|SEM micrograph of cluster of Escherichia coli bacteria. Each individual bacterium is oblong shaped|
Castellani & Chalmers 1919
Escherichia // is a genus of Gram-negative, non-spore forming, facultatively anaerobic, rod-shaped bacteria from the family Enterobacteriaceae. In those species which are inhabitants of the gastrointestinal tracts of warm-blooded animals, Escherichia species provide a portion of the microbially derived vitamin K for their host. A number of the species of Escherichia are pathogenic. The genus is named after Theodor Escherich, the discoverer of Escherichia coli.
While many Escherichia are commensal gut flora, particular strains of some species, in particular the serotypes of Escherichia coli most notably, are human pathogens, and are known as the most common cause of urinary tract infections, significant sources of gastrointestinal disease, ranging from simple diarrhea to dysentery-like conditions, as well as a wide range of other pathogenic states classifiable in general as "colonic escherichiosis." While E. coli is responsible for the vast majority of Escherichia-related pathogenesis, other members of the genus have also been implicated in human disease. Escherichia are associated with the imbalance of microbiota of the lower reproductive tract of women. These species are associated with inflammation.
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