Female guards in Nazi concentration camps

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The Aufseherinnen were female guards in Nazi concentration camps during the Holocaust. Of the 55,000 guards who served in Nazi concentration camps, about 3,700 were women. In 1942, the first female guards arrived at Auschwitz and Majdanek from Ravensbrück. The year after, the Nazis began conscripting women because of a guard shortage. The German title for this position, Aufseherin (plural Aufseherinnen) means female overseer or attendant. Later female guards were dispersed to Bolzano (1944–45), Kaiserwald-Riga (1943-44), Mauthausen (March–May 1945), Neue Bremm (1943–44), Stutthof (1942–45), Vaivara (1943–44), Vught (1943–44), and at other Nazi concentration camps, subcamps, work camps, detention camps, etc.

Mugshot of Bergen-Belsen guard Irma Grese
Herta Bothe, in Celle awaiting trial, August 1945

Recruitment[edit]

Female guards were generally from the lower to middle class[1] and had no relevant work experience; their professional background varied: one source mentions former matrons, hairdressers, tramcar-conductresses, opera singers or retired teachers.[2] Volunteers were recruited by ads in German newspapers asking for women to show their love for the Reich and join the SS-Gefolge ("SS-Retinue", an SS support and service organisation for women). Additionally, some were conscripted based on data in their SS files. The League of German Girls acted as a vehicle of indoctrination for many of the women.[3] At one of the post-war hearings, Oberaufseherin Herta Haase-Breitmann-Schmidt, head female overseer, claimed that her female guards were not full-fledged SS women. Consequently, at some tribunals it was disputed whether SS-Helferinnen employed at the camps were official members of the SS, thus leading to conflicting court decisions. Many of them belonged to the Waffen-SS and to the SS-Helferinnen Corps.[4][5] Some female guards who served in the camps belonged to the Allgemeine-SS or the SS-Gefolge. Other women, such as Therese Brandl and Irmtraut Sell, belonged to the Totenkopf ("skull") units.[6]

At first, new recruits were trained at Lichtenburg concentration camp in Germany in 1938 and after 1939, at the Ravensbrück camp near Berlin. When World War II broke out, the Nazis built other camps in Poland, France, the Netherlands, Belgium and other countries they occupied. The female guards' training was similar to that of their male counterparts; the women attended classes which ranged from four weeks to half a year, headed by the head wardresses - however, near the end of the war little, if any, training was given to fresh recruits. Court records cite former SS member Herta Ehlert, who served at Ravensbruck, Majdanek, Lublin, Auschwitz and Bergen-Belsen, as describing her training as "physically and emotionally demanding" when questioned at the Belsen trial. According to her, the trainees were told about the corruption of the Weimar Republic, how to punish prisoners, and how to look out for sabotage and work slowdowns. The same sources have averred that Dorothea Binz, head training overseer at Ravensbruck after 1942, trained her female students in the finer points of "malicious pleasure" (Schadenfreude or sadism).[6]

Supervision levels and ranks[edit]

Female guards were collectively known as SS-Helferin (German: "Female SS Helper"). They were never given any positional titles or equivalent ranks of the SS. The supervisory levels within the SS-Helferin were as follows:

  1. Chef Oberaufseherin, "Chief Senior Overseer" [Ravensbrück]
  2. Lagerführerin, "Camp Leader"
  3. Oberaufseherin, "Senior Overseer"
  4. Erstaufseherin, "First Guard" [Senior Overseer in some satellite camps]
  5. Rapportführerin, "Report Leader"
  6. Arbeitsdienstführerin, "Work Recording Leader"
  7. Arbeitseinsatzführerin, "Work Input Overseers"
  8. Blockführerin, "Block Leader"
  9. Kommandoführerin, "Work Squad Leader" [Senior Overseer in some satellite camps]
  10. Hundeführerin, "Dog Guide Overseer"
  11. Aufseherin, "Overseer"
  12. Arrestführerin, "Arrested Overseer"

Luise Brunner and Anna Klein were both Chef Oberaufseherin. Female SS-Helferin were not recognized as regular members of the SS. For organizational purposes they were classed as auxiliaries who had no command powers over regular SS troops. Ravensbrück was the only Nazi camp reserved specifically for female inmates. It was run by SS officers using the SS-Helferin as guards and overseers.[6]

Daily life[edit]

Relations between SS men and female guards are said to have existed in many of the camps, and Heinrich Himmler had told the SS men to regard the female guards as equals and comrades. At the relatively small Helmbrechts subcamp near Hof, Germany, the camp commandant, Doerr, openly pursued a sexual relationship with the head female overseer Herta Haase-Breitmann-Schmidt.

