|Trade names||Eryc, Erythrocin, others|
|oral, IV, IM, topical, eye drops|
|ATC code||D10AF02 (WHO) J01FA01 (WHO) S01AA17 (WHO) QJ51FA01 (WHO)|
|Bioavailability||Depends on the ester type between 30% - 65%|
|Metabolism||liver (under 5% excreted unchanged)|
|Biological half-life||1.5 hours|
|Chemical and physical data|
|Molar mass||733.94 g·mol−1|
|3D model (Jmol)||Interactive image|
Erythromycin is an antibiotic useful for the treatment of a number of bacterial infections. This includes respiratory tract infections, skin infections, chlamydia infections, and syphilis. It may also be used during pregnancy to prevent Group B streptococcal infection in the newborn. Erythromycin may be used to improve delayed stomach emptying. It can be given intravenously and by mouth. An eye ointment is routinely recommended after delivery to prevent eye infections in the newborn.
Common side effects include abdominal cramps, vomiting, and diarrhea. More serious side effects may include Clostridium difficile colitis, liver problems, prolonged QT, and allergic reactions. It is generally safe in those who are allergic to penicillin. Erythromycin also appears to be safe to use during pregnancy. While generally regarded as safe during breastfeeding its use by the mother during the first two weeks of life may increase the risk of pyloric stenosis in the baby. This risk also applies if taken directly by the baby during this age. It is in the macrolide family and works by decreasing bacterial protein production.
Erythromycin was first isolated in 1952 from the bacteria Saccharopolyspora erythraea. It is on the World Health Organization's List of Essential Medicines, the most important medications needed in a basic health system. It is available as a generic medication and is not very expensive. The wholesale price in the developing world is between 0.03 and 0.06 USD per tablet.
- 1 Medical uses
- 2 Adverse effects
- 3 Interactions
- 4 Pharmacology
- 5 Chemistry
- 6 History
- 7 Society and culture
- 8 See also
- 9 References
- 10 External links
Erythromycin can be used to treat bacteria responsible for causing infections of the skin and upper respiratory tract, including Streptococcus, Staphylococcus, and Haemophilus genera. The following represents MIC susceptibility data for a few medically significant bacteria:
- Haemophilus influenzae: 0.015 to 256 μg/ml
- Staphylococcus aureus: 0.023 to 1024 μg/ml
- Streptococcus pyogenes: 0.004 to 256 μg/ml
Erythromycin is available in enteric-coated tablets, slow-release capsules, oral suspensions, ophthalmic solutions, ointments, gels, enteric-coated capsules, non enteric-coated tablets, non enteric-coated capsules, and injections. The following erythromycin combinations are available for oral dosage:
- erythromycin base (capsules, tablets)
- erythromycin estolate (capsules, oral suspension, tablets), contraindicated during pregnancy
- erythromycin ethylsuccinate (oral suspension, tablets)
- erythromycin stearate (oral suspension, tablets)
For injection the available combinations are:
- erythromycin gluceptate
- erythromycin lactobionate
For ophthalmic use
- erythromycin base (ointment)
Gastrointestinal disturbances, such as diarrhea, nausea, abdominal pain, and vomiting, are very common because erythromycin is a motilin agonist. Because of this, erythromycin tends not to be prescribed as a first-line drug. It may be useful in treating gastroparesis due to this promotility effect. Intravenous erythromycin may also be used in endoscopy as an adjunct to clear gastric contents.
More serious side effects include arrhythmia with prolonged QT intervals including torsades de pointes, and reversible deafness. Allergic reactions range from urticaria to anaphylaxis. Cholestasis, Stevens–Johnson syndrome, and toxic epidermal necrolysis are some other rare side effects that may occur.
Studies have shown evidence both for and against the association of pyloric stenosis and exposure to erythromycin prenatally and postnatally. Exposure to erythromycin (especially long courses at antimicrobial doses, and also through breastfeeding) has been linked to an increased probability of pyloric stenosis in young infants. Erythromycin used for feeding intolerance in young infants has not been associated with hypertrophic pyloric stenosis.
Erythromycin estolate has been associated with reversible hepatotoxicity in pregnant women in the form of elevated serum glutamic-oxaloacetic transaminase and is not recommended during pregnancy. Some evidence suggests similar hepatotoxicity in other populations.
It can also affect the central nervous system, causing psychotic reactions, nightmares and night sweats.
It may also alter the effectiveness of combined oral contraceptive pills because of its effect on the gut flora. Erythromycin is an inhibitor of the cytochrome P450 system, which means it can have a rapid effect on levels of other drugs metabolised by this system, e.g., warfarin.
