Erythronium

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Erythronium
Dent-de-chien.JPG
Erythronium dens-canis
Scientific classification
Kingdom: Plantae
(unranked): Angiosperms
(unranked): Monocots
Order: Liliales
Family: Liliaceae
Subfamily: Lilioideae
Tribe: Lilieae
Genus: Erythronium
L.
Type species
Erythronium dens-canis
L.
Synonyms[1]
  • Mithridatium Adans. 1763, illegitimate superfluous name
  • Dens-canis Tourn. ex Rupp. 1745, not validly published

Erythronium (fawn lily, trout lily, dog's-tooth violet, adder's tongue) is a genus of Eurasian and North American plants in the lily family.[2][3][4][5][6][7] The name Erythronium derives from the word erythros, which means red in Greek and refers to the red flowers of E. dens-canis. [3]

Species[edit]

Erythronium includes about 20–30 species of hardy spring-flowering perennial plants with long, tooth-like bulbs. Slender stems carry pendent flowers with recurved tepals in shades of cream, yellow, pink and mauve. Species are native to forests and meadows in temperate regions of the Northern Hemisphere.[8][1][9]

Species Common name Distribution
Erythronium albidum Nutt. Small White Fawn-lily, White Fawn-lily, White Trout-lily Ontario, east-central United States (MN to CT south to TX, AL)
Erythronium americanum Ker-Gawl. Trout-lily, Yellow Trout-lily, Yellow Adder's-tongue, Yellow Dogtooth Violet Eastern Canada (Ontario to Labrador), Eastern United States (ME to GA, West to Mississippi River)
Erythronium californicum Purdy California Fawn-lily Northern California
Erythronium caucasicum Woronow Caucasian Dog's tooth violet Caucasus, Iran
Erythronium citrinum S. Wats. Cream Fawn-lily Oregon, Northern California
Erythronium dens-canis L. Dog's-tooth Violet Southern, Central Europe from Portugal to Ukraine
Erythronium elegans Hammond & Chambers Coast Range Fawn-lily Oregon
Erythronium grandiflorum Pursh Dogtooth Lily, Glacier Lily, Yellow Avalanche-lily, Yellow Fawn-lily Western Canada, Western United States
Erythronium helenae Applegate Pacific Fawn-lily California (Sonoma, Napa, Lake Cos.)
Erythronium hendersonii S. Wats. Henderson's Fawn-lily Oregon, Northern California
Erythronium howellii S. Wats. Howell's Fawn-lily Oregon, Northern California
Erythronium idahoense H.St.John & G.N.Jones - Idaho fawn lily Montana, Idaho, Washington State
Erythronium japonicum Decne. Katakuri Japan, Korea, Russia (Kuril Islands, Sakhalin), China (Jilin, Liaoning)
Erythronium klamathense Applegate Klamath Fawn-lily Oregon, Northern California
Erythronium krylovii Stepanov Tuvan Trout-lily Russia (Tuva, Krasnoyarsk)
Erythronium mesochoreum Knerr Midland Fawn-lily, White Fawn-lily Central United States, (TX to NE, IN)
Erythronium montanum S. Wats. Avalanche Lily, White Avalanche-lily BC, Washington State, Orgeon
Erythronium multiscapideum (Kellogg) A. Nels. & Kennedy Sierra Fawn-lily California
Erythronium oregonum Applegate Giant White Fawn-lily BC, Washington, California, Oregon
Erythronium pluriflorum Shevock, Bartel & Allen Manyflower Fawn-lily Madera Co in California
Erythronium propullans Gray Dwarf Trout-lily Minnesota
Erythronium purpurascens S. Wats. Purple Fawn-lily California
Erythronium pusaterii (Munz & J.T. Howell) Shevock, Bartel & Allen Kaweah Lakes Fawn-lily Tulare Co in California
Erythronium quinaultense G A Allen Olympic Fawn-lily Olympic Peninsula in Washington State
Erythronium revolutum Sm. Mahogany Fawn-lily BC, Washington State, Oregon, California
Erythronium rostratum W. Wolf Yellow Trout-lily south-central United States
Erythronium sajanense Stepanov & Stassova Krasnoyarsk in Russia
Erythronium sibiricum (Fisch. & C.A.Mey.) Krylov Siberian Fawn Lily Siberia, Kazakhstan, Xinjiang, Mongolia
Erythronium sulevii (Rukšans) Stepanov Altay Krai in Russia
Erythronium taylorii Shevock & G A Allen Taylor's Fawn-lily Tuolumne Co California
Erythronium tuolumnense Applegate Tuolumne Fawn-lily Tuolumne Co in California
Erythronium umbilicatum Parks & Hardin Dimpled Trout-lily southeastern United States (Florida to Kentucky, West Virginia, Maryland)

Formerly included[edit]

Two species names were coined using the name Erythronium but have since been reclassified to other taxa.

Uses[edit]

The bulb is edible as a root vegetable, cooked or dried, and can be ground into flour. The leaves can also be cooked as a leaf vegetable. In Japan, Erythronium japonicum is called katakuri, and the bulb is processed to produce starch, which is used for food and other purposes.

They are also widely grown as ornamental plants, with numerous hybrids and cultivars having been selected for garden use. Popular cultivars include Erythronium 'Pagoda', E. 'Sundisc', E. 'Joanna', E. 'Kondo', E. 'Citronella', E. californicum 'White Beauty', and E. 'Rosalind'. Propagation is best by seed in autumn or by division of bulbs, depending on species. Some species propagate vegetatively. The plant is also great as a ground cover, as it will spread over several years.

References[edit]

  1. ^ a b Kew World Checklist of Selected Plant Families
  2. ^ Jepson Manual
  3. ^ a b Flora of North America, Vol. 26 Page 153, Erythronium
  4. ^ Flora of China Vol. 24 Page 126 猪牙花属 zhu ya hua shu Erythronium Linnaeus, Sp. Pl. 1: 305. 1753.
  5. ^ Altervista Flora Italiana, Dente di cane, Dog's Tooth Violet, genere Erythronium
  6. ^ Clennett, J.C.B. (2006). A taxonomic revision of Erythronium L. (Liliaceae): 1-290. Thesis, Open University, Ardingly, U.K..
  7. ^ Clennett, C. (2014). The genus Erythronium: 1-158. Kew Publishing, Kew.
  8. ^ RHS A-Z encyclopedia of garden plants. United Kingdom: Dorling Kindersley. 2008. p. 1136. ISBN 1405332964. 
  9. ^ Biota of North America Program 2013 county distribution maps

Bibliography[edit]

  • "Erythronium 'Pagoda'". Royal Horrticultural Society. Retrieved 17 March 2014. 
  • Clennett, John C. B.; Chase, Mark W.; Forest, Félix; Maurin, Olivier; Wilkin, Paul (December 2012). "Phylogenetic systematics of Erythronium (Liliaceae): morphological and molecular analyses". Botanical Journal of the Linnean Society 170 (4): 504–528. doi:10.1111/j.1095-8339.2012.01302.x.