Esalen Institute

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Jump to: navigation, search
Esalen Institute
Esalen Institute.jpg
Esalen main campus
Founder(s) Michael Murphy
Dick Price
Established 1962
Focus Humanistic alternative education
Location Slates Hot Springs, Big Sur, California, United States
Coordinates 36°07′37″N 121°38′30″W / 36.12701°N 121.64159°W / 36.12701; -121.64159Coordinates: 36°07′37″N 121°38′30″W / 36.12701°N 121.64159°W / 36.12701; -121.64159
Address 55000 Highway One, Big Sur, CA 93920[1]
Esalen is located in California
Location in California
Meditation Room at Esalen
Esalen Art Barn, 2005

The Esalen Institute, commonly just called Esalen, is an American retreat center and intentional community in Big Sur, California (specifically the community of Slates Hot Springs), which focuses upon humanistic alternative education.[2] Esalen is a nonprofit organization devoted to activities such as personal growth, meditation, massage, Gestalt Practice, yoga, psychology, ecology, spirituality, and organic food.[3] The institute offers more than 500 public workshops a year in addition to conferences, research initiatives, residential work-study programs, and internships.[4]

Esalen was founded by Michael Murphy and Dick Price in 1962. Their goal was to explore work in the humanities and sciences in order to fully realize what Aldous Huxley had called the "human potentialities".[5] Through the years, Esalen became the center of practices and beliefs that make up the New Age movement, from Eastern religions/philosophy, to alternative medicine and mind-body interventions, to Gestalt Practice.[6]

Esalen is located near the John Little State Natural Reserve and Lime Creek, about 45 miles (72 km) south of Monterey and nine miles (14 km) north of Lucia. The institute is situated on 120 acres[7] of Big Sur coast.[8]

Early history[edit]

Main article: Slates Hot Springs

The grounds of the Esalen Institute were first home to a Native American tribe known as the Esselen, from whom the institute adopted its name.[9] Carbon dating tests of artifacts found on Esalen's property have indicated a human presence as early as 2600 BCE.[10]

The location was homesteaded by Thomas Slate on September 9, 1882, when he filed a land patent under the Homestead Act of 1862.[11] The settlement began known as Slates Hot Springs. It was the first tourist-oriented business in Big Sur, frequented by people seeking relief from physical ailments. In 1910, the land was purchased by Henry Murphy,[12] a Salinas, California, physician. The official business name was "Big Sur Hot Springs" although it was more generally referred to as "Slate's Hot Springs".[13]

View of the building on the bluff housing the hot springs

Founding of Esalen Institute[edit]

Stanford grads meet[edit]

Richard Price in 1968

Michael Murphy, whose family owned the hot springs, and Dick Price both attended Stanford University in the late 1940s and early 1950s. They were in the same class, but they did not become friends until later.[14] They met in San Francisco at the suggestion of Frederic Spiegelberg, a Stanford professor of comparative religion and Indic studies, with whom both had studied.[15] After graduating from Stanford, Price attended Harvard University to continue studying psychology. Then Price joined the Air Force and lived in San Francisco, where he met Alan Watts and experienced a transformative psychotic break. Price was admitted to a mental hospital for a time, before returning to San Francisco.[16] Murphy, meanwhile, traveled to Sri Aurobindo's ashram in India,[17] and then he also returned to San Francisco.

Lease property[edit]

After they met, Murphy and Price found much in common. In 1961, they traveled down to the Murphy family's Big Sur property at Slates Hot Springs.[18] They wanted to create a venue where non-traditional workshops and lecturers could present their ideas free of the dogma associated with traditional education. The two began drawing up plans for a forum that would be open to ways of thinking beyond the constraints of mainstream academia, while avoiding the dogma so often seen in groups organized around a single idea promoted by a charismatic leader. They envisioned offering a wide range of philosophies, religious disciplines and psychological techniques.[19]

Henry Murphy's widow and Michael's grandmother Vinnie MacDonald Murphy had previously refused to lease the property, even turning down an earlier request from Michael. But after hearing her grandson's and Dick Price's proposal, she agreed to lease the property to them in 1962[20][21][22] and granted free use of the property. The two men used capital that Price obtained from his father, who was a vice-president at Sears.[23] They incorporated their business as a non-profit named Esalen Institute in 1963.[24][25]

Develop counterculture workshops[edit]