Erythromycin is metabolized by enzymes of the cytochrome P450 system, in particular, by isozymes of the CYP3A superfamily, CYP3A. The activity of the CYP3A enzymes can be induced or inhibited by certain drugs (e.g. dexamethasone) which can cause it to affect the metabolism of many different drugs, e.g. erythromycin. If other CYP3A substrates — drugs that are broken down by CYP3A — such as simvastatin (Zocor), lovastatin (Mevacor), or atorvastatin (Lipitor)—are taken concomitantly with erythromycin, levels of the substrates increase, often causing adverse effects. A noted drug interaction involves erythromycin and simvastatin, resulting in increased simvastatin levels and the potential for rhabdomyolysis. Another group of CYP3A4 substrates are drugs used for migraine such as ergotamine and dihydroergotamine; their adverse effects may be more pronounced if erythromycin is associated. Earlier case reports on sudden death prompted a study on a large cohort that confirmed a link between erythromycin, ventricular tachycardia, and sudden cardiac death in patients also taking drugs that prolong the metabolism of erythromycin (like verapamil or diltiazem) by interfering with CYP3A4. Hence, erythromycin should not be administered to people using these drugs, or drugs that also prolong the QT interval. Other examples include terfenadine (Seldane, Seldane-D), astemizole (Hismanal), cisapride (Propulsid, withdrawn in many countries for prolonging the QT time) and pimozide (Orap). Theophylline, which is used mostly in asthma, is also contraindicated.
Erythromycin may affect neuromuscular transmission by acting presynaptically, so may produce or worsen symptoms of myasthenia gravis in patients with pre-existing postsynaptic defects. Exacerbations of myasthenia gravis have also been reported with the use of telithromycin and azithromycin.
Erythromycin and doxycycline can have a synergistic effect when combined and kill bacteria (E. coli) with a higher potency than the sum of the two drugs together. This synergistic relationship is only temporary. After approximately 72 hours, the relationship shifts to become antagonistic, whereby a 50/50 combination of the two drugs kills less bacteria than if the two drugs were administered separately.
Mechanism of action
Erythromycin displays bacteriostatic activity or inhibits growth of bacteria, especially at higher concentrations, but the mechanism is not fully understood. By binding to the 50s subunit of the bacterial rRNA complex, protein synthesis and subsequent structure and function processes critical for life or replication are inhibited. Erythromycin interferes with aminoacyl translocation, preventing the transfer of the tRNA bound at the A site of the rRNA complex to the P site of the rRNA complex. Without this translocation, the A site remains occupied, thus the addition of an incoming tRNA and its attached amino acid to the nascent polypeptide chain is inhibited. This interferes with the production of functionally useful proteins, which is the basis of this antimicrobial action.
Erythromycin is easily inactivated by gastric acid; therefore, all orally administered formulations are given as either enteric-coated or more-stable salts or esters, such as erythromycin ethylsuccinate. Erythromycin is very rapidly absorbed, and diffuses into most tissues and phagocytes. Due to the high concentration in phagocytes, erythromycin is actively transported to the site of infection, where, during active phagocytosis, large concentrations of erythromycin are released.
Most of erythromycin is metabolised by demethylation in the liver by the hepatic enzyme CYP3A4. Its main elimination route is in the bile with little renal excretion, 2%-15% unchanged drug. Erythromycin's elimination half-life ranges between 1.5 and 2.0 hours and is between 5 and 6 hours in patients with end-stage renal disease. Erythromycin levels peak in the serum 4 hours after dosing; ethylsuccinate peaks 0.5-2.5 hours after dosing, but can be delayed if digested with food.
Erythromycin crosses the placenta and enters breast milk. The American Association of Pediatrics determined erythromycin is safe to take while breastfeeding. Absorption in pregnant patients has been shown to be variable, frequently resulting in levels lower than in nonpregnant patients.
Standard-grade erythromycin is primarily composed of four related compounds known as erythromycins A, B, C, and D. Each of these compounds can be present in varying amounts and can differ by lot. Erythromycin A has been found to have the most antibacterial activity, followed by erythromycin B. Erythromycins C and D are about half as active as erythromycin A. Some of these related compounds have been purified and can be studied and researched individually.
Over the three decades after the discovery of erythromycin A and its activity as an antimicrobial, many attempts were made to synthesize it in the laboratory. The presence of 10 stereospecific carbons and several points of distinct substitution has made the total synthesis of erythromycin A a formidable task. Complete syntheses of erythromycins’ related structures and precursors such as 6-deoxyerythronolide B have been accomplished, giving way to possible syntheses of different erythromycins and other macrolide antimicrobials. Woodward successfully completed the synthesis of erythromycin A. This total synthesis begins with (7) and (8). After being coupled, the resulting structure is subjected to a series of reactions, including hydrolysis and stereospecific aldolization. The resulting pure enone is then converted to the desired (9) through a series of reduction and oxidation reactions. The dithiadecalin product (9) is then converted to both a ketone (10) and an aldehyde (11).
