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Sami Erol Gelenbe (born 22 August 1945, Istanbul), a Turkish and French computer scientist, electronic engineer and applied mathematician, pioneered the field of Computer System and Network Performance in Europe. Active in European Union research projects, he is Professor in the Institute of Theoretical and Applied Informatics of the Polish Academy of Sciences (2017-), Associate Researcher in the I3S Laboratory (CNRS, University of Côte d'Azur, Nice) and Abraham de Moivre Laboratory (CNRS, Imperial College). Previous Chaired professorships include the University of Liège (1974-1979), University Paris-Saclay (1979-1986), University Paris Descartes (1986-2005), ECE Chair at Duke University (1993-1998), University Chair Professor and Director of EECS, University of Central Florida (1998-2003), and Dennis Gabor Professor and Head of Intelligent Systems and Networks, Imperial College (2003-2019).
Erol Gelenbe is a Fellow of the IEEE, ACM, the Royal Statistical Society, IFIP and IET (London). The Mathematics Genealogy Project indicates that he graduated over 90 PhDs and is in the 25 top, all-times worldwide doctoral advisers in mathematical sciences. Awarded Honoris Causa Doctorates by the University of Rome II, Bogazici University (Istanbul), and the University of Liège, Belgium, he was elected Fellow of the French Academy of Technologies (France), the Royal Academy of Science, Letters and Fine Arts of Belgium, The Science Academy Society of Turkey, the Polish Academy of Sciences, Academia Europaea, and Honorary Fellow of the Hungarian Academy of Sciences and of the Islamic World Academy of Sciences. Son of and Maria Sacchet Gelenbe and of Yusuf Âli Gelenbe, a descendant of the 18th-century Ottoman mathematician Gelenbevi Ismail Efendi and nephew of the Ottoman Sheyhulislam Mehmet Cemaleddin Efendi, Erol graduated from Ankara Koleji and the Middle East Technical University, Ankara, where he won the K.K. Clarke Research Award for his undergraduate thesis on "partial flux switching magnetic memory systems". Awarded a Fulbright Fellowship, he completed a Master's degree and PhD thesis degree at the Polytechnic University on "Stochastic automata with structural restrictions" under Prof. Edward J. Smith.
He then joined the University of Michigan as an assistant professor, and on leave from Michigan, he founded the Modeling and Performance Evaluation of Computer Systems research group at INRIA (France), and was a visiting associate professor at the University of Paris 13 University. In 1971 he was elected to a Chair in Computer Science at the University of Liège in Belgium, but was appointed in 1974, joining Professor Danny Ribbens while remaining a research director at INRIA. He was awarded a Doctorat d'État ès Sciences Mathématiques (1973) from Sorbonne University, with a thesis on "Modèlisation des systèmes informatiques", under Jacques-Louis Lions. He remained a close friend of Professor Ribbens and of the University of Liège, but moved to the Paris-Sud 11 University in 1979, where he co-founded the Laboratoire de Recherche en Informatique and its PhD Program, before joining Paris Descartes University in 1986 as founding director of the Ecole des Hautes Etudes en Informatique.
He was appointed New Jersey State Endowed Chair Professor at the New Jersey Institute of Technology (1991-1993), and joined Duke University as the Nello L. Teer Chair Professor and Head of the Electrical and Computer Engineering Department until 1998 when he moved to the University of Central Florida, and founded the School of Electrical Engineering and Computer Science and created the Harris Corporation Engineering Centre  He was offered the Dennis Gabor Chair at Imperial College London as Head of Intelligent Systems and Networks. After Brexit, he was appointed Professor in the Institute of Theoretical and Applied Informatics (IITIS)  of the Polish Academy of Sciences in 2017, where he was an Academy Fellow since 2013. He retired from Imperial in 2019, continuing as Professor at the Institute of Theoretical and Applied Informatics of the Polish Academy of Sciences, as Coordinator or Principal Investigator of EU H2020 Research and Innovation Project SerIoT (2017-2021)  on the security of the Internet of Things, the EU H2020 Research and Innovation Programmes SDK4ED (2018-2020) and of IoTAC (2020-2023). Active in several National Academies, he Chairs the Informatics Section of Academia Europaea since 2023, served as SAPEA Advisor on Cybersecurity for the EU High Level Group (2017), Member of the Fake-News Study Group of the All-European Academies (ALLEA, 2020-2021), leader of the Science Communication (Diffusion des Sciences) Study Group (2020–21) of the Belgian Royal Academy of Sciences, Arts and Letters, and Study Group leader on "Research to Innovation in Europe" (2022)  of the Association of European Academies of Applied Sciences and Engineering.
