|United States Senator|
from South Carolina
November 9, 1966 – January 3, 2005
|Preceded by||Donald Russell|
|Succeeded by||Jim DeMint|
|106th Governor of South Carolina|
January 20, 1959 – January 15, 1963
|Lieutenant||Burnet R. Maybank Jr.|
|Preceded by||George Timmerman, Jr.|
|Succeeded by||Donald Russell|
|77th Lieutenant Governor of South Carolina|
January 18, 1955 – January 20, 1959
|Governor||George Timmerman, Jr.|
|Preceded by||George Timmerman, Jr.|
|Succeeded by||Burnet Maybank Jr.|
|Member of the |
South Carolina House of Representatives
from Charleston County
January 11, 1949 – January 11, 1955
|Born||Ernest Frederick Hollings|
January 1, 1922
Charleston, South Carolina, U.S.
|Spouse(s)||Martha Patricia Salley|
|Alma mater||The Citadel|
University of South Carolina, Columbia
|Service/branch||United States Army|
|Years of service||1942–1945|
|Battles/wars||World War II|
Ernest Frederick "Fritz" Hollings (born January 1, 1922) is a former American politician who served as a United States Senator from South Carolina from 1966 to 2005. A Democrat, he was also the 106th Governor of South Carolina and the 77th Lieutenant Governor of South Carolina. He served alongside Republican Senator Strom Thurmond for 36 years, making them the longest-serving Senate duo in history. At the age of 96, he is the oldest living former U.S. Senator.
Born in Charleston, South Carolina, Hollings graduated from The Citadel in 1942 and joined a law practice in Charleston after attending the University of South Carolina School of Law. During World War II, he served as an artillery officer in campaigns in North Africa and Europe. After the war, Hollings successively won election to the South Carolina House of Representatives, as Lieutenant Governor, and as Governor. He sought election to the Senate in 1962 but was defeated by incumbent Olin D. Johnston.
Johnston died in 1965, and the following year Hollings won a special election to serve the remainder of Johnston's term. Though the Republican Party became increasingly dominant in South Carolina after 1966, Hollings remained popular and continually won re-election, becoming one of the longest-serving Senators in U.S. history. Hollings sought the Democratic nomination in the 1984 presidential election but dropped out of the race after the New Hampshire primary. He declined to seek re-election in 2004 and was succeeded by Jim DeMint.
Hollings was born in Charleston, South Carolina, the son of Wilhelmine Dorothea Meyer (1888–1982) and Adolph Gevert Hollings, Sr. (1882–1940) He was raised at 338 President St. in the Hampton Park Terrace neighborhood from the age of 10 until he enrolled in college.
He graduated from The Citadel in 1942, receiving a Bachelor of Arts degree. He received an LL.B. from the University of South Carolina in 1947 after only 21 months of study, and joined a law practice in Charleston. Hollings is a member of the Pi Kappa Phi fraternity. He was married to Rita Liddy "Peatsy" Hollings from 1971 until her death in October 2012. He had four children (Michael, Helen, Patricia Salley, and Ernest the 3rd) with his first wife, (Martha) Patricia Salley Hollings. He is a Lutheran. In addition, Fritz and Patricia had two sons who died.
Hollings served as an officer in the U.S. Army's 353rd and 457th Artillery units from 1942 to 1945, during World War II, and was awarded the Bronze Star for meritorious service in direct support of combat operations from December 13, 1944 to May 1, 1945 in France and Germany. He received the European-African-Middle Eastern Campaign Medal with five Bronze Service Stars for participation in the Tunisia, Southern France, Rome-Arno, Rhineland and Central Europe Campaigns.
He served three terms in the South Carolina House of Representatives from 1949 to 1954. After only one term, Hollings' colleagues elected him Speaker Pro Tempore in 1951 and 1953. He was subsequently elected Lieutenant Governor of South Carolina in 1954, and Governor in 1958 at age 36.
