Ernakulam

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Ernakulam
Downtown (CBD) of Kochi city
Ernakulam is located in Kerala
Ernakulam
Ernakulam
Location in Kerala, India
Ernakulam is located in India
Ernakulam
Ernakulam
Ernakulam (India)
Coordinates: 9°59′N 76°17′E / 9.98°N 76.28°E / 9.98; 76.28Coordinates: 9°59′N 76°17′E / 9.98°N 76.28°E / 9.98; 76.28
Country India
City UAKochi
DistrictErnakulam
StateKerala
Government
 • BodyKochi Municipal Corporation
Elevation
4 m (13 ft)
Languages
 • OfficialMalayalam
Time zoneUTC+5:30 (IST)
Telephone code0484
Vehicle registrationKL-07
Lok Sabha constituencyErnakulam
Websitewww.ernakulam.nic.in

Ernakulam About this soundpronunciation , is the central portion of the city of Kochi in Kerala, India and has lent its name to the Ernakulam district.[1] Many major establishments, including the Kerala High Court, the office of the Kochi Municipal Corporation and the Cochin Stock Exchange are situated here. Ernakulam, which is where a huge part of the commercial activity in Kochi city happen, is known as the commercial capital of Kerala. The Ernakulam Junction is a major railway station of the Indian Railways, and the busiest railway station in Kochi city, the 2nd busiest in Thiruvananthapuram railway division and the 5th busiest in Southern Railways. Initially, Ernakulam was the headquarters of the Ernakulam District but was later shifted to Kakkanad, an eastern region in Kochi. Ernakulam was once the capital of the Kingdom of Cochin. It is located 220 kilometres (137 mi) north - west of the state capital Thiruvananthapuram. The city has served as an incubator for many Malayali entrepreneurs and is a major financial and commercial hub of Kerala. The Kochi Metro's first phase runs through Ernakulam region as well. The second phase aims to connect the CBD with the IT hub of Kakkanad.

The state government and the GCDA have had plans in the past to include Angamaly, Perumbavoor, Piravom and Kolenchery in the Ernakulam district; Mala and Kodungallur in the Thrissur district; Thalayolaparambu and Vaikom in Kottayam; and Cherthala in the Alappuzha district within the Kochi metropolitan limits. The newly formed metropolis would be put under the charge of a new authority called Kochi Metropolitan Regional Development Authority.

History[edit]

Pre-history[edit]

Starting from the Stone Age, Ernakulam has been the site of human settlement. Monolithic monuments like Dolmens and rock-cut caves can be seen in many parts of Ernakulam.

Precolonial history[edit]

The region can claim to have played a significant part in fostering the trade relations between Kerala and the outside world in the ancient and medieval period.[2] The early political history of Ernakulam is interlinked with that of the Chera Dynasty of the Sangam age, who ruled over vast portions of Kerala and Tamil Nadu. After the Cheras, the place was later ruled by the Kingdom of Cochin (Perumpadapu Swaroopam).[3]

Colonial period[edit]

Although under British suzerainty, specifically the East India Company, since the Anglo-Dutch Treaty of 1814,[4] Rama Varma XII of the Kingdom of Cochin, about 1840, moved their capital from Mattancherry to Tripunithura.[5] Fort Cochin Municipality was established in 1866 under the Madras Town Improvement Act of 1865, and municipal elections were first held in 1883.[5] Ernakulam became a municipality in 1910.[5] In the first state census of 1911, the population of Ernakulam was 21,901; 11,197 Hindus, 9,357 Christians, 935 Muslims, and 412 Jews.[6]

Geography[edit]

Ernakulam region is located at the central parts of Kochi city. Thus the name is often used interchangeably with the name "Kochi" to refer to the city. The Ernakulam District is situated in Central Kerala in India. Ernakulam is located at 9°59′N 76°17′E / 9.98°N 76.28°E / 9.98; 76.28.[7] It has an average elevation of 4 m (13 ft).

