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E coli at 10000x, original.jpg
SEM micrograph of cluster of Escherichia coli bacteria. Each individual bacterium is oblong.
Scientific classification e
Domain: Bacteria
Phylum: Pseudomonadota
Class: Gammaproteobacteria
Order: Enterobacterales
Family: Enterobacteriaceae
Genus: Escherichia
Castellani & Chalmers 1919[1]
Type species
Escherichia coli
(Escherich, 1886)

E. albertii
E. coli
E. fergusonii
E. hermannii
E. ruysiae[2]
E. marmotae[3]

Escherichia (/ˌɛʃəˈrɪkiə/) is a genus of Gram-negative, non-spore-forming, facultatively anaerobic, rod-shaped bacteria from the family Enterobacteriaceae.[4] In those species which are inhabitants of the gastrointestinal tracts of warm-blooded animals, Escherichia species provide a portion of the microbially derived vitamin K for their host. A number of the species of Escherichia are pathogenic.[5] The genus is named after Theodor Escherich, the discoverer of Escherichia coli. Escherichia are facultative aerobes, with both aerobic and anaerobic growth, and an optimum temperature of 37 °C.[4] Escherichia are usually motile by flagella, produce gas from fermentable carbohydrates, and do not decarboxylate lysine or hydrolyze arginine.[6] Species include E. albertii, E. fergusonii, E. hermannii, E. ruysiae, E. marmotae and most notably, the model organism and clinically relevant E. coli. Shimwellia blattae [7] and Pseudescherichia vulneris were formerly classified in this genus.


While many Escherichia are commensal members of the gut microbiota, certain strains of some species, most notably the pathogenic serotypes of E. coli, are human pathogens,[8] and are the most common cause of urinary tract infections,[9] significant sources of gastrointestinal disease, ranging from simple diarrhea to dysentery-like conditions,[4] as well as a wide range of other pathogenic states[10] classifiable in general as colonic escherichiosis. While E. coli is responsible for the vast majority of Escherichia-related pathogenesis, other members of the genus have also been implicated in human disease.[11][12] Escherichia are associated with the imbalance of microbiota of the lower reproductive tract of women. These species are associated with inflammation.[13]

See also[edit]


  1. ^ Castellani, Aldo; Chalmers, Albert J. (1919). "Genus Escherichia Castellani and Chalmers, 1918". Manual of Tropical Medicine. New York: William Wood and Company. pp. 941–943.
  2. ^ Parte, A.C. "Escherichia". LPSN.
  3. ^ Parte, A.C. "Escherichia". LPSN.
  4. ^ a b c Madigan M; Martinko J, eds. (2005). Brock Biology of Microorganisms (11th ed.). Prentice Hall. ISBN 0-13-144329-1.
  5. ^ C.Michael Hogan. 2010. Bacteria. Encyclopedia of Earth. eds. Sidney Draggan and C.J.Cleveland, National Council for Science and the Environment, Washington DC Archived May 11, 2011, at the Wayback Machine
  6. ^ Leung, J. M.; Gallant, C. V. (2014-01-01), "Infections due to Escherichia and Shigella☆", Reference Module in Biomedical Sciences, Elsevier, ISBN 978-0-12-801238-3, retrieved 2020-08-21
  7. ^ Priest, F. G.; Barker, M. (6 August 2009). "Gram-negative bacteria associated with brewery yeasts: reclassification of Obesumbacterium proteus biogroup 2 as Shimwellia pseudoproteus gen. nov., sp. nov., and transfer of Escherichia blattae to Shimwellia blattae comb. nov". International Journal of Systematic and Evolutionary Microbiology. 60 (4): 828–833. doi:10.1099/ijs.0.013458-0. PMID 19661513.
  8. ^ Guentzel MN (1996). Baron S; et al. (eds.). Escherichia, Klebsiella, Enterobacter, Serratia, Citrobacter, and Proteus. In: Baron's Medical Microbiology (4th ed.). Univ of Texas Medical Branch. ISBN 0-9631172-1-1. (via NCBI Bookshelf).
  9. ^ Ronald A (2003). "The etiology of urinary tract infection: traditional and emerging pathogens". Disease-a-Month. 49 (2): 71–82. doi:10.1067/mda.2003.8. PMID 12601338.
  10. ^ "The Species of Escherichia other than E. coli". The Prokaryotes. Retrieved 2006-05-05.[permanent dead link]
  11. ^ Pien FD, Shrum S, Swenson JM, Hill BC, Thornsberry C, Farmer JJ 3rd (1985). "Colonization of human wounds by Escherichia vulneris and Escherichia hermannii". J Clin Microbiol. 22 (2): 283–5. doi:10.1128/JCM.22.2.283-285.1985. PMC 268376. PMID 3897270.
  12. ^ Chaudhury A, Nath G, Tikoo A, Sanyal SC (1999). "Enteropathogenicity and antimicrobial susceptibility of new Escherichia spp". J Diarrhoeal Dis Res. 17 (2): 85–7. PMID 10897892.
  13. ^ Bennett, John (2015). Mandell, Douglas, and Bennett's principles and practice of infectious diseases. Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier/Saunders. ISBN 9781455748013; Access provided by the University of Pittsburgh{{cite book}}: CS1 maint: postscript (link)

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