Inventor of the Random neural network (RNN) model and its polynomial-time learning algorithm, he also invented Cognitive Packet Networks and their Reinforcement Learning algorithm based on RNNs. He invented the eponymous G-network, a mathematical model of the performance of distributed systems and networks with complex node to node interactions that analyze dynamic resource allocation in interconnected systems, and showed that they have "product form", as well as diffusion approximations for computer system performance. He pioneered research concerning the performance of multiprogramming computer systems, virtual memory management, data base reliability optimisation, distributed systems and network protocols. He formed, led, and trained the team that designed the commercial QNAP Computer and Network Performance Modeling Tool. He introduced the Flexsim Object Oriented approach for simulation in manufacturing systems leading to a widely used FLEXSIM commercial product. He published the first work on adaptive control of computer systems to optimise time-sharing systems, and published seminal papers on the performance optimisation of computer network protocols and on diffusion approximations for network performance. He introduced a new spiked stochastic neural network model known as the random neural network, developed its mathematical solution and learning algorithms, and applied it to both engineering and biological problems. His inventions include the first Voice-Packet Switch SYCOMORE for Thales, the random access fibre-optics local area network XANTHOS, a patented admission control technique for ATM networks, a neural network based anomaly detector for brain magnetic resonance scans, and the Cognitive Packet Network routing protocol to offer quality of service to users. He has also served as a consultant to Thomson-CSF, IBM, BT, France Telecom, Huawei, and General Dynamics. His awards include the Parlar Foundation Science Award (1994), the Grand Prix France Telecom (1996) of the French Academy of Sciences, the ACM SIGMETRICS Life-Time Achievement Award, the Oliver Lodge Medal (UK Institution of Engineering and Technology, 2010), the "In Memoriam Dennis Gabor Award" (Novofer Foundation, Budapest), and the Mustafa Prize (2017).
During 1984-1986 he served as Science and Technology Advisor to the French Secretary of State for Universities. He founded the ISCIS (International Symposium on Computer and Information Sciences) series of conferences held annually in Turkey, the USA and Europe. A prolific PhD supervisor, 24 of his former PhD students are women, including Prof. Catherine Rosenberg, Fellow of the Royal Academy of Engineering of Canada, and Prof. Brigitte Plateau, former Director General of Higher Education in France.
Latest research interests
His current research on Machine Learning and Neural Networks  and Cybersecurity He also currently  also addresses energy efficient in computer systems, self-aware networks, and networked auctions. His collaborations with biologists include Gene Regulatory Networks and Protein Sequence Alignment.
- Commander of the Order of the Crown (Belgium), by Royal Decree of 28 October 2022
- Commander of the Ordre National du Mérite (National Order of Merit), France, 2019 (awarded Knighthood in 1993) 
- Knight of the Légion d'Honneur (France), 2014 
- Knight Commander in the Order of the Star of Italy, or "Grande Ufficiale dell'Ordine della Stella d'Italia", 2007
- Commander of the Order of Merit of the Republic of Italy (Commendatore in the "Ordine al Merito della Repubblica Italiana"), 2005
- Knight of the Ordre des Palmes Académiques, France, 2003
- Honorary Fellow of the Islamic World Academy of Sciences, 2022
- Foreign Fellow of the Académie Royale de Belgique, 2015
- Foreign Fellow of the Polish Academy of Sciences, 2013
- Fellow of the Science Academy, Turkey, 2012
- Honorary Fellow of the Hungarian Academy of Sciences, 2010
- Fellow of the French Academy of Technologies or Académie des technologies, 2008
- IFIP Fellow, 2020 
- Member of Academia Europaea, 2005
- Fellow of the Association for Computing Machinery (ACM), New York City, 2002
- Fellow of the Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers (IEEE), New York City, 1986
- Mustafa Prize (2017)
- In Memoriam Dennis Gabor Award, Novofer Foundation, Budapest 2013
- Institution of Engineering and Technology Oliver Lodge Medal, 2010
- Imperial College 2008 Rector's Research Award 
- ACM SIGMETRICS Life-Time Achievement Award, 2008, describes him "as the single individual who, over a span of 30 years, has made the greatest overall contribution to the field of Computer System and Network Performance Evaluation"
- Docteur en Sciences "Honoris Causa", University of Liège, Belgium
- Honorary PhD "Honoris Causa" from Boğaziçi University, Istanbul, 2004 
- Dottore "Honoris Causa", University of Rome Tor Vergata, Italy, 1996
- France Telecom Prize, one of the Grands Prix of the French Academy of Sciences, 1996
- Parlar Foundation Science Award, Turkey, 1994
- International Federation for Information Processing (IFIP) Silver Core Award, 1980
- E. Gelenbe "On languages defined by linear probabilistic automata", Information and Control, 16(5):487–501, July 1970.