Corruption was another aspect of the female guard culture. Ilse Koch, known as "the witch of Buchenwald", was married to the camp commandant, Karl Koch. Both were rumoured to have embezzled millions of Reichmarks, for which Karl Koch was convicted and executed by the Nazis a few weeks before Buchenwald was liberated by the U.S. Army; however, Ilse was cleared of the charge. She was sentenced to life imprisonment in 1951.

One apparent exception to the brutal female overseer prototype was Klara Kunig, a camp guard in 1944 who served at Ravensbruck and its subcamp at Dresden-Universelle. The head wardress at the camp pointed out that she was too polite and too kind towards the inmates, resulting in her subsequent dismissal from camp duty in January 1945. Her fate has been unknown since February 13, 1945, the date of the allied firebombing of Dresden.[7]

Camps, names and ranks[edit]

Jenny-Wanda Barkmann, back row right, at the Stutthof concentration camp war crimes trial between 25 April and 31 May 1946, in Gdańsk
The execution of guards of the Stutthof concentration camp on 4 July 1946

Near the end of the war, women were forced from factories in the German Labour Exchange and sent to training centres. Women were also trained on a smaller scale at the camps of Neuengamme[8]; Auschwitz I, II, and III[9]; Flossenbürg (as well as Dresden-Goehle, Holleischen[10] and Zwodau[11]); Gross Rosen (as well as its satellites in Langenbielau[12], Ober Hohenelbe[13] and Parschnitz); Stutthof[14], as well as a few at Mauthausen[15]. Most of these women came from the regions around the camps. In 1944, the first female overseers were stationed at the satellite camps belonging to Neuengamme, Dachau[16], Mauthausen, a very few at Natzweiler-Struthof, and none at the Mittelbau-Dora complex until March 1945.[17]

Twenty-eight Aufseherinnen served in Vught[18], none at Buchenwald (except for two brothel Aufseherinnen (summer-November 1943)[19] (possibly others during evacuations), sixty in Bergen Belsen, one at Dachau concentration camp overseeing the brothel[20] (possibly others during evacuations), more than thirty in Mauthausen[21] (January 1945-May 1945), none at Dora Mittelbau proper, none at Natzweiler-Struthof proper, thirty at Majdanek[22], around 200 at Auschwitz and its subcamps[23], 140 at Sachsenhausen and its subcamps, 158 trained at Neuengamme (over 400 in its satellites), forty-seven trained at Stutthof (150 in its entire complex of labor camps), compared to 958 who served in Ravensbrück (3,500 were trained there[24]), 561 in the Flossenbürg complex, and over 800 in the Gross Rosen[25]. Many female supervisors were trained and/or worked at subcamps in Germany, Poland, and a few in eastern France, a few in Austria, and a few in some camps in Czechoslovakia.[26]

Prisoner Olga Lengyel, who in her memoir, Five Chimneys, wrote that selections in the women’s camp were made by SS Aufseherin Elisabeth Hasse and Irma Grese. In addition to those already mentioned as having been executed for war crimes, the following female guards were tried postwar, convicted of war crimes and executed: Sydonia Bayer of Litzmannstadt (Łódź), date unknown (in Poland); Juana Bormann of Bergen-Belsen, hanged 13 December 1945; Ruth Hildner of Helmbrechts, hanged 2 May 1947; Christel Jankowsky of Ravensbrück, date unknown (in East Germany); and Gertrud Schreiter and Emma Zimmer of Ravensbrück, both hanged 20 September 1948. An unknown number were summarily executed by the Soviets at the end of the war.[6]

Post-war period[edit]

Ilse Koch at the U.S. Military Tribunal in Dachau, 1947

As the Allies liberated the camps, "SS" females were generally still in active service. Many were captured in or near the camps of Ravensbrück, Bergen Belsen, Gross Rosen, Flossenbürg, Salzwedel, Neustadt-Glewe, Neuengamme and Stutthof. After the war, many "SS" females were held at the internment camp at Recklinghausen, Germany or in the former concentration camp at Dachau. There, between 500 and 1,000 females were held while the U.S. Army investigated their crimes and camp service. The majority were released because SS males were the top priority. Many of the females held there were high-ranking leaders of the League of German Girls, while other females had served in concentration camps. Many SS males and females were executed by the Soviets when they liberated the camps, while others were sent to the gulags. Only a few "SS" females were tried for their crimes compared to SS males. Most female wardresses were tried at the Auschwitz Trial, in four of the seven Ravensbrück Trials, at the first Stutthof Trial, in the second and Third Majdanek Trials and from the small Hamburg-Sasel camp. At that trial all forty-eight SS males and females involved were tried.[6]

Later events[edit]

