Escherichia

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Escherichia
E coli at 10000x, original.jpg
SEM micrograph of cluster of Escherichia coli bacteria. Each individual bacterium is oblong shaped
Scientific classification
Domain: Bacteria
Phylum: Proteobacteria
Class: Gammaproteobacteria
Order: Enterobacteriales
Family: Enterobacteriaceae
Genus: Escherichia
Castellani & Chalmers 1919[1]
Type species
Escherichia coli
(Escherich, 1886)
Species

E. albertii
E. coli
E. fergusonii
E. hermannii
E. marmotae[2]
E. vulneris

Escherichia /ˌɛʃəˈrɪkiə/ is a genus of Gram-negative, nonspore forming, facultatively anaerobic, rod-shaped bacteria from the family Enterobacteriaceae.[3] In those species which are inhabitants of the gastrointestinal tracts of warm-blooded animals, Escherichia species provide a portion of the microbially derived vitamin K for their host. A number of the species of Escherichia are pathogenic.[4] The genus is named after Theodor Escherich, the discoverer of Escherichia coli.

Pathogenesis[edit]

While many Escherichia are commensal members of the gut microbiota, certain strains of some species, most notably the serotypes of Escherichia coli, are human pathogens,[5] and are the most common cause of urinary tract infections,[6] significant sources of gastrointestinal disease, ranging from simple diarrhea to dysentery-like conditions,[3] as well as a wide range of other pathogenic states[7] classifiable in general as colonic escherichiosis. While E. coli is responsible for the vast majority of Escherichia-related pathogenesis, other members of the genus have also been implicated in human disease.[8][9] Escherichia are associated with the imbalance of microbiota of the lower reproductive tract of women. These species are associated with inflammation.[10]

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ Castellani, Aldo; Chalmers, Albert J. (1919). "Genus Escherichia Castellani and Chalmers, 1918". Manual of Tropical Medicine. New York: William Wood and Company. pp. 941–943. Occurrences of the name 45193176 in the Biodiversity Heritage Library.
  2. ^ Parte, A.C. "Escherichia". www.bacterio.net.
  3. ^ a b Madigan M; Martinko J, eds. (2005). Brock Biology of Microorganisms (11th ed.). Prentice Hall. ISBN 0-13-144329-1.
  4. ^ C.Michael Hogan. 2010. Bacteria. Encyclopedia of Earth. eds. Sidney Draggan and C.J.Cleveland, National Council for Science and the Environment, Washington DC Archived May 11, 2011, at the Wayback Machine.
  5. ^ Guentzel MN (1996). Baron S; et al., eds. Escherichia, Klebsiella, Enterobacter, Serratia, Citrobacter, and Proteus. In: Baron's Medical Microbiology (4th ed.). Univ of Texas Medical Branch. ISBN 0-9631172-1-1. (via NCBI Bookshelf).
  6. ^ Ronald A (2003). "The etiology of urinary tract infection: traditional and emerging pathogens". Dis Mon. 49 (2): 71–82. doi:10.1067/mda.2003.8. PMID 12601338.
  7. ^ "The Species of Escherichia other than E. coli". The Prokaryotes. Retrieved 2006-05-05.
  8. ^ Pien FD, Shrum S, Swenson JM, Hill BC, Thornsberry C, Farmer JJ 3rd (1985). "Colonization of human wounds by Escherichia vulneris and Escherichia hermannii". J Clin Microbiol. 22 (2): 283–5. PMC 268376. PMID 3897270.
  9. ^ Chaudhury A, Nath G, Tikoo A, Sanyal SC (1999). "Enteropathogenicity and antimicrobial susceptibility of new Escherichia spp". J Diarrhoeal Dis Res. 17 (2): 85–7. PMID 10897892.
  10. ^ Bennett, John (2015). Mandell, Douglas, and Bennett's principles and practice of infectious diseases. Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier/Saunders. ISBN 9781455748013; Access provided by the University of Pittsburgh

External links[edit]