Governor of South Carolina
As governor of South Carolina from January 20, 1959, to January 15, 1963, Hollings worked to improve the state's educational system, helping to bring more industry and employment opportunities to the state. His term in office saw the establishment of the state's technical education system and its educational television network. He also called for and achieved significant increases in teachers' salaries, bringing them closer to the regional average. At the 1961 Governor's Conference on Business, Industry, Education and Agriculture in Columbia, S.C., he declared, "Today, in our complex society, education is the cornerstone upon which economic development must be built—and prosperity assured."
In 1962, during Hollings' term as governor, the Confederate battle flag was flown above the South Carolina State House underneath the U.S. and state flags to protest desegregation, where it would remain for thirty-eight years. In 2000 the state legislature voted to move the flag from above the state house to a Confederate soldiers' monument in front of the building, where it remained until 2015, when Republican governor Nikki Haley ordered it removed following the murders of nine black churchgoers by a Confederate sympathizer in the state earlier that year.
In his last address to the General Assembly on January 9, 1963, ahead of the peaceful admission to Clemson University of its first black student, Harvey Gantt, Hollings declared: "As we meet, South Carolina is running out of courts ... this General Assembly must make clear South Carolina's choice, a government of laws rather than a government of men…This should be done with dignity. It should be done with law and order."
Hollings oversaw the last executions in South Carolina before the U.S. Supreme Court's decision in Furman v. Georgia, which temporarily banned capital punishment. During his term, eight inmates were put to death by electric chair. The last was rapist Douglas Thorne, on April 20, 1962.
United States Senator
Early Senate career
Johnston died on April 18, 1965. Hollings' successor as governor, Donald S. Russell, resigned in order to accept appointment to the Senate seat. In the summer of 1966, Hollings defeated Russell in the Democratic primary for the remaining two years of the term. He then narrowly won the special election on November 8, 1966, against the Democrat-turned-Republican Marshall Parker, and was sworn in shortly thereafter. He gained seniority on other newly elected U.S. senators who would have to wait until January 1967, to take the oath of office. In 1967, he was one of eleven senators who voted against the nomination of Thurgood Marshall to become the first black justice on the U.S. Supreme Court. The following year, Hollings won the Senate seat for his first full term when he again defeated Marshall Parker but by a much wider margin.
For thirty-six years (until January 2003), he served alongside Republican Strom Thurmond, making them the longest-serving Senate duo ever. This also made Hollings the longest-serving junior senator ever, even though he had more seniority than all but a few of his colleagues. Thurmond and Hollings generally had a good relationship despite their sometimes sharp philosophical differences, and frequently collaborated on legislation and projects to benefit South Carolina. Their combined seniority gave South Carolina clout in national politics well beyond its relatively small population. Only Thurmond, Robert Byrd, Ted Kennedy, Daniel Inouye, Carl Hayden, John Stennis, Ted Stevens, Pat Leahy, Orrin Hatch, and Thad Cochran have served longer in the Senate than did Hollings.
In 1970, Hollings authored The Case Against Hunger: A Demand for a National Policy, acknowledging the Reverend I.D. Newman and Sister Mary Anthony for opening his eyes to the despair caused by hunger and helping him realize that he must do something about it. Hollings made headlines the year before when he toured poverty-stricken areas of South Carolina, often referred to as his "Hunger Tours." In February 1969, Hollings testified as to what he had seen on his fact-finding tours in front of the Senate Select Committee on Hunger and Human Needs. Charleston's News and Courier (now The Post and Courier) reported that "Senators, members of the press corps and visitors packed in the hearing room watched and listened in disbelief as Hollings detailed dozens of tragically poignant scenes of human suffering in his state." Hollings recommended to the committee that free food stamps be distributed to the most needy, and just over a day later, Senator George McGovern announced that free food stamps would be distributed in South Carolina as part of a national pilot program for feeding the hungry.
Hollings and his first wife separated in 1970 and divorced in 1971. Their children lived with their mother, and Hollings never revealed the reason for the divorce. Later that year, he married Rita Liddy "Peatsy" Hollings (born 1935), who was 13 years his junior. She had joined his administrative staff in 1967. It was her first and his second marriage. They were married 41 years until her death in 2012.