The last trial of a female overseer was held in 1996. Former Aufseherin Luise Danz, who served as overseer in January 1943 at Plaszow, then at Majdanek, Auschwitz-Birkenau and at the Ravensbrück subcamp at Malchow as Oberaufseherin, was tried at the first Auschwitz Trial and sentenced to life imprisonment in 1947. In 1956, she was released for good behavior. In 1996, she was once again tried for the murder of a young woman in Malchow at the end of the war. The doctor overseeing the trial told the court that the proceedings were too much for the elderly woman and all charges were dropped. As of 2011, Danz is still alive at the age of 94.[6]

In 1996, a story broke in Germany about Margot Pietzner (married name Kunz), a former Aufseherin from Ravensbruck, the Belzig subcamp and a subcamp at Wittenberg. She was originally sentenced to death by a Soviet court but it commuted to a life sentence and she was released in 1956. In the early 1990s, at the age of seventy-four, Pietzner was awarded the title "Stalinist victim" and given 64,350 Deutsche Marks (32,902 Euros). Many historians argued that she had lied and did not deserve the money. She had, in fact, served time in a German prison which was overseen by the Soviets, but she was imprisoned because she had served brutally in the ranks of three concentration camps. Pietzner currently lives in a small town in northern Germany. The only female guard to tell her story to the public has been Herta Bothe, who served as a guard at Ravensbrück in 1942, then at Stutthof, Bromberg-Ost subcamp, and finally in Bergen-Belsen. She received ten years' imprisonment, and was released in the mid-1950s. In a rare interview in 2004, Bothe was asked if she regretted being a guard in a concentration camp. Her response was, "What do you mean? ...I made a mistake, no... The mistake was that it was a concentration camp, but I had to go to it - otherwise I would have been put into it myself, that was my mistake."[120]

In 2006, 84-year-old San Francisco resident Elfriede Rinkel was deported by the US Justice Department. She had worked at Ravensbrück Concentration Camp from June 1944 to April 1945, and had used an SS-trained dog in the camp. She had hidden her secret for more than 60 years from her family, friends and Jewish German husband Fred. Rinkel immigrated to the US in 1959 seeking a better life and had omitted Ravensbrück from the list of residences supplied on her visa application. In Germany, Rinkel does not face criminal charges as only murder allegations can be tried after this amount of time,[121] although the case continues to be examined.[122]

Fictional portrayals[edit]

In the novel The Reader, a young man has an affair with an older woman (later revealed as a concentration camp guard) Hanna Schmitz. She is later tried in a court of law. In the film adaptation, she is portrayed by Kate Winslet.

In the film Seven Beauties, directed by Lina Wertmüller, the main character saves his life by having an affair with the female commander of a concentration camp, where he has been imprisoned for deserting the Italian Army.

Aufseherinnen are also portrayed in roles of varying size and importance in several other films:

  • In Schindler's List, female guards can be seen in scenes involving the Plaszow labor camp and when the Schindler women arrive and depart from Auschwitz-Birkenau, as well as four at the Brunnlitz subcamp.
  • Although unnamed, an overseer plays a prominent role in the 1975 film The Hiding Place, during scenes when Corrie and Betsie ten Boom are imprisoned at Ravensbruck. Several other female guards are seen processing new prisoners after their arrival at the camp.
  • Maria Mandl (aka Maria Mandel) is portrayed by actress Shirley Knight in the film version of Playing for Time, centered on the Women's Orchestra of Auschwitz-Birkenau. Other Aufseherinnen are portrayed in smaller roles, processing prisoners and attending the orchestra's performances.
  • Irma Grese has been portrayed as a minor character in Out of the Ashes as well as Pierrepoint (aka The Last Hangman in America), which details her execution following the Belsen war crimes trial. Both films feature additional female guards in much smaller roles. Grese is also briefly portrayed in a non-speaking re-enactment in Auschwitz: Inside the Nazi State.
  • Polish actress Aleksandra Śląska played an Aufseherin in two films, first The Last Stage as the Oberaufseherin and later as Lisa in Pasazerka. Both films contain several minor Aufseherinnen characters.
  • Female guards also appear in very small roles in the films Triumph of the Spirit, Battle of the V-1, and the beginning scene of X-Men.
  • A character named "Ilsa" is a main protagonist in an exploitation movie Ilsa, She Wolf of the SS.
  • In the 2014 video game Wolfenstein: The New Order, the fictional Camp Belica is run by a female SS officer named "Frau" Irene Engel.