Murphy and Price were assisted by Spiegelberg, Watts, Huxley and his wife Laura, as well as by Gerald Heard and Gregory Bateson. They modeled the concept of Esalen partially upon Trabuco College, founded by Heard as a quasi-monastic experiment in the mountains east of Irvine, California, and later donated to the Vedanta Society.[26]

Alan Watts gave the first lecture at Esalen in January 1962.[27] Gia-fu Feng joined Price and Murphy,[28] along with Bob Breckenridge, Bob Nash, Alice and Jim Sellers, as the first Esalen staff members.[22] In the middle of that same year Abraham Maslow, the prominent humanistic psychologist, just happened to drive into the grounds and soon became an important figure at the institute.[29] In the fall of 1962, they published a catalog advertising workshops with such titles as "Individual and Cultural Definitions of Rationality", "The Expanding Vision" and "Drug-Induced Mysticism".[27]

Fritz Perls residency[edit]

In 1964, Fritz Perls began a long-term residency at Esalen and became a lasting influence. Perls offered many Gestalt therapy seminars at the institute, until he left in July 1969.[30] When Perls left Esalen he considered it to be "in crisis again". He saw young people without any training leading encounter groups. And he feared that charlatans would take the lead.[31] However, Grogan claims that Perls’ practice at Esalen had been ethically “questionable”,[32] and according to Kripal's account he is supposed to have insulted Abraham Maslow.[33] Jim Simkin[34] and Perls led Gestalt training courses at Esalen. Simkin started a Gestalt training center[35] on contiguous property that was later incorporated into Esalen’s main campus.[36]

Gestalt therapy developed[edit]

Dick Price became one of Perls' closest students. Price developed his own form of practice called Gestalt Practice,[37] which he continued teaching at Esalen until his death in a hiking accident in 1985.[16] Michael Murphy became an author, writing non-fiction books about Esalen related topics, as well as several novels.[38]

Leads counterculture movement[edit]

Esalen gained popularity quickly and started to regularly publish catalogs full of programs. The facility was large enough to run multiple programs simultaneously, so Esalen started creating numerous resident teacher positions.[39] Murphy recruited Will Schutz, the well-known encounter group leader, to take up permanent residence at Esalen.[40] All this combined to firmly position Esalen in the nexus of the counterculture of the 1960s.

The institute gained increased attention in 1966 when several magazines wrote about it. George Leonard published an article in Look magazine about the California scene which mentioned Esalen and included a picture of Murphy.[41] Time magazine published an article about Esalen in September 1967.[42] The New York Times Magazine published an article by Leo E. Litwak in late December.[43] Life also published an article about the resort.[44] These articles increased the media and the public's awareness of the institute in the U.S. and abroad. Esalen responded by holding large-scale conferences in Midwestern and East Coast cities,[45] as well as in Europe. Esalen opened a satellite center in San Francisco that offered extensive programming until it closed in the mid-1970s for financial reasons.[46]

Program changes[edit]

Esalen has always been forced to change as it responded to internal and external factors.[47][48][49][50][51][52][53] Dick Price provided leadership at the institute, and his death in late 1985 brought about many changes in personnel and programming.[54] Steven Donovan became president of the institute,[55] and Brian Lyke served as general manager.[54] Nancy Lunney[56] became the director of programming,[57] and David Price (son of Dick Price) served as general manager of Esalen beginning in the mid-1990s.[58] The baths were destroyed in 1998 by severe weather and were rebuilt at great expense, but this caused severe institutional stress.[59] Afterward, Andy Nusbaum developed an economic plan to stabilize Esalen's finances.[60] Ultimately, under the direction of Gordon Wheeler,[61] management was dramatically restructured.[62] These changes prompted Christine Stewart Price, the widow of Dick Price, to withdraw from the institute, and found a competing organization named the Tribal Ground Circle with the ambition to preserve Dick Price's legacy.[63][64]

Leaders and programs[edit]

Aldous Huxley

In the early days, many of the seminars[65] challenged the status quo — such as "The Value of Psychotic Experience". There were even Esalen programs that questioned the movement of which Esalen itself was a part — for instance, "Spiritual and Therapeutic Tyranny: The Willingness To Submit". And there was a series of encounter groups focused on racial prejudice.[66]

Early leaders included:

Rather than merely lecturing, many leaders began to experiment with what Huxley called the non-verbal humanities: the education of the body, the senses, and the emotions. The intention of this work was to suggest a new ethic—to develop awareness of one's present flow of experience, to express this fully and accurately, and to listen to feedback. These "experiential" workshops were particularly well attended and did much to shape Esalen's future course.[67]

Past teachers[edit]

William Schutz at Esalen, circa 1987

Scholars in residence[edit]

Esalen has sponsored long-term resident scholars, including:

Arts events[edit]

In 1964, Joan Baez led a workshop entitled "The New Folk Music"[75] which included a free performance. This was the first of seven "Big Sur Folk Festivals" featuring many of the era's music legends. The 1969 concert included musicians who had just come from the Woodstock Festival. This event was featured in a documentary movie, Celebration at Big Sur, which was released in 1971.

