Map showing the Erythraean Sea off the Horn of Africa. Drawn by James Rennell, 1799.
|Location||Northwestern Indian Ocean|
|Basin countries||Yemen, Somalia|
The Erythraean Sea (Greek: Ἐρυθρὰ Θάλασσα, Erythrà Thálassa, lit. "Red Sea") was a maritime designation of ancient Greek geography that always included the Gulf of Aden between Arabia Felix and the Horn of Africa and was frequently extended—as in the famous 1st-century Periplus of the Erythraean Sea—to include the present-day Red Sea, Persian Gulf, and Indian Ocean as a single maritime area.
The name "Erythraean Sea" has been or is still used for the following places:
- In the opening sentences of Herodotus's history, written in the 5th century BC, he refers to the Phoenicians having come originally from the Erythraean Sea.
- In the Periplus of the Erythraean Sea, written in the 1st century AD, as well as in some ancient maps, the name of the sea refers to the whole area of the northwestern Indian Ocean, including the Arabian Sea.
- In centuries past, the name "Erythraean Sea" was applied by cartographers to the NW part of the Indian Ocean, mainly the area around Socotra, between Cape Guardafui and the coast of Hadhramaut. This appellation has now become obsolete and the name Gulf of Aden is used, although for a smaller area. In maps where the NW Indian Ocean is named thus, the Red Sea appears as "Arabian Gulf".
- The name "Erythraean Sea" was used as well to refer to some gulfs attached to the Indian Ocean, specifically, the Persian Gulf.
- As a name for the Red Sea, especially after the 19th century. The modern country of Eritrea was named after this ancient Greek name.
- Since 1895, the name has also been applied to a large dusky region on the surface of planet Mars, known as Mare Erythraeum.
- Wilfred H. Schoff, Periplus of the Erythraean Sea, notes on §1.
- Flavius Philostratus, Life of Apollonius of Tyana, Book III, chapter 50.
- "Red Sea". Encyclopædia Britannica Online Library Edition. Encyclopædia Britannica. Retrieved 2008-01-14.
- 1794, Orbis Veteribus Notus by Jean Baptiste Bourguignon d'Anville
- Schoff, Wilfred H. (Wilfred Harvey) (1912-01-01). The Periplus of the Erythræan sea; travel and trade in the Indian Ocean. New York : Longmans, Green, and Co. p. 50 – via Internet Archive.
- The Periplus of the Erythrean sea, containing an account of the navigation of the ancients, from the sea of Suez to the coast of Zanguebar, William Vincent (ed.), 2 voll., London, 1800, vol. 1, vol. 2.
- William H. Schoff, The Periplus of the Erythraean Sea: Travel and Trade in the Indian Ocean by a Merchant of the First Century (New York: Longmans, Green, and Co., 1912), with additional commentary including alternate spellings or translations from Lionel Casson's more recent edition.