Ernst Gottfried Fischer
Ernst Gottfried Fischer (17 July 1754 – 27 January 1831) was a German chemist. He was born in Hoheneiche near Saalfeld. After studying theology and mathematics at the University of Halle, he was a teacher in Berlin before becoming Professor of Physics in 1810. He translated Claude Berthollet's publication Recherches sur les lois de l'affinitié in 1802. He proposed a system of equivalents based on sulfuric acid equal to one hundred.
Jeremias Benjamin Richter's work had little impact until 1802, when it was summarized by Fischer in terms of tables, such as the one below.
According to this table, it takes 615 parts by weight of magnesia to neutralize either 1000 parts by weight of sulfuric acid or 1405 parts by weight of nitric acid. In the early literature on the subject, these weights were referred to as combining weights.
|Weights of acids and bases that are chemically equivalent|
|Name||Parts required to titrate||Name||Parts required to titrate|
|Alumina (aluminium oxide)||525||Carbonic acid||577|
|Magnesia||615||Muriatic acid (hydrochloric acid)||712|
|Lime (calcium carbonate)||793||Phosphoric acid||979|
|Calcium hydroxide||793||Oxalic acid||755|
|Soda (sodium carbonate)||859||Sulphuric acid||1000|
|Potash (potassium carbonate)||1605||Aqua fortis (nitric acid)||1405|
|Barite (barium sulfate)||2222||Acetic acid||1480|
- Lehrbuch der mechanischen Naturlehre (in German). Milano: Giovanni Bernardoni. 1823.
- "Gottfried Fischer". College of Science Bodner Research Group Web. Archived from the original on July 26, 2006. Retrieved June 19, 2005.
- "Chemist's biographies". Queen Mary University of London. Retrieved March 28, 2010.