Performers at Esalen have included:

John Cage and Robert Rauschenberg performed together at Esalen. Robert Bly, Lawrence Ferlinghetti, Allen Ginsberg, Michael McClure, Kenneth Rexroth (who led one of the first workshops), Gary Snyder and others held poetry readings and workshops.

In 1994, President and CEO Sharon Thom[76] created an artist-in-residence program to provide artists with a two-week retreat in which to focus upon works in progress. These artists interacted with the staff, offered informal gatherings, and staged performances on the newly created dance platform. Located next to the Art Barn, the dance platform was used by Esalen teachers for dance and martial arts. The platform was later covered by a dome and renamed the Leonard Pavilion after deceased Esalen past president and board member, George Leonard.

In 1995 and 1996, Esalen hosted two arts festivals which gathered together artists, poets, musicians, photographers and performers, including artist Margot McLean, psychotherapist James Hillman, guitarist Michael Hedges and Joan Baez. All staff members were allowed to attend every class and performance that did not interfere with their schedules. Arts festivals have since become a popular yearly event at Esalen.[77]

Initiatives and projects[edit]

Esalen Institute has sponsored many research initiatives, educational projects, and invitational conferences. The Big Sur facility has been used for these events, as well as other locations, including international sites.

Schizophrenia Research Project[edit]

Encouraged by Dick Price, the Schizophrenia Research Project was conducted over a three-year period at Agnews State Hospital in San Jose, California, involving 80 young males diagnosed with schizophrenia.[78] Funded in part by Esalen Institute, this program was co-sponsored by the California Department of Mental Hygiene (reorganized: CMHSA) and the National Institute of Mental Health. It explored the thesis that the health of certain patients would permanently improve if their psychotic process was not interrupted by administration of antipsychotic pharmaceutical drugs.[79] Julian Silverman was chief of research for the project. He also served as Esalen's general manager in the 1970s.[80] The Agnews double blind study was the largest first-episode psychosis research project ever conducted in the United States. It demonstrated that the young men given a placebo had a 75 percent lower re-hospitalization rate and much better outcomes than the men who received anti-psychotic medication. These results were used as justification for medication-free programs in the San Francisco Bay Area.[81] Michael Cornwall, who worked in one of the Agnews-inspired projects, has revived the Alternative Views and Approaches to Psychosis Initiative at Esalen by convening an invitational conference of leaders in the field of psychosis treatment, under the auspices of the Esalen Center for Theory and Research.[82]


Starting in 1969, in association with Viking Press, the institute published a series of 17 books about Esalen-related topics, including the first edition of Michael Murphy's novel, Golf in the Kingdom (1971).[83] Some of these books remain in print.

In the mid-1980s, Esalen entered into a joint publishing arrangement with Lindisfarne Press to publish a small library of Russian philosophical and theological books.[84]

Soviet-American Exchange Program[edit]

Boris Yeltsin

In 1980, Esalen began the Soviet-American Exchange Program (later renamed: Track Two, an institute for citizen diplomacy).[85] This initiative came at a time when Cold War tensions were at their peak. The program was credited with substantial success in fostering peaceful private exchanges between citizens of the "super powers".[86] In the 1980s, Michael Murphy and his wife Dulce were instrumental in organizing the program with Soviet citizen Joseph Goldin, in order to provide a vehicle for citizen-to-citizen relations between Russians and Americans. In 1982, Esalen and Goldin pioneered the first U.S.–Soviet Space Bridge, allowing Soviet and American citizens to speak directly with one another via satellite communication. In 1988, Esalen brought Abel Aganbegyan, one of Mikhail Gorbachev's chief economic advisors, to the United States. In 1989, Esalen brought Boris Yeltsin on his first trip to the United States, although Yeltsin did not visit the Esalen facility in Big Sur. Esalen arranged meetings for Yeltsin with then President George H. W. Bush as well as many other leaders in business and government. Two former presidents of the exchange program included Jim Garrison and Jim Hickman. After Gorbachev stepped down, and effectively dissolved the Soviet Union, Garrison helped establish The State of the World Forum, with Gorbachev as its convening chairman. These successes led to other Esalen citizen diplomacy programs, including exchanges with China, an initiative to further understanding among Jews, Christians and Muslims, as well as further work on Russian-American relations.[87]