Notes[edit]

  1. ^ There were, however, some exceptions. At least four overseers were of aristocratic origin: Annemie von der Huelst and Gertrud von Lonski at Neuengamme and Euphemia von Wielen and Ellen Freifrau von Kettler at Ravensbrück. Brown, Daniel Patrick (2002), The Camp Women. The Female Auxiliaries Who Assisted the SS in Running the Nazi Concentration Camp System, pp. 226, 242. Atglen, Pa.: Schiffer Publishing Ltd.; ISBN 0-7643-1444-0
  2. ^ Feig, Konnilyn G. (1981). Hitler's Death Camps: The Sanity of Madness. Holmes & Meier. ISBN 0-8419-0676-9. 
  3. ^ Aroneanu, Eugene (1996). Inside the Concentration Camps: Eyewitness Accounts of Life in Hitler's Death Camps. Greenwood Publishing Group. ISBN 0-275-95446-3. 
  4. ^ Rachel Century, Das SS-Helferinnenkorps Royal Holloway, University of London.
  5. ^ Gerhard Rempel, The SS Female Assistance Corps (in) Hitler's Children: The Hitler Youth and the SS. UNC Press Books, 1989. ISBN 0807842990.
  6. ^ a b c d e f "Women of the SS", quotev.com; accessed 22 December 2014.
  7. ^ Sarti, Wendy Adele Marie (2011). Women and Nazis: Perpetrators of Genocide and Other Crimes During Hitler's Regime, 1933-1945. Academica Press, p. 35
  8. ^ Hamburg-Sasel Aufseherin U. E. undertook training courses in Neuengamme for ten days during September 1944. http://www.media.offenes-archiv.de/ue.pdf
  9. ^ Florentine Cichon was trained as an Aufseherin at Auschwitz I. https://www.docdroid.net/Gsx23nf/ab162.pdf.html
  10. ^ https://www.docdroid.net/Gsx23nf/ab162.pdf.html
  11. ^ Hedwig Burkl, an SS-Aufseherin at Holleischen, Plauen, Mehltheuer and Venusberg-Gelenau, began her training at Zwodau on October 5, 1944. KZ Mehltheuer: Lippenstift statt Lebensmittel, Pascal Cziborra, p. 84
  12. ^ Nine SS-Aufseherinnen related at the first Belsen Trial that they went to the Gross-Rosen concentration camp where they received instructions, received a medical examination and a uniform and after a day or two were moved to the Langenbielau satellite camp where they were trained for several more weeks. http://www.bergenbelsen.co.uk/pages/Trial/Trial/Trial_001_Indictment.html
  13. ^ Marie Larisch was enlisted by the Lorenz Company during August 1944 and subsequently trained and served at the factory and Gross-Rosen sub-camp in Ober Hohenelbe until April 1945. Encyclopedia of Camps and Ghettos, 1933–1945, Volume I, Part A, Early Camps, Youth Camps, and Concentration Camps and Subcamps under the SS-Business Administration Main Office (WVHA), United States Holocaust Memorial Museum p. 776
  14. ^ According to the 1945 testimony of former Stutthof prisoner Zofia Jackowska, 150 German women from around Danzig were trained at the camp between early August and the middle of November 1944 and following their entry sixty remained in the main camp while the rest were assigned to its subcamps. Encyclopedia of Camps and Ghettos, 1933–1945, Volume I, Part B, Early Camps, Youth Camps, and Concentration Camps and Subcamps under the SS-Business Administration Main Office (WVHA), United States Holocaust Memorial Museum, p. 1476
  15. ^ Elisabeth König went to the Mauthausen concentration camp on January 5, 1945 and was presumably admitted to her duties as an SS-Aufseherin. Im Gefolge der SS: Aufseherinnen des Frauen-KZ Ravensbrück: Begleitband zur Ausstellung, Simone Erpel, p. 177
  16. ^ Thea Therese Miesl, married Wallner, was trained at Ravensbrück for four weeks beginning on October 15, 1944 and afterwards assigned to a Dachau sub-camp in Kaufering, Bavaria. Daniel Patrick Brown, The Camp Women: The Female Auxiliaries who Assisted the SS in Running the Nazi Concentration Camp System, p. 177
  17. ^ Ausbeutung, Vernichtung, Öffentlichkeit: Neue Studien Zur Nationalsozialistischen Lagerpolitik, p. 38