In the 1970s, Hollings joined with fellow senators Kennedy and Henry M. Jackson in a press conference to oppose President Gerald Ford's request that Congress end Richard Nixon's price controls on domestic oil, which had helped to cause the gasoline lines during the 1973 Oil Crisis. Hollings said he believed ending the price controls (as was eventually done in 1981) would be a "catastrophe" that would cause "economic chaos."
In February 1970, during a session of debate on federal aid to school districts serving children living in public housing units, Hollings asked New York Senator Jacob K. Javits if he would support the anti-busing amendment given that it was based on New York law.
In September 1970, during a speech at the University of Georgia in Athens, Hollings declared that the United States could not afford such "leadership by political bamboozle", calling on Americans to ignore the voices of discord and unite for "meaningful changes" in society. Hollings said President Nixon had led the US down a "clamorous road of drift and division" and criticized the "ranting rhetoric" of Vice President Spiro Agnew. Hollings attributed the principal blame for the disunity of the US on special interest groups and "impatient minority blocs" that had shouted "non negotiable demands". Hollings linked former President Johnson and President Nixon with having both "attacked the politics of the problem rather than the problems themselves."
In February 1971, Hollings introduced Ted Kennedy in Charleston, South Carolina ahead of his remarks calling for an end to the Vietnam War. Hollings disclosed that Kennedy had sought his advice on how to answer reporters' questions regarding a possible presidential campaign and that Kennedy was of the belief that his visit would spark speculation on the part of reporters about a campaign regardless of what he said.
Hollings unsuccessfully sought the Democratic nomination for President of the United States in the presidential election of 1984. Hollings' wit and experience, as well as his call for a budget freeze, won him some positive attention, but his relatively conservative record alienated liberal Democrats, and he was never really noticed in a field dominated by Walter Mondale, John Glenn and Gary Hart. Hollings dropped out two days after losing badly in New Hampshire, and endorsed Hart a week later. His disdain for his competitors sometimes showed. He notably referred to Mondale as a "lapdog" and to former Astronaut Glenn as a "Sky King" who was "confused in his capsule."
Later Senate career
On October 15, 1991, he was one of seven Southern Democrats who voted to confirm the nomination of Clarence Thomas to the U.S. Supreme Court in a 52 to 48 vote, the narrowest margin of approval in more than a century.
Hollings remained very popular in South Carolina over the years, even as the state became increasingly friendly to Republicans at the national level. In his first three bids for a full term, he never dropped below 60 percent of the vote. In the 1992 election, however, he faced an unexpectedly close race against former Congressman Tommy Hartnett in what was otherwise a very good year for Democrats nationally. Hartnett had represented the Charleston area in Congress from 1981 to 1987, thus making him Hollings' congressman. His appeal in the Lowcountry – traditionally a swing region at the state level – enabled him to hold Hollings to only 50 percent of the vote.
In his last Senate race in 1998, Hollings faced Republican congressman Bob Inglis. One of the more heated and notable moments of the race was a newspaper interview in which Hollings referred to Inglis as a "goddamn skunk". Hollings was re-elected 52%–45%.
On January 7, 2003, Hollings introduced the controversial Universal National Service Act of 2006, which would require all men and women aged 18–26 (with some exceptions) to perform a year of military service.
On August 4, 2003, he announced that he would not run for re-election in November 2004. Republican Jim DeMint succeeded him.
As a senator, Hollings was noted for his support for legislation in the interests of the established media distribution industry (such as the proposed "Consumer Broadband and Digital Television Promotion Act"). His hard-line support of various client-side computer restrictions such as DRM and Trusted computing led the Fritz chip (a microchip that enforces such restrictions) to be nicknamed after him. Hollings also sponsored the Online Personal Privacy Act.