Center for Theory and Research[edit]

In 1998, Esalen launched the Center for Theory and Research (CTR) to initiate new areas of practice and action which foster social change and realization of the human potential.[88] The CTR is the research and development arm of Esalen Institute.[89]

Esalen Massage and Bodywork Association[edit]

Bodywork has always been a significant part of the Esalen experience. In the late 1990s, the "EMBA" was organized as a semi-autonomous Esalen association for the regulation of Esalen massage practitioners.[90]

Cultural influence and legacy[edit]

Esalen has been cited in the press as having played a key role in the cultural transformations of the 1960s.[91] Esalen has also been the subject of some criticism and controversy.[92] After reporting the professed mission statement of the institute, The Economist summarized the critics as follows: “For many others in America and around the world, Esalen stands more vaguely for that metaphorical point where ‘East meets West’ and is transformed into something uniquely and mystically American or New Agey. And for a great many others yet, Esalen is simply that notorious bagno-bordello where people had sex and got high throughout the 1960s and 1970s before coming home talking psychobabble and dangling crystals.”[6] Other criticism may be found in publications cited in the footnotes.[93][94][95]

The Human Potential Movement was criticized for espousing an ethic that the inner-self should be freely expressed in order to reach a person's true potential. Some people saw this ethic as an aspect of Esalen's culture. The historian Christopher Lasch claimed that humanistic techniques encourage narcissistic, spiritual materialistic or self-obsessive thoughts and behaviors.[96] In 1990 a graffiti artist spray painted "Jive shit for rich white folk" on the entrance to Esalen,[97] highlighting class and race issues. Some thought that this was a regression of progress away from true spiritual growth.[97]


Because of Esalen's isolated location, its operational staff members have been residential from the beginning and collectively they have shaped the character of the institute.[97] The community has been steeped in a form of Gestalt that pervades all aspects of daily life, including meeting structures, workplace practices, and individual language styles.[98] In 1966, the institute began year-long residential educational programs which were subsequently replaced by month-long work-study programs and year-long work-oriented extended student programs.[99] There is a preschool on site called the Gazebo, serving the children of staff, some program participants, and affiliated local residents.[100]

Current status[edit]

Entrance to Esalen Institute

The institute continues to offer workshops about humanistic psychology, physical wellness, and spiritual awareness. The institute has also added workshops on permaculture and ecological sustainability.[101] Other workshops cover a wide range of subjects including arts, health, Gestalt, integral thought, martial arts, massage, dance, mythology, philosophical inquiry, somatics, spiritual and religious studies, ecopsychology, wilderness experience, yoga, tai chi, mindfulness practice, and meditation.

In popular culture[edit]

Movie lobby card

Esalen has been the subject of loose interpretations in art, entertainment, and media.[citation needed]

In the comedy-drama Bob & Carol & Ted & Alice (1969), sophisticated Los Angeles residents Bob and Carol Sanders (played by Robert Culp and Natalie Wood) spend a weekend of emotional honesty at an Esalen-style retreat,[102] after which they return to their life determined to embrace free love and complete openness.

In "What About Bob?" (1991) Bill Murray's character mentions that he hasn't felt this good since Esalen upon his arrival at his psychiatrist's vacation home.[citation needed]

Esalen features prominently in Edward St Aubyn's comic novel On the Edge (1998).[citation needed]

A BBC television series, The Century of the Self (2002), was critical of the Human Potentials Movement and included video segments recorded at Esalen.[103]

The Mad Men finale, "Person to Person" (which aired on May 17, 2015), featured Don and Stephanie staying at an Esalen-like coastline retreat in the year 1970.[104]

The Panticapaeum Institute from True Detective Season 2 was largely based on the Esalen Institute.[105]

The Chryskylodon Institute, from Thomas Pynchon's Inherent Vice and Paul Thomas Anderson's film adaptation, is modeled after Esalen.[106]