- E. Gelenbe "A realizable model for stochastic sequential machines", IEEE Trans. Comput. 20, 199–204 (1971).
- E. Gelenbe "On approximate computer system models", Journal of the ACM 22(2):261–269 (April 1975).
- E. Gelenbe and I. Mitrani "Analysis and synthesis of computer systems", Academic Press (June 1980), 239 pp., ISBN 0-12-279350-1, ISBN 978-0-12-279350-9.
- E. Gelenbe "On the optimum checkpoint interval", Journal of the ACM, 26(2):259–270, April 1979.
- E. Gelenbe "Random neural networks with negative and positive signals and product form solution", Neural Computation 1: 502-510, 1989, MIT Press.
- E. Gelenbe "Learning in the Recurrent Random Neural Network," Neural Computation, 5(1): 154-164, Jan. 1993, doi: 10.1162/neco.19220.127.116.11
- E. Gelenbe "Product-Form queueing networks with negative and positive customers", Journal of Applied Probability, Vol. 28 (3): 656–663 (Sep. 1991).
- E. Gelenbe, Mao, Z.H., Li, Y.D. "Function approximation with spiked random networks,", IEEE Trans. on Neural Networks, 10 (1): 3–9, 1999.
- E. Gelenbe and G. Pujolle "Introduction to Queueing Networks", John Wiley & Sons, Inc. New York City, 1987 and 2000.
- E. Gelenbe, R. Lent and Z. Xu "Design and performance of a cognitive packet network", Performance Evaluation, 46, (2–3): 155–176, October 2001.
- E. Gelenbe and Hussain K.F. "Learning in the multiple class random neural network, " IEEE Transactions on Neural Networks, 13(6): 1257–1267, 2002.
- E. Gelenbe, Gellman, R. M. Lent, P. Liu and Pu Su "Autonomous smart routing for network QoS", Proc. International Conference on Autonomic Computing: 232–239, ISBN 0-7695-2114-2, 17–18 May 2004.
- J.-M. Fourneau and E. Gelenbe "Flow equivalence and stochastic equivalence in G-networks",Computational Management Science, 1 (2): 179–192, 2004.doi:10.1007/s10287-003-0008-z,
- E. Gelenbe "Steady-state solution of probabilistic gene regulatory networks", Physical Review E, 76(1), 031903 (2007).
- E. Gelenbe "A Diffusion Model for Packet Travel Time in a Random Multi-Hop Medium", ACM Trans. on Sensor Networks, 3 (2), Article 10, June 2007.
- E. Gelenbe "Dealing with software viruses: a biological paradigm", Information Security Technical Reports 12: 242–250, Elsevier Science, 2007.
- E. Gelenbe, G. Sakellari and M. d'Arienzo "Admission of QoS aware users in a smart network", ACM Trans. on Autonomous and Adaptive Systems, 3(1), TAAS-07-0003, 2008.
- E. Gelenbe "Network of interacting synthetic molecules in equilibrium" Proc. Royal Society A 464:2219–2228, 2008.
- E. Gelenbe and I. Mitrani "Analysis and Synthesis of Computer Systems" World Scientific, Imperial College Press, Singapore and London, 2009.
- E. Gelenbe "Analysis of single and networked auctions", ACM Trans. on Internet Technology, 9 (2), 2009.
- E. Gelenbe "Steps toward self-aware networks", Communications ACM, 52 (7):66–75, July 2009.