In his later career, Hollings was generally considered to be a moderate politically but was supportive of many civil rights bills. He voted for re-authorizing the Voting Rights Act in 1982. However, in 1967 he was one of the 11 senators who voted against the confirmation of Thurgood Marshall, the first black Supreme Court justice. Hollings later voted in favor of the failed nomination of Robert Bork and also for the successful nomination of Clarence Thomas.
On fiscal issues, he was generally conservative, and was one of the primary sponsors of the Gramm-Rudman-Hollings Act, an attempt to enforce limits on government spending.
When Hollings embarked on tours of poor areas of South Carolina in 1968 and 1969 and testified as to his findings before the U.S. Senate Select Committee on Nutrition and Human Needs, he was accused of drawing unwanted attention to South Carolina when other states — North and South — also faced extreme poverty. Hollings knew South Carolina was not alone in its struggle and thought that if any politician was going to investigate hunger in South Carolina, it was going to at least be a South Carolinian. After a tour of an East Charleston slum, he said, "I don't want Romney and Kennedy coming here to look at my slums. As a matter of fact when I get caught up with my work, I think I may go look at the slums of Boston." For his efforts, Hollings was also accused of "scheming for the Negro vote." Hollings, who had seen plenty of white hunger and poverty and slums on his tours, responded, "You just don't make political points on hunger. The poor aren't registered to vote and they won't vote."
In 1981, Hollings had to apologize to fellow Democrat Howard Metzenbaum after Hollings referred to him as the "senator from B'nai B'rith" on the floor. Metzenbaum, who was Jewish, raised a point of personal privilege and Hollings's remarks were stricken from the record. Hollings was referred to as "the senator from Disney" for his support of the entertainment industry.
Hollings would become popular for the wrong reasons among fans of the MTV animated series Beavis and Butt-head after he said to Janet Reno, "We've got this… what is it… Buffcoat and Beaver or Beaver and something else. I haven't seen it, I don't watch it, but whatever it is, it was at 7, Buffcoat, and they put it on now at 10:30". After the remark, the mispronunciation of Beavis and Butt-head's names, particularly by characters the writers intended to ridicule, became a running gag on the show.
In 1993, Hollings told reporters that he attended international summits because, "Everybody likes to go to Geneva. I used to do it for the Law of the Sea conferences and you'd find those potentates from down in Africa, you know, rather than eating each other, they'd just come up and get a good square meal in Geneva." Hollings had previously caused controversy when responding to Yoshio Sakurauchi's commentary that Americans are lazy and illiterate. Hollings replied, "You should draw a mushroom cloud and put underneath it, 'Made in America by lazy and illiterate Americans and tested in Japan'."
In May 2004, Hollings penned a controversial editorial in The Post and Courier, where he argued that Bush invaded Iraq possibly because "spreading democracy in the Mideast to secure Israel would take the Jew vote from the Democrats."
In retirement, Hollings continues to write opinion editorials for newspapers around South Carolina and is a regular contributor to the Huffington Post. His opinion editorials are also published every week in EconomyInCrisis.org, an independent protectionist news blog. In 2008, the University of South Carolina Press published Making Government Work, a book authored by Hollings with Washington, D.C., journalist Kirk Victor, imparting Hollings' view on the changes needed in Washington. Among other things, the book recommends a dramatic decrease in the amount of campaign spending. It also attacks free trade policies as inherently destructive, suggesting that certain protectionist measures have built the United States and that only a few parties actually benefit from free trade, such as large manufacturing corporations.
Hollings started the Hollings Scholarship in 2005. It gives over 100 undergraduates from around the country a 10-week internship with the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration and a monetary scholarship for the school year.
Hollings helped to establish the Hollings Center for International Dialogue, an organization which promotes dialogue between the United States and Turkey, the nations of the Middle East, North Africa, and Southwest Asia, and other countries with predominantly Muslim populations in order to open channels of communication, deepen cross-cultural understanding, expand people-to-people contacts, and generate new thinking on important international issues.