Climate[edit]

Under the Köppen climate classification, the city of Kochi features a Tropical monsoon climate. Since the region lies in the south western coastal state of Kerala, the climate is tropical, with only minor differences in temperatures between day and night, as well as over the year. Summer lasts from March to May, and is followed by the South-west monsoon from June to September. October and November form the post monsoon or retreating monsoon season. Winter from December through February is slightly cooler, and windy, due to winds from the Western Ghats.

The city is drenched in the monsoonal season by heavy showers. The average annual rainfall is 3,000 mm (120 in). The South-west monsoon generally sets in during the last week of May. After July the rainfall decreases. On an average, there are 124 rainy days in a year. The maximum average temperature of the city in the summer season is 33 °C (91 °F) while the minimum temperature recorded is 22.5 °C (72.5 °F). The winter season records a maximum average of 29 °C (84 °F) and a minimum average of 20 °C (68 °F).

Economy[edit]

Ernakulam is a major financial and commercial hub of Kochi city, which is widely known as the commercial capital of the state. The Cochin Port, DP World Kochi and Cochin Shipyard have resulted in the faster growth of the city. The technology park InfoPark, Kochi and SmartCity, Kochi is on the eastern parts of the city. Tourism has also contributed heavily to the economy of Ernakulam and other parts of Kochi like Fort Kochi. The city with its temples, old churches and its culture, is ranked first in the number of domestic tourists visiting. Vypin or Vypeen is one of a group of islands that form part of the city of Kochi, in the southwestern Indian state of Kerala. Vypin is one of the densely populated islands in Asia. The western coast of Vypin has the longest beaches in Kochi namely, the Cherai Beach, Kuzhuppilly Beach and the Puthuvype Beach.[8]

Ernakulam, aka the CBD (Central Business District) of Kochi, has seen high urbanisation in the past few decades, thus turning it into an economic hub of the city. The first traces of this transformation were seen after the MG Road connecting Ravipuram and Kacherippady was opened in 1972. The development took a new shape after the Greater Cochin Development Authority (GCDA) built the Marine Drive to the West of MG Road, in the late 70s. Marine Drive and MG Road thus became the backbone of Kochi's economic activities, and acted as the base for the city to expand in all directions thereafter. Although the current bypass of Kochi is quickly becoming the new,[9] Ernakulam region still remains as the heart of Kochi city even today.

Landmarks and tourist spots[edit]

A night view of Marine Drive, Kochi
Heritage Building of Ernakulam District Court

Transport[edit]

The Ernakulam region, being at the heart of Kochi city, is well served by private/government buses, autorickshaws, long and short-distance trains and ferries, and even the new metro rail.[11] Ernakulam has a number of jetties where passengers can embark and disembark from ferries. Traveling via ferries is cheaper and faster than traveling by buses and/or autos. The main jetty is called the Ernakulam jetty from where one can board a ferry to Vypin, Fort Kochi, Mattancherry and Willingdon Island.[12]

Road[edit]

Kochi is a city that is connected to the North-South Corridor National Highway System via the four-laned National Highway 66 as well as National Highway 544.The MC Road starting from Thiruvananthapuram ends in Angamaly. The highway traverses through the entire length and breadth of the city from different points and provides access to the nearby cities such as Thrissur, Palakkad, Salem and Coimbatore. NH 66 was supposed to be acting as the bypass for Kochi city, but the fast paced urban expansion of Kochi has meant that the bypass quickly became a city road passing through the middle of it, thereby forcing the NHAI to propose a new bypass for the city.[13] The road network in Ernakulam region of Kochi city is largely a grid-like network with the Park Avenue Road, Banerji Road, MG Road, SA Road and Chittoor Roads forming the main structure of the network with many roads interlinking them. The Banerji Road and MG Road used to be part of the National Highways system (as the old NH 47) before the Kochi Bypass had come up linking the southern suburb of Aroor and Edappally of Kochi city.