- A. Berl, E. Gelenbe, M. Di Girolamo, G. Giuliani, H. De Meer, M. Quan Dang, and K. Pentikousis "Energy-efficient cloud computing", Comp. J. 53 (7): 1045–1051, 2010.
- E. Gelenbe "Search in unknown random environments", Phys. Rev. E 82: 061112, 2010.
- E. Gelenbe and C. Morfopoulou "A framework for energy aware routing in packet networks", Comp. J., doi:10.1093/comjnl/bxq092, 2011.
- O. H. Abdelrahman and E. Gelenbe. "Time and energy in team-based search", Phys. Rev. E, 87(3):032125, March 2013.
- Y. M. Kadioglu and E. Gelenbe. "Product-form solution for cascade networks with intermittent energy," IEEE Systems Journal 13 (1): 918–927 (2018)
- E. Gelenbe, P Campegiani, T Czachórski, SK Katsikas, I Komnios, et al. "Security in Computer and Information Sciences: First International ISCIS Security Workshop 2018, Euro-CYBERSEC 2018, London, UK, February 26–27, 2018, Revised Selected Papers", Lecture Notes, Vol. CCIS 821, Springer, Berlin (2018)
- E. Gelenbe and O. H. Abdelrahman. "An Energy Packet Network model for mobile networks with energy harvesting," Nonlinear Theory and Its Applications, IEICE (2018) doi:10.1587/nolta.9.322 www
.jstage .jst .go .jp /article /nolta /9 /3 /9 _322 / _pdf /-char /en
- E. Gelenbe and Y. M. Kadioglu. "Energy life-time of wireless nodes with network attacks and mitigation," 2018 ICC: IEEE International Conf. on Comms. Workshops (ICC), IEEEXpress, (2018)
- W. Serrano and E. Gelenbe. "The Random Neural Network in a neurocomputing application for Web search," Neurocomputing 280: 123–132 (2018)
- M. G. Siavvas and E. Gelenbe. "Optimum checkpoints for programs with loops," Simul. Model. Pract. Theory 97: 101951 (2019)
- Y. M. Kadioglu and Gelenbe. "Product-Form Solution for Cascade Networks With Intermittent Energy," IEEE Systems Journal 13(1): 918-927 (2019)
- E. Gelenbe and Y. Zhang. "Performance Optimization With Energy Packets," IEEE Systems Journal 13(4): 3770-3780 (2019)
- J. Du, E. Gelenbe, C. Jiang, H. Zhang, Y. Ren and H. V. Poor. "Peer Prediction-Based Trustworthiness Evaluation and Trustworthy Service Rating in Social Networks," IEEE Trans. Information Forensics and Security 14(6): 1582-1594 (2019)
- E. Gelenbe, J. Domanska, P. Frohlich, M. Nowak and S. Nowak. "Self-Aware Networks That Optimize Security, QoS, and Energy," Proceedings of the IEEE 108 (7): 1150-1167 (2020) doi:10.1109/JPROC.2020.2992559 ieeexplore
.ieee .org /stamp /stamp .jsp?tp=&arnumber=9103525
- E. Gelenbe. "Introduction to the Special Issue on the French–Polish Collaboration in Mathematical Models of Computer Systems, Networks and Bioinformatics," SN Computer Science 1 (1) (2020) doi:10.1007/s42979-019-0044-6 link
.springer .com /article /10 .1007%2Fs42979-019-0044-6
- P. Frohlich, E. Gelenbe and M. P. Nowak. "Smart SDN Management of Fog Services," In GIOTS 2020: Global IoT Summit 2020, IEEE Communications Society, 1–5 June 2020, Dublin, Ireland, 1-6 doi:10.1109/GIOTS49054.2020.9119542
- W. Serrano, E. Gelenbe and Y. Yin. "The Random Neural Network with Deep Learning Clusters in Smart Search," Neurocomputing 396: 394-405 (2020)
- E. Gelenbe and M. Siavvas. "Minimizing energy and computation in long running software," Applied Science 11: 1169 (2021) doi
.org /10 .3390 /app11031169
- D. Kehagias, M. Jankovic, M. Siavvas and E. Gelenbe. "Investigating the Interaction between Energy Consumption, Quality of Service, Reliability, Security, and Maintainability of Computer Systems and Networks," SN Computer Science, 2 (1): 1-6 (2021) link
.springer .com /article /10 .1007 /s42979-020-00404-8
- K. Filus, P. Boryszko, J. Domańska, M. Siavvas and E. Gelenbe. "Efficient Feature Selection for Static Analysis Vulnerability Prediction." Sensors, 21 (4): 1133 (2021) doi
.org /10 .3390 /s21041133
- P. Fröhlich, E. Gelenbe, J. Fiołka, J. Chęciński, M. Nowak and Z. Filus. "Smart SDN Management of Fog Services to Optimize QoS and Energy". Sensors, 21(9): 3105 (2021) doi
.org /10 .3390 /s21093105
- E. Gelenbe and M. Nakip. "Traffic Based Sequential Learning During Botnet Attacks to Identify Compromised IoT Devices," IEEE Access (Early Access), Dec. 2022
- ^ a b Gaster, Adrian (1977). The international authors and writers who's who. International Biographical Centre. ISBN 978-0-900332-45-6.
