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E coli at 10000x, original.jpg
SEM micrograph of cluster of Escherichia coli bacteria. Each individual bacterium is oblong shaped
Scientific classification
Domain: Bacteria
Phylum: Proteobacteria
Class: Gammaproteobacteria
Order: Enterobacteriales
Family: Enterobacteriaceae
Genus: Escherichia
Castellani & Chalmers 1919

E. albertii
E. coli
E. fergusonii
E. hermannii
E. vulneris

Escherichia /ˌɛʃəˈrɪkiə/ is a genus of Gram-negative, non-spore forming, facultatively anaerobic, rod-shaped bacteria from the family Enterobacteriaceae.[1] In those species which are inhabitants of the gastrointestinal tracts of warm-blooded animals, Escherichia species provide a portion of the microbially derived vitamin K for their host. A number of the species of Escherichia are pathogenic.[2] The genus is named after Theodor Escherich, the discoverer of Escherichia coli.


While many Escherichia are commensal gut flora, particular strains of some species are human pathogens,[3] and are known as the most common cause of urinary tract infections,[4] significant sources of gastrointestinal disease, ranging from simple diarrhea to dysentery-like conditions,[1] as well as a wide range of other pathogenic states.[5] While E. coli is responsible for the vast majority of Escherichia-related pathogenesis, other members of the genus have also been implicated in human disease.[6][7] Escherichia are associated with the imbalance of microbiota of the lower reproductive tract of women. These species are associated with inflammation.[8]

See also[edit]


  1. ^ a b Madigan M; Martinko J, eds. (2005). Brock Biology of Microorganisms (11th ed.). Prentice Hall. ISBN 0-13-144329-1. 
  2. ^ C.Michael Hogan. 2010. Bacteria. Encyclopedia of Earth. eds. Sidney Draggan and C.J.Cleveland, National Council for Science and the Environment, Washington DC
  3. ^ Guentzel MN (1996). Baron S; et al., eds. Escherichia, Klebsiella, Enterobacter, Serratia, Citrobacter, and Proteus. In: Baron's Medical Microbiology (4th ed.). Univ of Texas Medical Branch. ISBN 0-9631172-1-1. (via NCBI Bookshelf). 
  4. ^ Ronald A (2003). "The etiology of urinary tract infection: traditional and emerging pathogens". Dis Mon. 49 (2): 71–82. doi:10.1067/mda.2003.8. PMID 12601338. 
  5. ^ "The Species of Escherichia other than E. coli". The Prokaryotes. Retrieved 2006-05-05. 
  6. ^ Pien FD, Shrum S, Swenson JM, Hill BC, Thornsberry C, Farmer JJ 3rd (1985). "Colonization of human wounds by Escherichia vulneris and Escherichia hermannii". J Clin Microbiol. 22 (2): 283–5. PMC 268376free to read. PMID 3897270. 
  7. ^ Chaudhury A, Nath G, Tikoo A, Sanyal SC (1999). "Enteropathogenicity and antimicrobial susceptibility of new Escherichia spp". J Diarrhoeal Dis Res. 17 (2): 85–7. PMID 10897892. 
  8. ^ Bennett, John (2015). Mandell, Douglas, and Bennett's principles and practice of infectious diseases. Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier/Saunders. ISBN 9781455748013; Access provided by the University of Pittsburgh 

External links[edit]