  1. ^ "Contact Us". 
  2. ^ Goldman 2012, pp. 2–
  3. ^ Kripal 2007
  4. ^ "Esalen Institute - Big Sur, California". 
  5. ^ Anderson 2004, p. 64
  6. ^ a b "Where 'California' bubbled up". The Economist. 19 December 2007. 
  7. ^ Goldman 2012, p. 2
  8. ^ Kripal 2007, p. 27
  9. ^ Kripal 2007, p. 30
  10. ^ Documentation provided by Steven Harper of radiocarbon dating, performed by members of the Sonoma State University Cultural Resources Faculty, that produced the following results: 4,630 +/- 100 years BP (before present). Harper notes confirmation by similar tests from Big Creek (4-5 miles south of Esalen Institute), which produced: 6,400 years BP, as cited in The Prehistory of Big Creek by Terry Jones (2000).
  11. ^ "Thomas B Slate, Patent #CACAAA-092028". The Land Patents. Retrieved 9 August 2016. 
  12. ^ Kripal 2007, p. 32
  13. ^ Kripal 2007, p. 95
  14. ^ Goldman 2012, p. 56
  15. ^ Kripal 2007, p. 47 et seq
  16. ^ a b The Only Way Out Is In: The Life Of Richard Price by Barclay James Erickson, in Kripal & Shuck 2005
  17. ^ Kripal 2007, p. 60
  18. ^ "Dick Price: An Interview". Esalen. Retrieved October 3, 2015. 
  19. ^ Anderson 2004, p. 48
  20. ^ "John Andrew Murphy", United States Census, 1940; Salinas, California; roll T627_267, page 19A,, enumeration district 27-5, Family History film 715. Retrieved on August 10, 2016.
  21. ^ "Michigan Births and Christenings, 1775–1995". Salt Lake City, Utah: FamilySearch. 2009–2010. 
  22. ^ a b Kripal 2007, p. 98
  23. ^ Kripal & Shuck 2005, p. 148
  24. ^ Durham, David L. (1998). California's Geographic Names: A Gazetteer of Historic and Modern Names of the State. Clovis, Calif.: Word Dancer Press. p. 960. ISBN 1-884995-14-4. 
  25. ^ Goldman 2012, p. 19
  26. ^ Kripal 2007, p. 91
  27. ^ a b Anderson 2004, p. 65
  28. ^ Anderson 2004, p. 63
  29. ^ Kripal & Shuck 2005, p. 2
  30. ^ Perls 1992
  31. ^ Perls 1992, p. 249
  32. ^ Grogan 2008, p. 196
  33. ^ Kripal 2007, p. 157
  34. ^ Kripal 2007, p. 175
  35. ^ Fadul 2014, p. 204 [1]
  36. ^ Leyde, Tom (March 20, 2015). "Esalen Institute to get a face lift". Santa Cruz Sentinel : Architecture, March 20, 2015. Retrieved October 2, 2015. 
  37. ^ Callahan 2014
  38. ^ Kripal 2007, pp. 274, 291–2
  39. ^ Anderson 2004, p. 151
  40. ^ Anderson 2004, p. 156
  41. ^ Kripal 2007, p. 207
  42. ^ Anderson 2004, p. 160
  43. ^ Litwak, Leo E. (December 31, 1967). "A Trip to Esalen Institute -- Joy Is the Prize". The New York Times Magazine. pp. 119 et seq. (registration required (help)). 
  44. ^ Anderson 2004, p. 172
  45. ^ Anderson 2004, p. 219
  46. ^ Kripal 2007, p. 181 et seq
  47. ^ Anderson 2004, p. 147 et seq
  48. ^ Goldman 2012, p. 44
  49. ^ Kripal 2007, p. 463
  50. ^ Anderson 2004, p. 270
  51. ^ Kripal 2007, p. 546
  52. ^ Anderson 2004, p. 212
  53. ^ Goldman 2012, pp. 85–86
  54. ^ a b Kripal 2007, p. 389
  55. ^ Goldman 2012, p. 65
  56. ^ Nancy's name changed to Nancy Lunney Wheeler upon marriage to Gordon Wheeler who later became Esalen CEO; see Goldman 2012, p. 67
  57. ^ Kripal 2007, p. 376
  58. ^ See the extensive biography of David Price,, "Esalen's Child", in Goldman 2012, pp. 107 et seq
  59. ^ Kripal 2007, p. 436
  60. ^ Kripal 2007, p. 437
  61. ^ Wheeler became CEO and is now president. See generally, Goldman 2012, pp. 99 et seq
  62. ^ Goldman 2012, p. 44
  63. ^ Goldman 2012, p. 65
  64. ^ "Tribal Ground Circle". Archived from the original on September 28, 2013. Retrieved September 29, 2016. 
  65. ^ Kripal 2007, pp. 101 et seq
  66. ^ Kripal 2007, pp. 182 et seq