- ^ Barria, Javier A. (2006). Communication networks and computer systems: a tribute to Professor Erol Gelenbe. Imperial College Press. pp. 1–8. ISBN 978-1-86094-659-2.
- ^ "Top 25 Advisors".
- ^ "Mustafa Prize Laureates as IAS Honorary Fellows – IAS".
- ^ Çaglayan, Professor Ufuk (26 October 2005). "Erol Gelenbe's Career and Contributions". In Yolum, pInar; Güngör, Tunga; Gürgen, Fikret; Özturan, Can (eds.). Computer and Information Sciences - ISCIS 2005. Lecture Notes in Computer Science. Vol. 3733. Springer Berlin Heidelberg. pp. 966–970. doi:10.1007/11569596_98. ISBN 978-3-540-29414-6.
- ^ "Biographicon: Erol Gelenbe". Archived from the original on 3 October 2011. Retrieved 29 January 2011.
- ^ "Departments of ECE and CS - Home".
- ^ "Harris Corporation Engineering Center - UCF Campus Map, Orlando FL"..
- ^ "Minutes of Senate Meeting" (PDF). Imperial College London. 13 December 2006. Retrieved 20 June 2009.
- ^ "Council: Staff Matters" (PDF). Imperial College London. 18 October 2002. Retrieved 20 June 2009.
- ^ "Institute of Theoretical and Applied Informatics, Polish Academy of Sciences".
- ^ "Prof. Sami Erol Gelenbe". IITIS. Retrieved 16 March 2019.
- ^ "Getting more 'intelligent' about internet security".
- ^ "Fact or Fake? Tackling Science Disinformation".
- ^ "From Research to Innovation in Europe" (PDF).
- ^ "Challenges for European Science and Technology driven innovation in Europe".
- ^ Harrison, Peter (2009). "Turning Back Time – What Impact on Performance?". The Computer Journal. 53 (6): 860–868. CiteSeerX 10.1.1.574.9535. doi:10.1093/comjnl/bxp021.
- ^ "Cognitive packet network".
- ^ Çaglayan, P. U. (2005). "Erol Gelenbe's Career and Contributions". Computer and Information Sciences – ISCIS 2005. Lecture Notes in Computer Science. Vol. 3733. pp. 966–970. doi:10.1007/11569596_98. ISBN 978-3-540-29414-6.
- ^ "ACM SIGMETRICS Life-Time Achievement Award 2008".
- ^ "In Memoriam Dennis Gabor Award 2013". Archived from the original on 20 August 2014. Retrieved 17 March 2014.
- ^ "Mustafa Prize 2017".
- ^ "Iscis 2016".
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- ^ "Engineering and Technology Magazine". Archived from the original on 12 November 2013. Retrieved 30 March 2013.
- ^ "ACM Ubiquity – An Interview with Erol Gelenbe: Practical Theories Make the World Go". Retrieved 30 March 2013.
- ^ J'ai l'honneur de vous informer que, par arrêté royal du 28 octobre 2022, le grade de Commandeur de l'Ordre de la Couronne a été attribué au Professeur Erol GELENBE, Membre associé de l'Académie royale des Sciences, Lettres et Beaux-Arts de Belgique (PDF) (in French)
- ^ "Remise de l'insigne de Commandeur de l'ordre national du Mérite à Erol GELENBE" (PDF).