In 1949 Abelardo B. Aguilar, a Filipino scientist, sent some soil samples to his employer Eli Lilly . Eli Lilly’s research team, led by J. M. McGuire, managed to isolate erythromycin from the metabolic products of a strain of Streptomyces erythreus (designation changed to "Saccharopolyspora erythraea") found in the samples.
Lilly filed for patent protection of the compound and U.S. patent 2,653,899 was granted in 1953. The product was launched commercially in 1952 under the brand name Ilosone (after the Philippine region of Iloilo where it was originally collected). Erythromycin was formerly also called Ilotycin.
In 1981, Nobel laureate (1965 in chemistry) and professor of chemistry at Harvard University Robert B. Woodward (posthumously), along with a large number of members from his research group, reported the first stereocontrolled asymmetric chemical synthesis of erythromycin A.
Scientists at Chugai Pharmaceuticals discovered an erythromycin-derived motilin agonist called mitemcinal that is believed to have strong prokinetic properties (similar to erythromycin) but lacking antibiotic properties. Erythromycin is commonly used off-label for gastric motility indications such as gastroparesis. If mitemcinal can be shown to be an effective prokinetic agent, it would represent a significant advance in the gastrointestinal field, as treatment with this drug would not carry the risk of unintentional selection for antibiotic-resistant bacteria.
Society and culture
In the United States in 2014 the price increased to seven dollars per tablet.
Brand names include Robimycin, E-Mycin, E.E.S. Granules, E.E.S.-200, E.E.S.-400, E.E.S.-400 Filmtab, Erymax, Ery-Tab, Eryc, Ranbaxy, Erypar, EryPed, Eryped 200, Eryped 400, Erythrocin Stearate Filmtab, Erythrocot, E-Base, Erythroped, Ilosone, MY-E, Pediamycin, Zineryt, Abboticin, Abboticin-ES, Erycin, PCE Dispertab, Stiemycine, Acnasol, and Tiloryth.
Erythromycin/tretinoin, a combionation of tretinoin and the antibiotic erythromycin
- "Prescribing medicines in pregnancy database". Australian Government. August 23, 2015.
- "Erythromycin". The American Society of Health-System Pharmacists. Retrieved Aug 1, 2015.
- Camilleri M, Parkman HP, Shafi MA, Abell TL, Gerson L (Jan 2013). "Clinical guideline: management of gastroparesis". The American Journal of Gastroenterology. 108 (1): 18–37; quiz 38. doi:10.1038/ajg.2012.373. PMID 23147521.
- Matejcek A, Goldman RD (Nov 2013). "Treatment and prevention of ophthalmia neonatorum". Canadian Family Physician. 59 (11): 1187–90. PMID 24235191.
- Hamilton RJ (2013). Tarascon pocket pharmacopoeia (2013 delux lab-coat ed., 14th ed.). [Sudbury, Mass.]: Jones & Bartlett Learning. p. 72. ISBN 9781449673611.
- Kong YL, Tey HL (June 2013). "Treatment of acne vulgaris during pregnancy and lactation". Drugs. 73 (8): 779–87. doi:10.1007/s40265-013-0060-0. PMID 23657872.
- Maheshwai, Nitin (March 2007). "Are young infants treated with erythromycin at risk for developing hypertrophic pyloric stenosis?". Archives of Disease in Childhood. 92 (3): 271–3. doi:10.1136/adc.2006.110007. PMC . PMID 17337692. Retrieved 30 August 2012.
- Vedas JC (2000). Biosynthesis : polyketides and vitamins. Berlin [u.a.]: Springer. p. 52. ISBN 9783540669692.
- "WHO Model List of Essential Medicines" (PDF). World Health Organization. October 2013. Retrieved 22 April 2014.
- "Erythromycin". International Drug Price Indicator Guide. Retrieved 23 August 2015.
- "Erythromycin Susceptibility and Minimum Inhibitory Concentration (MIC) Data" (pdf). TOKU-E.
- "Erythromycin Oral, Parenteral Advanced Patient Information". Drugs.com.
- Sexually Transmitted Diseases Treatment Guidelines 2006 Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. MMWR 2006;55
- Weber FH, Richards RD, McCallum RW (Apr 1993). "Erythromycin: a motilin agonist and gastrointestinal prokinetic agent". The American Journal of Gastroenterology. 88 (4): 485–90. PMID 8470625.
- "Pregnancy and lactation".