  67. ^ Kripal 2007, pp. 104
  68. ^ Anderson 2004, pp. 159, 178, 179, 207, 220, 234, 253, 320
  69. ^ Kripal 2007, p. 490
  70. ^ Wildflower, Leni. The Hidden History Of Coaching, Open University Press (2013) p. 17
  71. ^ Kripal 2007, p. 547 [listing numerous citations]
  72. ^ Anderson 2004, p. 159
  73. ^ Heider, John The Tao of Leadershp Green Dragon Publishing (2005)
  74. ^ "John Heider". 
  75. ^ Anderson 2004, p. 102
  76. ^ Kripal 2007, p. 434
  77. ^ "EsalenArtsFestival2011". 
  78. ^ Anderson 2004, pp. 217–219
  79. ^ Rappaport, M. "Are There Schizophrenics for Whom Drugs May be Unnecessary or Contraindicated?" International Pharmacopsychiatry 13 (1978) p. 100 et seq.
  80. ^ "Julian Silverman". 
  81. ^ Cornwall 2002, p. 4
  82. ^ Alternative Views and Approaches to Psychosis, November 2012. An Esalen Center For Theory and Research Initiative at Esalen Institute.
  83. ^ Kripal 2007, p. 527
  84. ^ Kripal 2007, p. 320
  85. ^ "Track II (Citizen) Diplomacy" at The Beyond Intractability Knowledge Base Project.
  86. ^ Track Two, An Institute For Citizen Diplomacy.
  87. ^ Esalen CTR: Accomplishments in Citizen Diplomacy.
  88. ^ Esalen Center for Theory and Research.
  89. ^ Kripal 2007, p. 439
  90. ^ Goldman 2012, p. 67
  91. ^ "40 years later, Woodstock's spiritual vibes still resonate", Houston Chronicle. August 6, 2009.
  92. ^ "Esalen's Identity Crisis", Los Angeles Times Magazine. September 5, 2004.
  93. ^ "Like countless spiritual pilgrims, Esalen Institute faces its own midlife crisis". 
  94. ^ Norimitsu Onishi (August 19, 2012). "Celebrating the Past, and Debating the Future". New York Times. Retrieved 2012-08-20. 
  95. ^ Kera Abraham and Mark Anderson. "One Half-Century at Esalen Institute". Monterey County Weekly. October 4, 2012.
  96. ^ Lasch 1978, p. 13
  97. ^ a b c Kripal 2007, p. 401
  98. ^ Kripal 2007, p. 172
  99. ^ "Work Study". 
  100. ^ "Gazebo School Park Early Childhood Program". 
  101. ^ "The Esalen Farm & Garden: Cultivating Soil, Plants and People". 
  102. ^ Anderson 2004, p. 140
  103. ^ YouTube segments.
  104. ^ Dean, Will (17 May 2015). "Mad Men recap: season seven, episode 14 – Person to Person (warning: spoilers)". The Guardian. Retrieved 18 May 2015. 
  105. ^ Caitlin Gallagher. "Is The Panticapaeum Institute From 'True Detective' A Real Place? Ani's Father's Retreat Resembles An Actual Facility". Bustle. Retrieved October 3, 2015. ...there is one real place that Vulture pointed out might have inspired both Mad Men and True Detective — and that's the Esalen Institute in Big Sur, California. 
  106. ^ "The Southern California Landscape of Inherent Vice - Los Angeles Magazine". 12 December 2014. 


  • Goldman, Marion S. (2012). The American Soul Rush: Esalen and the Rise of Spiritual Privilege. New York University Press. ISBN 978-0-8147-3287-8. 
  • Kripal, Jeffrey; Shuck, Glenn W., eds. (2005). On The Edge Of The Future: Esalen And The Evolution Of American Culture. Indiana University Press. ISBN 0-253-21759-8. 
  • Lasch, C. (1978). The Culture of Narcissism. New York: W.W. Norton. 

Further reading[edit]

  • Lattin, Don (2004). Following Our Bliss : How the Spiritual Ideals of the Sixties Shape Our Lives Today. HarperCollins Publishers. ISBN 0-06-009394-3. 
  • Norman, Jeff (2004). Big Sur. Images of America Series. Arcadia Publishing. ISBN 0-7385-2913-3. 
  • Miller, Stuart (1971). Hot Springs: The True Adventures of the First New York Jewish Literary Intellectual in the Human-Potential Movement. New York: Viking Press. ISBN 0-226-45369-3. 

External links[edit]