Ernakulam is largely dependent on city buses, metro rail, taxis and auto rickshaws (called autos) for public transport. Just like the other parts of Kochi city, Ernakulam is also getting used to public bycicle sharing systems, now being offered at various metro stations.

The state-owned Kerala State Road Transport Corporation (KSRTC) runs inter-state, inter-district and city services, mostly from the Ernakulam KSRTC bus stand which is the busiest bus stand in Kochi after the Vytilla Mobility Hub. The Kerala State Road Transport Corporation also operates two other bus stations in Ernakulam region of Kochi city, called as "Ernakulam Jetty" and "Thevara Depot".

Railway[edit]

Ernakulam, being at the heart of Kochi city, contains two of the busiest railway stations in the city. The Ernakulam Junction Railway Station is currently the largest and busiest railway station in Kochi city, the second busiest railway station in Kerala, and the fifth busiest railway station in the Southern Railways. The Ernakulam railway station is located close to the city's main shopping area situated on MG Road, and is connected by metro.[14] The Southern Railway Zone of the Indian Railways operates the main rail transport system in Kochi.

Ernakulam Town railway station is situated in the northern part of Ernakulam region (CBD of Kochi city) and is a stopping point for trains going towards mainly to the Kottayam side in the south. It is the second busiest railway station in Kochi city followed by Aluva railway station, fourth busiest in the division and 17th busiest in Southern Railways. The Ernakulam Junction Railway Station is a junction and departing station of passengers and express trains, and is the stopping point for trains going towards the south side Alappuzha. Both the North and South railway stations have been selected by the Ministry of Railways to be upgraded to airport-like ones. The redevelopment of the Ernakulam Junction railway station has recently gotten underway. [15]

Ernakulam used to have another railway station, the Old Railway station situated behind the High Court. However it has been abandoned and cannot be used for train services now due to its close vicinity with Mangalavanam bird sanctuary, known as the lungs of Kochi city. Apart from these two busy railway stations in Ernakulam, Kochi city has many other major and minor railway stations namely Angamaly, Aluva, Kalamassery, Edappally, Tripunithura etc.

The Ernakulam region contributes heavily to the Thiruvananthapuram railway division and Southern Railway in terms of revenue and passengers. As per 2018 statistics, Ernakulam Junction (ERS) and Ernakulam North (ERN) railway stations alone contribute over 17% of the passengers and 21% of the revenue to the Thiruvananthapuram railway division. This is when the entire city of Kochi contributes 26% of the passengers and 32% of the revenue originating in the division, making it the second busiest and revenue generating city in the Southern Railways after Chennai city.

Air[edit]

The Cochin International Airport (in Nedumbassery, Kochi), one of the largest and busiest airports in the country, is about 27 kilometers away from the centre of Kochi city, aka Ernakulam. It is among the top 4 busiest airports in the country and top 10 domestic airports in the country (7th busiest overall before lockdown). In 2015, it had become the world's first airport to be completed powered by solar energy.

The Ernakulam region of Kochi is well connected with the airport despite being far away, by road, bus, as well as metro (using the Aluva-CIAL Electric bus service "Pavan Doot" from Aluva metro station). The old civilian airport of Kochi was situated much closer to Ernakulam, at Willingdon Island. It is now formally known as INS Garuda, and is a part of the Southern Naval Command HQ.

Metro[edit]

Ernakulam region is very well connected with the other parts of Kochi city with the Kochi Metro, which was opened in July 2017. The first phase is being set up at an estimated cost of 51.81 billion (US$730 million),[16] and has a length of over 28 kilometres stretching from Aluva in the north to Tripunithura railway station in the southeast, passing through Ernakulam. Currently 25.6 km of phase 1 from Aluva to Pettah is open to public while the remaining 2.7 km from Pettah to Tripunithura is under construction. Currently over 70% of the construction of phase 1A upto SN Junction has been completed and the stretch is expected to be commissioned by March 2022.[17]

Additionally, a phase 2 line from JLN stadium metro station to Infopark via Kakkanad has been sanctioned and various preparatory works like road widening are in progress. Phase 3 extension proposal from Aluva to Angamaly via the airport is in proposal stage as well.