  18. ^ Eight German women and twenty female Dutch nationals served as SS-Aufseherinnen at the Vught/S' Herzogenbusch concentration between May 1943 and September 1944; four of the German women, along with being Aufseherinnen also worked in the Kommandant's headquarters as secretaries. https://pure.uva.nl/ws/files/1269422/92481_08.pdf
  19. ^ Der Buchenwald-Report: Bericht über das Konzentrationslager Buchenwald bei Weimar, edited by David A. Hackett, p. 272
  20. ^ Ten female prisoners were selected from Ravensbrück and sent to the Dachau brothel along with one SS-Aufseherin. Four of those women were later selected by SS Dr. Rascher to aid in his medical experiments there. Rascher later wrote to SS Chief Heinrich Himmler: There ensued an enumeration of very curious conditions in the Ravensbrück camp. The conditions described were for the most part confirmed by the three other brothel girls and the woman overseer who accompanied them from Ravensbrück. Bruce L. Danto, John Bruhns, Austin H. Kutscher, The Human Side of Homicide (Westport, CT: Arlington House Publishers, 1978) p. 58
  21. ^ Twenty to thirty SS-Aufseherinnen accompanied a transport of over 2,000 women and children from Ravensbrück to Mauthausen during March 1945; most of the prisoners died during the journey or were killed or died shortly after arrival. David Wingeate Pike, Professor of Contemporary History and Politics David Wingeate Pike, Spaniards in the Holocaust: Mauthausen, Horror on the Danube, p. 189
  22. ^ Elissa Mailänder, Female SS Guards and Workaday Violence: The Majdanek Concentration Camp
  23. ^ Andrew Rawson, Auschwitz: The Nazi Solution, p. 57
  24. ^ According to SS-Hauptsturmfuhrer Fritz Suhren, a leading SS officer at Ravensbruck, some 3,500 German women served as SS-Aufseherinnen at one time or another in the camp and/or in its complex of satellite camps. Daniel Patrick Brown, The Beautiful Beast: the Life & Crimes of SS-Aufseherin Irma Grese, p. 3
  25. ^ . During November 1944, the Gross-Rosen camps had a staff of 2,430 male guards and 813 SS-Aufseherinnen, and on 15 January 1945, there were 3,222 SS men and 906 SS-Aufseherinnen over about 52,000 male and almost 26,000 women prisoners in the main camps and subcamps. http://dachaukz.blogspot.com/2014/02/gross-rosen-concentration-camp-part-46.html
  26. ^ Daniel Patrick Brown, The Camp Women, The Female Auxiliaries who assisted the SS in Running the Concentration Camp System
  27. ^ Kaethe Hoern began her training at Ravensbrück on July 26, 1944 while Hildegard K. became an SS-Aufseherin at the camp during June 1944. Bernd Klewitz, Die Arbeitssklaven der Dynamit Nobel, p. 298
  28. ^ Franciszek Piper, ‎Teresa Świebocka, ‎Danuta Czech, Auschwitz: Nazi Death Camp, p. 49
  29. ^ Andrew Rawson, Auschwitz: The Nazi Solution, p. 57
  30. ^ Nanda Herbermann, The Blessed Abyss: Inmate #6582 in Ravensbrück Concentration Camp for Women, p. 195
  31. ^ Lore Shelley, The Union Kommando in Auschwitz: the Auschwitz Munition Factory through the Eyes of its Former Slave Laborers, p. 365
  32. ^ Henry A. Zeiger, The Case Against Adolf Eichmann
  33. ^ http://www.bergenbelsen.co.uk/pages/Trial/TrialAppendices/TrialAppendices_Affidavits_92_Volkenrath.html
  34. ^ Wacław Długoborski, Franciszek Piper, Auschwitz, 1940-1945: The Establishment and Organization of the Camp, p. 286
  35. ^ Wolfgang Benz, Barbara Distel, Angelika Königseder, Der Ort des Terrors: Geschichte der nationalsozialistischen, Volume 4, p. 529
  36. ^ Helga Radau, Nichts ist vergessen und niemand: aus der Geschichte des Konzentrationslagers in Barth, p. 34
  37. ^ Helga Radau, Nichts ist vergessen und niemand: aus der Geschichte des Konzentrationslagers in Barth, p. 27
  38. ^ Wolfgang Benz, Barbara Distel, Angelika Königseder, Der Ort des Terrors: Geschichte der nationalsozialistischen ..., Volume 4, p. 529
  39. ^ Daniel Patrick Brown, The Camp Women: The Female Auxiliaries who Assisted the SS in Running the Nazi Concentration Camp System
  40. ^ http://www.bergenbelsen.co.uk/pages/Trial/TrialAppendices/TrialAppendices_Affidavits_92_Volkenrath.html
