Mount Rainier National Park
Erythronium grandiflorum is a North American species of plants in the lily family. It is known by several common names, including yellow avalanche lily, glacier lily, and dogtooth fawn lily. The Ktunaxa name for glacier lily is maxa.
It is native to western North America from British Columbia and Alberta south to New Mexico and California, though it has not been reported from Arizona or Nevada. It can be found in subalpine mountain meadows, slopes, and clearings.
Erythronium grandiflorum grows from a deep bulb which is 3 to 5 centimeters wide. Its two green leaves are wavy-edged and up to 20 centimeters long. The stalk may reach 30 centimeters tall and bears one to three showy flowers. Each flower has bright lemon yellow petals, white stamens with large white to yellow to red anthers, and a white style. The flower is pollinated by bumblebees and other bees. The bulbs are an important and preferred food of the grizzly bear. Mule deer readily eat the foliage.
Flora of North America recognizes two subspecies, the yellow-flowered subsp. grandiflorum and the white- to cream-flowered subsp. candidum. More recent publications consider subsp. candidum to be a distinct species, called Erythronium idahoense.
Blooms in Missoula, Montana
- Kew World Checklist of Selected Plant Families
- Jepson Manual Treatment
- United States Department of Agriculture Plants Profile
- "FirstVoices- Ktunaxa. Plants: food plants: words". Retrieved 2012-07-07.
- Biota of North America Program 2014 county distribution map
- Clennett, C. (2014). The genus Erythronium: 1-158. Kew Publishing, Kew.
- Pursh, Frederick Traugott. 1814. Flora Americae Septentrionalis 1: 231
- Hitchcock, C. H., A.J. Cronquist, F. M. Ownbey & J. W. Thompson. 1969. Vascular Cryptogams, Gymnosperms, and Monocotyledons. 1: 1–914. In C. L. Hitchcock Vascular Plants of the Pacific Northwest. University of Washington Press, Seattle.
- Applegate, Elmer Ivan. 1933.
- Flora of North America 26 Page 156, Glacier-lily, Erythronium grandiflorum Pursh, Fl. Amer. Sept. 1: 231. 1814