Water[edit]

Ernakulam also has ferry services connecting Ernakulam with Willingdon Island, Mattancherry, Fort Kochi and Mulavukadu, at intervals of 20 minutes.[18] Recently KMRL (Kochi Metro Rail Limited) initiated plan to introduce Water Metro to Integrated transport plan of greater cochin area. Kochi water metro is one of a kind initiative in India which plans to introduce modern airconditioned ferries on the canals of Kochi for reducing congestion on the highways and also for providing easier access to islands scattered around Kochi. SWTD (Govt. of Kerala Department) offers cheap ferry service on the following routes:

Ferry Services in the vicinity of Ernakulam
Source Destination Route via Comments
Ernakulam Fort Kochi
Fort Kochi Embarkation(Willingdon Island)
Fort Kochi (Kamalakadavu Jetty) Embarkation(Willingdon Island) SuperFast with AC & non-AC seating
Mattancherry Fort Kochi, Terminals(Willingdon Island) Services temporarily suspended between Terminals and Mattancherry
Mattancherry Embarkation(Willingdon Island), Fort Kochi, Terminals(Willingdon Island) Services temporarily suspended between Terminals and Mattancherry
Vypeen Embarkation(Willingdon Island)
Vypeen Embarkation(Willingdon Island), Fort Kochi
Varapuzha
Vaikom
High Court Mulavukadu Panchayat
Vytilla Kakkanad(near Rajagiri Campus)
Chittoor Kadamakkudy

Media[edit]

Print[edit]

Major Malayalam newspapers published in Ernakulam include Malayala Manorama, Mathrubhumi, Janmabhoomi, Madhyamam, Deshabhimani, Deepika, Kerala Kaumudi, Thejas, Metro Vartha, Siraj Daily, Varthamanam, Janayugam, Kochi Vartha and Veekshanam.

Popular English newspapers include Deccan Chronicle, The Times of India, The Hindu, and The New Indian Express. A number of evening papers are also published from the city.[19]

Newspapers in other regional languages like Hindi, Kannada, Tamil and Telugu are also sold in large numbers.

Being the seat of the Cochin Stock Exchange, a number of financial publications are also published in the city. These include The Economic Times, Business Line, The Business Standard and The Financial Express.

Prominent magazines and religious publications like the Sathyadeepam and The Week are also published.

Broadcasting[edit]

Television[edit]

Television stations in Ernakulam include Jeevan TV, WE TV, Flowers (TV channel) and Reporter TV. DTH services are available through DD Free Dish, airtel digital TV, Dish TV, Sun Direct, Tata Sky, Independent TV (India) and Videocon d2h . The cable operators in Ernakulam are Asianet Cable Vision, Siti Cable, Kerala Vision, DEN Networks. The local channels are Asianet Cable Vision, Ernakulam cable TV and Den mtn

Radio[edit]

All India Radio has two FM stations in the city, operating at 102.3  MHz AIR Kochi FM and 107.5 MHz. AIR Rainbow FM Private FM radio stations are Radio Mango 91.9, Red FM 93.5, 94.3 Club FM and 104.0 Radio Mirchi. These operate 24 hours a day 7 days a week.

Places of worship[edit]

Temples[edit]

Mosque[edit]

Church[edit]

Education[edit]

Ernakulam is also the regional (Kerala) headquarters of the Dakshina Bharat Hindi Prachar Sabha.