- ^ "Décret du 25 mai 2019 portant promotion et nomination" (in French). Journal officiel de la République française. Retrieved 26 May 2019.
- ^ "Décret du 18 avril 2014 portant promotion et nomination" (in French). Journal officiel de la République française.
- ^ "Sami Gelenbe - JORFSearch".
- ^ "Grande Ufficiale dell'Ordine della Stella d'Italia (già Stella della solidarietà italiana)" (in Italian). Presidenza della Repubblica. Retrieved 12 November 2013.
- ^ "Commendatore Ordine al Merito della Repubblica Italiana" (in Italian). Presidenza della Repubblica. Retrieved 12 November 2013.
- ^ "Foreign Members – Division IV". Polish Academy of Sciences. Archived from the original on 11 November 2013. Retrieved 12 November 2013.
- ^ "Members of the Science Academy". Bilim Akademisi. Retrieved 12 November 2013.
- ^ "HAS General Assembly Elects New Honorary Members". Hungarian Academy of Sciences. Archived from the original on 12 November 2013. Retrieved 12 November 2013.
- ^ "Profile: Gelenbe, S. Erol". Hungarian Academy of Sciences. Archived from the original on 20 March 2012. Retrieved 12 November 2013.
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- ^ "Fellow: Gelenbe, Erol". International Federation of Information Processing. 27 March 2020.
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- ^ "IEEE ComSoc Member Erol Gelenbe Wins the in Memoriam Dennis Gabor Award | IEEE Communications Society". Archived from the original on 20 August 2014. Retrieved 17 March 2014.
- ^ Chris Edwards (18 January 2011). "Profile: Professor Erol Gelenbe". IET. Archived from the original on 12 November 2013. Retrieved 12 November 2013.
- ^ "The IET Achievement Medal Winners 2013". IET. Archived from the original on 12 November 2013. Retrieved 12 November 2013.
- ^ "Honouring the work of Professor Erol Gelenbe". Imperial College. Retrieved 13 June 2022.
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- ^ "Séance académique de remise des insignes de Docteur Honoris Causa" (in French). Universite de Liege. 30 March 2006. Retrieved 12 November 2013.
- ^ "DHC2006 : Présentation de M. Erol GELENBE" (in French). Universite de Liege. Retrieved 12 November 2013.
- ^ "Fahri Doktora Unvanı".
- ^ "Prix France Telecom: Laureats de L'Annee 2012" (PDF) (in French). Académie des Sciences. Archived from the original (PDF) on 12 November 2013. Retrieved 12 November 2013.
- ^ "Bugüne Kadar Ödül Alanlar: Bilim Ödülü" (in Turkish). ODTÜ Prof.Dr.Mustafa N.PARLAR Eğitim ve Araştırma Vakfı. Retrieved 12 November 2013.
- ^ "Holders of the IFIP Silver Core Award (1974–2010)". IFIP. Retrieved 12 November 2013.
- ^ Gelenbe, Erol (December 1989). "Random Neural Networks with Negative and Positive Signals and Product Form Solution". Neural Computation. 1 (4): 502–510. doi:10.1162/neco.1918.104.22.1682. S2CID 207737442.
- ^ Gelenbe, Erol (January 1993). "Learning in the Recurrent Random Neural Network". Neural Computation. 5 (1): 154–164. doi:10.1162/neco.1922.214.171.124. S2CID 38667978.
- ^ ieeexplore
.ieee .org /document /9969594 doi:10.1109/ACCESS.2022.3226700
- Erol Gelenbe's Publications as listed in the DBLP Computer Science Bibliography and his List of Collaborators (including his doctoral students).
- Turkish computer scientists
- Academics of Imperial College London
- British computer scientists
- Computer systems researchers
- 1945 births
- Scientists from Istanbul
- Middle East Technical University alumni
- New Jersey Institute of Technology faculty
- Fellows of the Association for Computing Machinery
- Living people
- Duke University faculty
- Academic staff of the University of Paris
- Members of Academia Europaea
- Probability theorists
- Chevaliers of the Ordre des Palmes Académiques
- METU Mustafa Parlar Foundation Science Award winners
- TED Ankara College Foundation Schools alumni
- Polytechnic Institute of New York University alumni
- Chevaliers of the Légion d'honneur
- University of Michigan faculty
- Academic staff of the University of Liège