- Maheshwai N (Mar 2007). "Are young infants treated with erythromycin at risk for developing hypertrophic pyloric stenosis?". Archives of Disease in Childhood. 92 (3): 271–3. doi:10.1136/adc.2006.110007. PMC . PMID 17337692.
- Lund M, Pasternak B, Davidsen RB, Feenstra B, Krogh C, Diaz LJ, Wohlfahrt J, Melbye M (2014). "Use of macrolides in mother and child and risk of infantile hypertrophic pyloric stenosis: nationwide cohort study". BMJ. 348: g1908. doi:10.1136/bmj.g1908. PMC . PMID 24618148.
- McCormack WM, George H, Donner A, Kodgis LF, Alpert S, Lowe EW, Kass EH (Nov 1977). "Hepatotoxicity of erythromycin estolate during pregnancy". Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy. 12 (5): 630–5. doi:10.1128/AAC.12.5.630. PMC . PMID 21610.
- "Erythromycine". Belgisch Centrum voor Farmacotherapeutische Informatie.
- Hunt CM, Watkins PB, Saenger P, Stave GM, Barlascini N, Watlington CO, Wright JT, Guzelian PS (1992). "Heterogeneity of CYP3A isoforms metabolizing erythromycin and cortisol". Clin. Pharmacol. Ther. 51 (1): 18–23. doi:10.1038/clpt.1992.3. PMID 1732074.
- Ray WA, Murray KT, Meredith S, Narasimhulu SS, Hall K, Stein CM (Sep 2004). "Oral erythromycin and the risk of sudden death from cardiac causes". The New England Journal of Medicine. 351 (11): 1089–96. doi:10.1056/NEJMoa040582. PMID 15356306.
- "Drugs Which May Exacerbate or Induce Myasthenia Gravis: A Clinician's Guide".
- Pena-Miller R, Laehnemann D, Jansen G, Fuentes-Hernandez A, Rosenstiel P, Schulenburg H, Beardmore R (April 23, 2013). "When the most potent combination of antibiotics selects for the greatest bacterial load: the smile-frown transition". PLoS Biology. 11 (4): e1001540. doi:10.1371/journal.pbio.1001540. PMC . PMID 23630452.
- Katzung PHARMACOLOGY, 9e Section VIII. Chemotherapeutic Drugs Chapter 44. Chloramphenicol, Tetracyclines, Macrolides, Clindamycin, & Streptogramins
- "Transfer of drugs and other chemicals into human milk" (PDF). Pediatrics. 108 (3): 776–89. 2001. PMID 11533352.
- Kibwage IO, Hoogmartens J, Roets E, Vanderhaeghe H, Verbist L, Dubost M, Pascal C, Petitjean P, Levol G (Nov 1985). "Antibacterial activities of erythromycins A, B, C, and D and some of their derivatives". Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy. 28 (5): 630–3. doi:10.1128/aac.28.5.630. PMC . PMID 4091529.
- Pal S (2006). "A journey across the sequential development of macrolides and ketolides related to erythromycin". Tetrahedron. 62 (14): 3171–3200. doi:10.1016/j.tet.2005.11.064.
- Evans DA, Kim AS (1997). "Synthesis of 6-Deoxyerythronolide B. Implementation of a General Strategy for the Synthesis of Macrolide Antibiotics". Tetrahedron Lett. 38: 53–56. doi:10.1016/S0040-4039(96)02258-7.
- Woodward RB, Logusch E, Nambiar KP, Sakan K, Ward DE, Au-Yeung, Balaram P, Browne LJ, Card PJ et al. (1981). "Asymmetric Total Synthesis of Erythromycin. 1. Synthesis of an Erythronolide A Seco Acid Derivative via Asymmetric Induction". J. Am. Chem. Soc. 103 (11): 3210–3213. doi:10.1021/ja00401a049.
- Woodward RB, Logusch E, Nambiar KP, Sakan K, Ward DE, Au-Yeung, Balaram P, Browne LJ, Card PJ et al. (1981). "Asymmetric Total Synthesis of Erythromycin. 2. Synthesis of an Erythronolide A Lactone System". J. Am. Chem. Soc. 103 (11): 3213–3215. doi:10.1021/ja00401a050.
- Woodward RB, Logusch E, Nambiar KP, Sakan K, Ward DE, Au-Yeung, Balaram P, Browne LJ, Card PJ et al. (1981). "Asymmetric Total Synthesis of Erythromycin. 3. Total Synthesis of Erythromycin". J. Am. Chem. Soc. 103 (11): 3215–3217. doi:10.1021/ja00401a051.
- Stahl, Stephanie (September 26, 2014) Health: Generic Drugs Prices Increasing CBS Philadelphia. Retrieved March 24, 2016.