Politics[edit]

Ernakulam assembly constituency is part of Ernakulam (Lok Sabha constituency).[27]

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ "Manorama Online | Kochi Beaches". Week.manoramaonline.com. Retrieved 6 June 2012.
  2. ^ "History of Ernakulam, Background Details of Ernakulam". www.ernakulamonline.in. Retrieved 31 December 2020.
  3. ^ Menon, Anasuya (18 April 2013). "The quaint Ernakulam bazaar". The Hindu. ISSN 0971-751X. Retrieved 31 December 2020.
  4. ^ Maloni, Ruby (2021). "Indian Maritime Centres: Foreland and Hinterland". The Route to European Hegemony: India's Intra-Asian Trade in the Early Modern Period (Sixteenth to Eighteenth Centuries). Abingdon, England: Routledge. pp. 41–105, page 77. ISBN 978-0-367-75642-0.
  5. ^ a b c Pradeep, K. (24 October 2013). "A system in place". The Hindu. Archived from the original on 28 October 2013.CS1 maint: unfit URL (link)
  6. ^ Imperial Gazetteer of India, Provincial Series, Madras II: The Southern and West Coast Districts, Native States, and French Possessions. 1908. p. 454.
  7. ^ "Falling Rain Genomics, Inc – Ernakulam". Fallingrain.com. Retrieved 6 June 2012.
  8. ^ "Business Line : Industry & Economy / Banking : Ernakulam to be declared first district with 100% banking". 1 February 2013. Archived from the original on 1 February 2013. Retrieved 31 December 2020.
  9. ^ https://m.timesofindia.com/city/kochi/mg-road-losing-its-prime-position-as-central-biz-district/amp_articleshow/65095177.cms
  10. ^ "Clipping of Janmabhumi - Kochi". Retrieved 26 February 2017.
  11. ^ "Govt plans separate entity to manage Mobility Hub". The New Indian Express. Retrieved 31 December 2020.
  12. ^ "Passenger ferry services find many takers in Ernakulam - Times of India". The Times of India. Retrieved 31 December 2020.
  13. ^ https://www.thehindu.com/news/cities/Kochi/dpr-for-kundannoor-angamaly-bypass-project-suffers-delay/article33786861.ece
  14. ^ Kochi- Ernakulam Travel Guide, How to reach Kochi by air, bus, train, local transport, Getting around in Kochi City. Webindia123.com. Retrieved on 27 November 2016.
  15. ^ https://m.timesofindia.com/city/kochi/ernakulam-junction-railway-station-development-a-step-closer-to-reality/amp_articleshow/80496755.cms
  16. ^ "Metro rail: DMRC demands prompthanding over of land, funds". The Hindu. Chennai, India. 24 March 2012. Retrieved 24 March 2012.
  17. ^ https://www.thehindu.com/news/cities/Kochi/pettah-sn-junction-metro-stretch-to-be-commissioned-in-march-2022/article34543576.ece
  18. ^ Boat Service from Ernakulam – Boat Schedules – State Water Transport Department, Government of Kerala, India. Swtd.kerala.gov.in (25 July 2016). Retrieved on 2016-11-27.
  19. ^ "Keeping Kochi updated". The Hindu. 15 September 2003. Archived from the original on 10 August 2010. Retrieved 2 June 2006.
  20. ^ Ltd, Infokerala Communications Pvt (1 September 2019). Pilgrimage to Temple Heritage 2019. Info Kerala Communications Pvt Ltd. ISBN 978-81-934567-8-1.
  21. ^ St. Marys Syrian Orthodox Church, Tripunithura
  22. ^ St. George Jacobite Syrian Cathedral, Karingachira
  23. ^ "A test of heat and humidity". The New Indian Express. Retrieved 28 October 2020.
  24. ^ St. Antony's Shrine, Kaloor. St-antonykaloor.org. Retrieved on 27 November 2016.
  25. ^ Clipping of Mathrubhumi Printing and Publishing – Ernakulam. Digitalpaper.mathrubhumi.com (20 October 2014). Retrieved on 2016-11-27.
  26. ^ Colleges of Ernakulam. Ernakulam.nic.in. Retrieved on 27 November 2016.
  27. ^ "Assembly Constituencies – Corresponding Districts and Parliamentary Constituencies" (PDF). Kerala. Election Commission of India. Archived from the original (PDF) on 30 October 2008. Retrieved 19 October 2008.

External links[edit]