Ernest Cole (1940 - 19 February 1990) was a South African photographer. In the early 1960s, he started to freelance for clients such as Drum magazine, the Rand Daily Mail, Drum and the Sunday Express. This made him South Africa’s first black freelance photographer.
Cole was a black South African, born in Eersterust in Pretoria, in 1940. He left school when the Bantu Education Act was put into place in 1953, and instead completed his diploma via correspondence. He started taking photographs at a very young age, and in the 1950s was given a camera by a Roman Catholic priest, with which Cole broadened his portfolio. As he himself put it: "I quit school in 1957 rather than go along with the 'bantu' education for servitude which had become more strict than before."
In 1958, he applied for a job with Drum magazine. Jürgen Schadeberg, the picture editor, employed him as his assistant. Cole also started a correspondence course with the New York Institute of Photography.
While working for Drum, Cole began to mingle with other talented young black South Africans—journalists, photographers, jazz musicians, and political leaders in the burgeoning anti-apartheid movement—and became radicalized in his political views. He soon decided on a project that entailed recording the evils and daily social effects of apartheid.
Seeking to leave South Africa, he became re-classified as a "Coloured." As a result, he was able to leave for New York in 1966. He secretly took his apartheid project prints with him. He showed his work to Magnum Photos and this resulted in a publishing deal with publishing rights owned by Random House. The resulting book, House of Bondage (1967), was banned in South Africa.
In the book, Cole writes: "Three-hundred years of white supremacy in South Africa has placed us in bondage, stripped us of our dignity, robbed us of our self-esteem and surrounded us with hate."
Later he received a grant from the Ford Foundation for another book, A study of the Negro family in the rural South and the Negro family in the urban ghetto. This was never published although he did take a number of photographs.
- House of Bondage, Random House, 1967, ISBN 0-394-42935-4
- Defiant Images: Photography and Apartheid South Africa, Darren Newbury, University of South Africa (UNISA) Press, 2009, ISBN 978-1-86888-523-7. See Chapter 4. "An 'unalterable blackness': Ernest Cole's House of Bondage".
- The Photographer, Ernest Cole, Steidl, 2010, ISBN 978-3-86930-137-2
- 2006 - Ernest Cole – Video (52 minutes). "This is the story of the first black photojournalist to challenge South Africa’s apartheid system. Risking imprisonment, Ernest Cole dedicated his life to showing the world the injustices and exploitation of segregation. But he paid a heavy price for his work and ended up dying in exile."
Selected group exhibitions
- 2001 - Soweto – A South African Myth - Photographs from the 1950s (by Alf Khumalo, Ernest Cole and Jürgen Schadeberg). The core of the exhibition was the student uprising of 1976. This includes some of Peter Magubane's work.
- 2010 - Ernest Cole: Photographer - Although not the first, this was the largest retrospective of his work displayed in Johannesburg at the Johannesburg Art Gallery. The exhibition was a homecoming of sorts for Cole's legacy, as many of his photographs previously had been banned in apartheid South Africa.
- 2012 - Everything Was Moving: Photography from the 60s and 70s - This exhibition at The Barbican Centre, London, contained a set of original prints by Ernest Cole long thought lost, but rediscovered in Sweden. The exhibition also contained a major body of work on South Africa by David Goldblatt.
- 2014 - Ernest Cole: Photographer - This exhibition was at the Grey Art Gallery of New York University in New York City. It featured more than 100 rare black-and-white gelatin silver prints from Cole’s archive. This was the first major solo museum show of Cole’s images. The exhibition was organized by the Hasselblad Foundation of Gothenburg, Sweden.
- "Ernest Cole". SA History. Archived from the original on 2007-10-20. Retrieved 2007-12-02.
- Sean O'Hagan, Review of Ernest Cole: Photographer by Gunilla Knape, Struan Robertson, The Observer, 23 January 2011.
- Ernest Cole, "My Country, My Hell!", Ebony, February 1968, p. 68.
- Carole Naggar, "Ernest Cole, photographer of apartheid", Al Jazeera America, 2 September 2014.
- Dudley Randall, Review of House of Bondage, Negro Digest, February 1968, p. 94.
- Ernest Cole (1967). House of Bondage. New York: Random House. ISBN 0-394-42935-4.
- "Ernest Cole Dies at 49; Recorder of Apartheid". New York Times. 19 February 1990. Retrieved 2010-11-18.
Ernest Cole, a South African photographer who published a pioneering collection of photographs documenting life under apartheid, died of cancer yesterday at New York Hospital in Manhattan. He was 49 years old....
- "The Ernest Cole Annual Photography Award", Africultures, March 2011.
- "About the award", Ernest Cole Award website.
- Documentaries: South Africa – Ernest Cole, Journeyman Pictures.
- "Ernest Cole Documentary" (review), Johannesburg City Bytes.
- "Photographers in This Display". Victoria & Albert Museum. Retrieved 2007-05-01.
- "Exhibitions". Apartheid Museum. Retrieved 2007-05-01.
- "African Photography 1840-1998". The Castle. Retrieved 2007-05-01.
- "Colour this Whites Only". Tate Britain. Retrieved 2007-05-01.
- Dugger, Celia W. (2010-11-17). "Ernest Cole: Photographer". The New York Times. Retrieved 2010-11-18.
- "Everything Was Moving: Photography from the 60s and 70s". The Barbican Centre. Retrieved 2012-11-04.
- David Smith, "Life through a lens: Ernest Cole photographs shed light on apartheid", theguardian.com, 25 November 2010.
- Monica Harmsen, "Ernest Cole", a presentation on the life of Ernest Cole. YouTube.
- Holland Cotter, "Capturing Apartheid’s Daily Indignity, What Ernest Cole’s Hidden Camera Revealed", The New York Times, 11 September 2014,
- Ariella Budick, "Ernest Cole: Photographer, Grey Art Gallery, New York – The black South African photographer had faith in the transformational power of the medium", The Financial Times, 15 September 2014.
- "Apartheid Through the Eyes of One of South Africa’s First Black Photojournalists", The Leonard Lopate Show, 30 September 2014.