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E coli at 10000x, original.jpg
SEM micrograph of cluster of Escherichia coli bacteria. Each individual bacterium is oblong shaped
Scientific classification
Domain: Bacteria
Phylum: Proteobacteria
Class: Gammaproteobacteria
Order: Enterobacteriales
Family: Enterobacteriaceae
Genus: Escherichia
Castellani & Chalmers 1919

E. albertii
E. coli
E. fergusonii
E. hermannii
E. vulneris

Escherichia /ˌɛʃəˈrɪkiə/ is a genus of Gram-negative, nonspore forming, facultatively anaerobic, rod-shaped bacteria from the family Enterobacteriaceae.[1] In those species which are inhabitants of the gastrointestinal tracts of warm-blooded animals, Escherichia species provide a portion of the microbially derived vitamin K for their host. A number of the species of Escherichia are pathogenic.[2] The genus is named after Theodor Escherich, the discoverer of Escherichia coli.


While many Escherichia are commensal gut flora, particular strains of some species, in particular the serotypes of Escherichia coli most notably, are human pathogens,[3] and are known as the most common cause of urinary tract infections,[4] significant sources of gastrointestinal disease, ranging from simple diarrhea to dysentery-like conditions,[1] as well as a wide range of other pathogenic states[5] classifiable in general as colonic escherichiosis. While E. coli is responsible for the vast majority of Escherichia-related pathogenesis, other members of the genus have also been implicated in human disease.[6][7] Escherichia are associated with the imbalance of microbiota of the lower reproductive tract of women. These species are associated with inflammation.[8]

See also[edit]


  1. ^ a b Madigan M; Martinko J, eds. (2005). Brock Biology of Microorganisms (11th ed.). Prentice Hall. ISBN 0-13-144329-1. 
  2. ^ C.Michael Hogan. 2010. Bacteria. Encyclopedia of Earth. eds. Sidney Draggan and C.J.Cleveland, National Council for Science and the Environment, Washington DC Archived May 11, 2011, at the Wayback Machine.
  3. ^ Guentzel MN (1996). Baron S; et al., eds. Escherichia, Klebsiella, Enterobacter, Serratia, Citrobacter, and Proteus. In: Baron's Medical Microbiology (4th ed.). Univ of Texas Medical Branch. ISBN 0-9631172-1-1. (via NCBI Bookshelf). 
  4. ^ Ronald A (2003). "The etiology of urinary tract infection: traditional and emerging pathogens". Dis Mon. 49 (2): 71–82. doi:10.1067/mda.2003.8. PMID 12601338. 
  5. ^ "The Species of Escherichia other than E. coli". The Prokaryotes. Retrieved 2006-05-05. 
  6. ^ Pien FD, Shrum S, Swenson JM, Hill BC, Thornsberry C, Farmer JJ 3rd (1985). "Colonization of human wounds by Escherichia vulneris and Escherichia hermannii". J Clin Microbiol. 22 (2): 283–5. PMC 268376Freely accessible. PMID 3897270. 
  7. ^ Chaudhury A, Nath G, Tikoo A, Sanyal SC (1999). "Enteropathogenicity and antimicrobial susceptibility of new Escherichia spp". J Diarrhoeal Dis Res. 17 (2): 85–7. PMID 10897892. 
  8. ^ Bennett, John (2015). Mandell, Douglas, and Bennett's principles and practice of infectious diseases. Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier/Saunders. ISBN 9781455748013; Access provided by the University of Pittsburgh 

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