  41. ^ Daniel Patrick Brown, The Camp Women: The Female Auxiliaries who Assisted the SS in Running the Nazi Concentration Camp System, p. 90
  42. ^ http://www.bergenbelsen.co.uk/pages/Trial/TrialAppendices/TrialAppendices_Affidavits_87_Ehlert.html
  43. ^ http://www.bergenbelsen.co.uk/pages/Trial/TrialAppendices/TrialAppendices_Affidavits_88_Grese.html
  44. ^ http://www.bergenbelsen.co.uk/pages/Trial/Trial/TrialDefenceCase/Trial_031_Bormann.html
  45. ^ Wolfgang Benz, Barbara Distel, Angelika Königseder, Der Ort des Terrors: Geschichte der nationalsozialistischen Konzentrationslager. Natzweiler, Groß-Rosen, Stutthof, Volume 6, p. 234
  46. ^ Wolfgang Benz, Barbara Distel, Angelika Königseder, Der Ort des Terrors: Geschichte der nationalsozialistischen Konzentrationslager. Natzweiler, Groß-Rosen, Stutthof, Volume 6, p. 411
  47. ^ Isabell Sprenger, Gross-Rosen: ein Konzentrationslager in Schlesien, p. 271
  48. ^ Wolfgang Benz, Barbara Distel, Angelika Königseder, Der Ort des Terrors: Geschichte der nationalsozialistischen Konzentrationslager. Natzweiler, Groß-Rosen, Stutthof, Volume 6, p. 254
  49. ^ Daniel Patrick Brown, The Camp Women: The Female Auxiliaries who Assisted the SS in Running the Nazi Concentration Camp System, p. 231
  50. ^ Wolfgang Benz, Barbara Distel, Angelika Königseder, Der Ort des Terrors: Geschichte der nationalsozialistischen Konzentrationslager. Natzweiler, Groß-Rosen, Stutthof, Volume 6, p. 271
  51. ^ Wolfgang Benz, Barbara Distel, Angelika Königseder, Der Ort des Terrors: Geschichte der nationalsozialistischen Konzentrationslager. Natzweiler, Groß-Rosen, Stutthof, Volume 6, p. 271
  52. ^ Encyclopedia of Camps and Ghettos, 1933–1945, Volume I, Part B, Early Camps, Youth Camps, and Concentration Camps and Subcamps under the SS-Business Administration Main Office (WVHA), United States Holocaust Memorial Museum, p. 1440
  53. ^ Wolfgang Benz, Barbara Distel, Angelika Königseder, Der Ort des Terrors: Geschichte der nationalsozialistischen ..., Volume 7, p. 308
  54. ^ Wolfgang Benz, Barbara Distel, Angelika Königseder, Der Ort des Terrors: Geschichte der nationalsozialistischen ..., Volume 4, p. 100
  55. ^ Wolfgang Benz, Barbara Distel, Angelika Königseder, Der Ort des Terrors: Geschichte der nationalsozialistischen ..., Volume 4, p. 100
  56. ^ Wolfgang Benz, Barbara Distel, Angelika Königseder, Der Ort des Terrors: Geschichte der nationalsozialistischen ..., Volume 4, p. 90
  57. ^ Wolfgang Benz, Barbara Distel, Angelika Königseder, Der Ort des Terrors: Geschichte der nationalsozialistischen ..., Volume 4, p. 90
  58. ^ Wolfgang Benz, Barbara Distel, Angelika Königseder, Der Ort des Terrors: Geschichte der nationalsozialistischen ..., Volume 4, p. 133
  59. ^ Pascal Cziborra, Frauen im KZ: Möglichkeiten und Grenzen der historischen Forschung am Beispiel des KZ Flossenbürg und seiner Aussenlager, pp. 87-88
  60. ^ Pascal Cziborra, Frauen im KZ: Möglichkeiten und Grenzen der historischen Forschung am Beispiel des KZ Flossenbürg und seiner Aussenlager, pp. 87-88
  61. ^ Daniel Patrick Brown, The Camp Women: The Female Auxiliaries who Assisted the SS in Running the Nazi Concentration Camp System, p. 195
  62. ^ Jane (Gerda) Bernigau was an SS-Aufseherin in Lichtenburg, Ravensbrück, St. Lambrecht/Mauthausen, and Ravensbrück once again before becoming SS-Oberaufseherin at the Gross-Rosen central camp during the summer of 1944 and lastly at the Reichenau sub-camp in early 1945 until the spring. Bella Guttermann, A Narrow Bridge to Life
  63. ^ Angelika Königseder, Der Ort des Terrors: Geschichte der nationalsozialistischen Konzentrationslager. Natzweiler, Groß-Rosen, Stutthof, Volume 6, p. 328
  64. ^ Wolfgang Benz, ‎Barbara Distel, ‎Angelika Königseder, Der Ort des Terrors: Geschichte der nationalsozialistischen Konzentrationslager, Volume 6, p. 320
