, Kerala Kaumudi, Thejas, Metro Vartha, Siraj Daily, Varthamanam, Janayugam, Kochi Vartha and Veekshanam.

Popular English newspapers include Deccan Chronicle, The Times of India, The Hindu, and The New Indian Express. A number of evening papers are also published from the city.[24]

Newspapers in other regional languages like Hindi, Kannada, Tamil and Telugu are also sold in large numbers.

Being the seat of the Cochin Stock Exchange, a number of financial publications are also published in the city. These include The Economic Times, Business Line, The Business Standard and The Financial Express.

Prominent magazines and religious publications like the Sathyadeepam and The Week are also published.



Television stations in Ernakulam include Asianet, Asianet Plus, Asianet News, Zee Keralam, Surya TV, Surya Movies, Surya Music, Surya Comedy Channel, Amrita TV, Media One, Twentyfour News, Jeevan TV, Manorama news, Mathrubhumi News, Janam TV, WE TV, Flowers TV and Reporter TV. DTH services are available through DD Free Dish, airtel digital TV, Dish TV, Sun Direct, Tata Sky, Independent TV (India) and Videocon d2h . The cable operators in Ernakulam are Asianet Digital TV, Siti Cable, Kerala Vision, DEN Networks. The local channels are Asianet Cable Vision, Ernakulam cable TV and Den mtn


All India Radio has two FM stations in the city, operating at 102.3  MHz AIR Kochi FM and 107.5 MHz. AIR Rainbow FM Private FM radio stations are Radio Mango 91.9, Red FM 93.5, 94.3 Club FM and 104.0 Radio Mirchi. These operate 24 hours a day 7 days a week.



Ernakulam assembly constituency is part of Ernakulam (Lok Sabha constituency).[26]

See also[edit]


  1. ^ "Manorama Online | Kochi Beaches". Retrieved 6 June 2012.
  2. ^ "History | Ernakulam District Website | India". Retrieved 18 November 2023.
  3. ^ "History of Ernakulam, Background Details of Ernakulam". Retrieved 31 December 2020.
  4. ^ Menon, Anasuya (18 April 2013). "The quaint Ernakulam bazaar". The Hindu. ISSN 0971-751X. Retrieved 31 December 2020.
  5. ^ Maloni, Ruby (2021). "Indian Maritime Centres: Foreland and Hinterland". The Route to European Hegemony: India's Intra-Asian Trade in the Early Modern Period (Sixteenth to Eighteenth Centuries). Abingdon, England: Routledge. pp. 41–105, page 77. ISBN 978-0-367-75642-0.
  6. ^ a b c Pradeep, K. (24 October 2013). "A system in place". The Hindu. Archived from the original on 28 October 2013.{{cite news}}: CS1 maint: unfit URL (link)
  7. ^ Imperial Gazetteer of India, Provincial Series, Madras II: The Southern and West Coast Districts, Native States, and French Possessions. 1908. p. 454.
  8. ^
  9. ^ "Geography of Ernakulam, Topography and Climate of Ernakulam". Retrieved 18 November 2023.
  10. ^ "Station: Cochin (N.A.S) Climatological Table 1981–2010" (PDF). Climatological Normals 1981–2010. India Meteorological Department. January 2015. pp. 201–202. Archived from the original (PDF) on 5 February 2020. Retrieved 29 February 2020.
  11. ^ "Extremes of Temperature & Rainfall for Indian Stations (Up to 2012)" (PDF). India Meteorological Department. December 2016. p. M107. Archived from the original (PDF) on 5 February 2020. Retrieved 29 February 2020.
  12. ^ "Business Line : Industry & Economy / Banking : Ernakulam to be declared first district with 100% banking". 1 February 2013. Archived from the original on 1 February 2013. Retrieved 31 December 2020.
  13. ^ "MG Road losing its prime position: MG Road losing its prime position as central business district | Kochi News - Times of India". The Times of India.
  14. ^ "DPR for Kundannoor-Angamaly bypass project suffers delay". The Hindu. 9 February 2021.
  15. ^ Bureau, The Hindu (21 June 2023). "CSML allots ₹12 crore for new bus stand terminal at Karikkamuri in Kochi". The Hindu. ISSN 0971-751X. Retrieved 18 November 2023.
  16. ^ "Kochi Metro stations to get people-friendly makeover". The Indian Express. 18 February 2022. Retrieved 18 November 2023.
  17. ^ "Ernakulam Junction railway station development a step closer to reality | Kochi News - Times of India". The Times of India.
  18. ^ "INS Garuda celebrates 70th anniversary | Indian Navy". Retrieved 18 November 2023.
  19. ^ "Metro rail: DMRC demands prompthanding over of land, funds". The Hindu. Chennai, India. 24 March 2012. Retrieved 24 March 2012.
  20. ^ Paul, John L. (12 May 2021). "Pettah-S.N. Junction metro stretch to be commissioned in March 2022". The Hindu.
  21. ^ Boat Service from Ernakulam – Boat Schedules – State Water Transport Department, Government of Kerala, India. (25 July 2016). Retrieved on 2016-11-27.
  22. ^ "Passenger ferry services find many takers in Ernakulam – Times of India". The Times of India. Retrieved 31 December 2020.
  23. ^ "Water metro tops priority list". The Hindu. 22 June 2016. ISSN 0971-751X. Retrieved 18 November 2023.
  24. ^ "Keeping Kochi updated". The Hindu. 15 September 2003. Archived from the original on 10 August 2010. Retrieved 2 June 2006.{{cite news}}: CS1 maint: unfit URL (link)
  25. ^ Colleges of Ernakulam. Retrieved on 27 November 2016.
  26. ^ "Assembly Constituencies – Corresponding Districts and Parliamentary Constituencies" (PDF). Kerala. Election Commission of India. Archived from the original (PDF) on 30 October 2008. Retrieved 19 October 2008.

Population in Ernakulam - 244lakh

External links[edit]