Hollings is on the board of advisors as well as a distinguished visiting professor of Law with the Charleston School of Law. He delivered the commencement address to the first graduating class there on May 19, 2007.
|Democratic||Fritz Hollings (incumbent)||404,060||61.89|
|Democratic||Fritz Hollings (incumbent)||356,126||69.50|
|Democratic||Fritz Hollings (incumbent)||612,556||70.37|
|Democratic||Fritz Hollings (incumbent)||463,354||63.10|
|Democratic||Fritz Hollings (incumbent)||591,030||50.07|
|Democratic||Fritz Hollings (incumbent)||562,791||52.68|
|Libertarian||Richard T. Quillian||16,987||1.59|
- "Archived copy". Archived from the original on May 18, 2015. Retrieved January 25, 2015.
- "The Sumter Daily Item - Google News Archive Search". news.google.com.
- Hollings, Ernest with Kirk Victor (2008). Making Government Work. Columbia, S.C.: University of South Carolina Press. p. 9.
- UPI (July 12, 1971). "Sen. Hollings to Wed Office Assistant". The Dispatch. Retrieved October 4, 2011.
- Ruiz, Myra (July 23, 2010), Biden Speaks At Hollings Library Dedication, WYFF4 News, retrieved October 4, 2011[permanent dead link]
- "Hollings' son to run for lieutenant governor". Herald-Journal. Associated Press. June 14, 2006. Retrieved October 4, 2011.
- "Hollings Granddaughter Dies; Presidential Hopeful Flies Home". Ocala star-Banner. Associated Press. August 14, 1983. Retrieved October 4, 2011.
- Schuyler Kropf (April 19, 2003). "Hollings family lays daughter to rest". The Post and Courier. Retrieved October 4, 2011.
- "Milestones, Mar. 23, 1959". Time Magazine. 1959. Retrieved October 4, 2011.
- "Ernest Frederick Hollings". October 4, 2011.
- Priscilla Meyer (February 5, 1961). "South Carolina's First Lady". The News and Courier. Retrieved October 4, 2011.
- "Milestones, Mar. 23, 1959". Time Magazine. 1959. Retrieved January 4, 2013.
- Once A Soldier...Always A Soldier: Soldiers in the 108th Congress. Arlington, Virginia: Association of the United States Army. 2003. p. 16.
- Watson, Inez (Ed.) (1953). South Carolina's Legislative Manual (34th ed.). Columbia, S.C.: General Assembly. p. 72.
- "Finding Aid for the Gubernatorial Papers of the Ernest F. "Fritz" Hollings Collection" (PDF). South Carolina Political Collections of the University of South Carolina. Retrieved September 14, 2009.
- Ross, Kelley L. (December 2015). "The Police State". Political Economy. Archived from the original on March 3, 2016. Retrieved March 3, 2016.
[T]he Confederate Flag flown on the grounds of the capital of South Carolina was only put there in 1962, as a protest against Desegregation, by the Democrat Governor of the State, Ernest Hollings (Governor of South Carolina, 1959-1963, then U.S. Senator from South Carolina)...
- Brunner, Borgna (June 30, 2000). "Confederate Flag Comes Down in South Carolina". Infoplease. Pearson Education, Inc. Retrieved May 7, 2013.
- "South Carolina Confederate Battle Flag Removal Bill Signing Ceremony". C-SPAN. July 9, 2015.
- "South Carolina Gov. Nikki Haley Signs Confederate Flag Bill Into Law". NPR. July 9, 2015.
- Address by Governor Ernest F. Hollings to the General Assembly of South Carolina, January 9, 1963, p. 8-9, http://digital.tcl.sc.edu/cdm4/document.php?CISOROOT=/how&CISOPTR=291&REC=2, part of the University of South Carolina's Digital Collection, "Fritz Hollings: In His Own Words."
-  Archived October 16, 2009, at the Wayback Machine.
- Hollings, Ernest (1970). The Case Against Hunger: A Demand for a National Policy. New York: Cowles Book Company, Inc. ISBN 0402126114.