  65. ^ Daniel Patrick Brown, The Camp Women: The Female Auxiliaries who Assisted the SS in Running the Nazi Concentration Camp System, p. 111
  66. ^ http://www.bergenbelsen.co.uk/pages/Trial/Trial/TrialDefenceCase/Trial_063_Sauer.html
  67. ^ Barbara Rylko-Bauer, A Polish Doctor in the Nazi Camps: My Mother's Memories of Imprisonment..., pp. 162-163
  68. ^ Daniel Patrick Brown, The Camp Women: The Female Auxiliaries who Assisted the SS in Running the Nazi Concentration Camp System, p.226
  69. ^ Daniel Patrick Brown, The Camp Women: The Female Auxiliaries who Assisted the SS in Running the Nazi Concentration Camp System, p. 99
  70. ^ Hans Ellger, Zwangsarbeit und weibliche Überlebensstrategien: die Geschichte der Frauenaussenlager des Konzentrationslagers Neuengamme 1944/45, p. 340
  71. ^ Daniel Patrick Brown, The Camp Women: The Female Auxiliaries who Assisted the SS in Running the Nazi Concentration Camp System, p. 58
  72. ^ https://www.helmbrechtswalk.com/historical-documents/3.pdf
  73. ^ https://www.docdroid.net/Gsx23nf/ab162.pdf.html
  74. ^ https://www.docdroid.net/Gsx23nf/ab162.pdf.html
  75. ^ https://www.docdroid.net/Gsx23nf/ab162.pdf.html
  76. ^ Wolfgang Benz, ‎Barbara Distel, ‎Angelika Königseder, Der Ort des Terrors: Geschichte der nationalsozialistischen Konzentrationslager, Volume 6, p. 367
  77. ^ Daniel Patrick Brown, The Camp Women: The Female Auxiliaries who Assisted the SS in Running the Nazi Concentration Camp System, p. 77
  78. ^ Elissa Mailänder, Female SS Guards and Workaday Violence: The Majdanek Concentration Camp
  79. ^ Elissa Mailänder, Female SS Guards and Workaday Violence: The Majdanek Concentration Camp
  80. ^ While SS-Oberaufseherin Ehrich was on leave from Majdanek/Lublin, Weber filled in as Replacement Senior Overseer. Elissa Mailänder, Female SS Guards and Workaday Violence: The Majdanek Concentration Camp
  81. ^ While SS-Rapportfuhrerin/Stellvertretende Oberaufseherin Braunsteiner was on leave from Majdanek/Lublin, Knoblich filled in as Report Overseer. Elissa Mailänder, Female SS Guards and Workaday Violence: The Majdanek Concentration Camp
  82. ^ Wolfgang Benz, ‎Barbara Distel, ‎Angelika Königseder, Der Ort des Terrors: Geschichte der nationalsozialistischen Konzentrationslager, Volume 6, p. 393
  83. ^ Angelika Königseder, Der Ort des Terrors: Geschichte der nationalsozialistischen Konzentrationslager. Natzweiler, Groß-Rosen, Stutthof, Volume 6, p. 342
  84. ^ Jan Kosiński, Niemieckie obozy koncentracyjne i ich filie, p. 313
  85. ^ Jan Kosiński, Niemieckie obozy koncentracyjne i ich filie, p. 313
  86. ^ Filie obozu koncentracyjnego Gross-Rosen: informator, p. 53
  87. ^ Hartmut Müller, Die Frauen von Obernheide: jüdische Zwangsarbeiterinnen in Bremen 1944/1945
  88. ^ Halina Nelken, And Yet, I Am Here!, p. 216
  89. ^ Stefan Hördler, Dokumentations- und Gedenkort KZ Lichtenburg: Konzeption einer neuen, p. 132
  90. ^ Stefan Hördler, Dokumentations- und Gedenkort KZ Lichtenburg: Konzeption einer neuen, p. 132
  91. ^ Stefan Hördler, Dokumentations-und Gedenkort KZ Lichtenburg: Konzeption einer neuen, p. 132
  92. ^ Stefan Hördler, Dokumentations- und Gedenkort KZ Lichtenburg: Konzeption einer neuen, p. 132
  93. ^ Helga Schwarz, Gerda Szepansky, und dennoch blühten Blumen: Frauen-KZ Ravensbrück : Dokumente, Berichte, Gedichte und Zeichnungen vom Lageralltag 1939-1945, p. 62
  94. ^ Sarah Helm, Ravensbruck: Life and Death in Hitler's Concentration Camp for Women
  95. ^ Nanda Herbermann, The Blessed Abyss: Inmate #6582 in Ravensbrück Concentration Camp for Women
  96. ^ Nanda Herbermann, The Blessed Abyss: Inmate #6582 in Ravensbrück Concentration Camp for Women
  97. ^ Kathrin Kompisch, Täterinnen: Frauen im Nationalsozialismus, p. 201
  98. ^ Anna Molnar Hegedus, As The Lilacs Bloomed
  99. ^ Jack Gaylord Morrison, Ravensbrück: Everyday Life in a Women's Concentration Camp, 1939-45, p. 92
  100. ^ Nanda Herbermann, ‎Hester Baer, ‎Elizabeth Roberts Baer, The Blessed Abyss: Inmate #6582 in Ravensbrück Concentration Camp for Women, p. 141
  101. ^ www.politische-bildung-brandenburg.de/.../pdf/ravensbrueck.pdf
  102. ^ www.politische-bildung-brandenburg.de/.../pdf/ravensbrueck.pdf
  103. ^ Simone Erpel, Im Gefolge der SS: Aufseherinnen des Frauen-KZ Ravensbrück : Begleitband zur Ausstellung, p. 62
  104. ^ She is mentioned in 'Staffs of the German Concentration Camps, No. VII Ravensbrück (Women's Concentration Camp and Uckermark Sub-Camp)' as, 'GALINAT: S.S. woman. Deputy Supervisor since January, 1943. Accused of ill-treatment, causing death of prisoners, torture and murder.' https://www.legal-tools.org/doc/7d3a83/pdf/
  105. ^ ‘GOTTWITZ, Henny,’ possibly a kapo, was described in the United Nations War Crimes Commission (UNWWC) entitled, 'Staffs of the German Concentration Camps (Officials Mentioned in UNWCC Records) No. IX Supplements to lists II, III, IV, VII, and VIII of This Series,' as a, ‘Block wardress (No. III). Employed at Neubrandenburg Kommando.’ http://www.legal-tools.org/doc/aebb6b/
  106. ^ According to a United Nations War Crimes Commission document, 'Staffs of the German Concentration Camps (Officials Mentioned in UNWCC Records) No. VII Ravensbrück (Women's Concentration Camp and Uckermarck Sub-Camp),' ‘Pillen,’ was a, ‘Chief S.S. wardress. Assistant to chief wardress to Binz. Responsible for many deaths. Deprived prisoners of their food. Although she went mad in Feb. 1944, she still remained as supervisor.’ http://www.legal-tools.org/doc/7d3a83/
  107. ^ Daniel Patrick Brown, The Camp Women, p. 46
  108. ^ Bernhard Strebel, Das KZ Ravensbrück: Geschichte eines Lagerkomplexes- p. 205
  109. ^ Bernhard Strebel, Das KZ Ravensbrück: Geschichte eines Lagerkomplexes, p. 72
  110. ^ Staffs of the German Concentration Camps (Officials Mentioned in UNWCC Records) No. VII Ravensbrück (Women's Concentration Camp and Uckermarck Sub
  111. ^ www.hsozkult.de/publicationreview/id/rezbuecher-3867
  112. ^ www.hsozkult.de/publicationreview/id/rezbuecher-3867
  113. ^ www.hsozkult.de/publicationreview/id/rezbuecher-3867
  114. ^ Daniel Patrick Brown, The Camp Women, p.133
  115. ^ Barbara Degen, "Das Herz schlägt in Ravensbrück": die Gedenkkultur der Frauen, p. 169
  116. ^ Ulrike Weckel, ‎Edgar Wolfrum, "Bestien" und "Befehlsempfänger": Frauen und Männer in NS-Prozessen nach 1945, p. 127
  117. ^ ‘STEINBECK, Emmi,’ was referenced as, ‘Wardress of Block 21 or 22. Very cruel.’ United Nations War Crimes Commission (UNWCC), Staffs of the German Concentration Camps (Officials Mentioned in UNWCC Records) No. VII Ravensbrück (Women's Concentration Camp and Uckermarck Sub-Camp)
  118. ^ Female guards in Nazi concentration camps, fold3.com; accessed 22 December 22, 2014.
  119. ^ Brown (2002), p. 140.
  120. ^ Dreykluft, Friederike (2004). Holokaust (TV mini-series). Germany: MPR Film und Fernsehproduktion. 
  121. ^ Luke Harding, 'Shameful secret of the Nazi camp guard who married a Jew', The Guardian, 21 September 2006, [1] Retrieved 22-04-2014
  122. ^ Jeevan Vasagar, 'Six German women investigated over Auschwitz crimes,' The Telegraph, 9 August 2013 [2] Retrieved 22-04-2014

References[edit]

  • Aroneanu, Eugene, ed. Inside the Concentration Camps Trans. Thomas Whissen. New York: Praeger, 1996.
  • Brown, Daniel Patrick, The Camp Women. The Female Auxiliaries Who Assisted the SS in Running the Nazi Concentration Camp System. Atglen, Pa.: Schiffer Publishing Ltd., 2002. ISBN 0-7643-1444-0
  • Hart, Kitty. Return to Auschwitz: The Remarkable Story of a Girl Who Survived the Holocaust. New York: Atheneum, 1983.
  • G. Álvarez, Mónica. "Guardianas Nazis. El lado femenino del mal" (Spanish). Madrid: Grupo Edaf, 2012. ISBN 978-84-414-3240-6
  • Mailänder, Elissa & Patricia Szobar, eds. Female SS Guards and Workaday Violence: The Majdanek Concentration Camp, 1942-1944. East Lansing, MI: Michigan State University Press, 2015.

External links[edit]