- Pyatt, Rudolph (February 23, 1969). "The Beginning of a Rennaissance [sic] in Dixie". Charleston, S.C.: News and Courier.
- report, Staff. "Peatsy Hollings, wife of former Sen. Fritz Hollings, dies at 77". Post and Courier. Retrieved 2018-09-17.
- Kropf, Schuyler. "Peatsy Hollings was teacher, mentor". Post and Courier. Retrieved 2018-09-17.
- Frum, David (2000). How We Got Here: The '70s. New York, New York: Basic Books. p. 321. ISBN 0-465-04195-7.
- "SENATE BARS CUT IN SCHOOL FUNDS". New York Times. February 7, 1970.
- "HOLLINGS ATTACKS NIXON ON DISCORD". New York Times. September 26, 1970.
- "Kennedy, in Visit to Carolina, Cites Calhoun But Not‐Sherman". New York Times. March 1, 1971.
- "Senate Roll‐Call Vote Approving Marshall". January 27, 1977.
- "The Citadel Archives: Hollings, Ernest, 1922".
- "Our Campaigns - US President - D Primaries Race - Feb 01, 1988". www.ourcampaigns.com.
- (S. 2201)
- "U.S. Senate: U.S. Senate Roll Call Votes 103rd Congress - 1st Session". www.senate.gov.
- Robertson, Glenn (January 11, 1968). "Hollings 'Angered' by Tour of Slums." Charleston, S.C.: Evening Post.
- Pyatt, "The Beginning of a Rennaissance [sic] in Dixie?".
- "A Senator's Cannibal 'Joke' Angers Blacks". The New York Times. December 16, 1993. Retrieved September 25, 2016.
- Schwabach, Aaron (2006). Internet and the Law: Technology, Society, and Compromises. ABC-CLIO. p. 109. ISBN 9781851097319.
Hollings' tireless advocacy on behalf of the content industry also earned him an unflattering sobriquet: 'the senator from Disney'.
- Jacobs, A.J. (August 15, 1997). "Dude... This Sucks – We mourn the loss of fresh Beavis and Butt-Head episodes cpublisher=EW.com Television News". Entertainment Weekly.
- Sen. Hollings defends column labeled "anti-Jewish" by some - wistv.com - Columbia, South Carolina |. wistv.com (April 24, 2014). Retrieved on 2014-04-28.
- Hollings, Ernest with Kirk Victor (2008). Making Government Work. Columbia, S.C.: University of South Carolina Press.
- "Board of Advisors webpage". Charleston School of Law. Retrieved September 1, 2009. Archived from the original on April 6, 2012.
- "Hollings to give school's first commencement address". Charleston School of Law. March 20, 2007. Archived from the original on February 11, 2017. Retrieved February 9, 2017.
- "Hollings to Address First Graduation Class" (PDF). Reprint from The Citadel of an article from The State (newspaper) online. 25 March 2007.[permanent dead link]
- Ballantyne, David T. New Politics in the Old South: Ernest F. Hollings in the Civil Rights Era (U of South Carolina Press, 2016). 206 pp
- Minchin, Timothy J., “An Uphill Fight: Ernest F. Hollings and the Struggle to Protect the South Carolina Textile Industry, 1959–2005,” South Carolina Historical Magazine, 109 (July 2008), 187–211.
- United States Congress. "Fritz Hollings (id: H000725)". Biographical Directory of the United States Congress.
- The Papers of Fritz Hollings at the University of South Carolina
- "Fritz Hollings: In His Own Words," an online collection of documents from the Papers of Fritz Hollings at the University of SC
- Appearances on C-SPAN
- Center for Responsive Politics figures on Hollings' funding
- Salon article on the Online Personal Privacy Act
- LawMeme article about the Online Personal Privacy Act
- "Hollings's Harangue" NY Sun Article about the Howard Metzenbaum incident
- SCIway Biography of Ernest Frederick Hollings
- NGA Biography of Ernest Frederick Hollings