Esclarmonde of Foix
|This article has been translated from the article Esclarmonde de Foix in the French Wikipedia, and requires proofreading.|
|Esclarmonde de Foix|
|Born||after 1151/ 1165-1167
La Grande Esclarmonde
|Occupation||Albigense Delegate to Council at Pamiers 1207|
|Spouse(s)||Jordan III of L'Isle-Jourdain m abt 1180|
|Parent(s)||Roger-Bernard I of Foix and Cecile Trencavel|
Esclarmonde de Foix (Occitan: Esclarmonda de Fois; after 1151 – 1215), was a prominent figure in Catharism in thirteenth century France. Her biography is difficult to establish, because several noble women of the time and of the region had this rare firstname. This name Esclarmonde means "Clarity of the world" in the Occitan language.
- Bernard-Jourdain de l'Isle-Jourdain, the lder, heir of the county
She was widowed in October 1200 and, sometime thereafter, turned to the Catharism, a Christian religion seen as heresy by Catholicism and at that time largely developed in southern France. She received the Cathar sacrament, the consolamentum, for becoming a Cathar Perfect from the hands of the Cathar bishop Guilhabert de Castres in 1204 in Fanjeaux with three other women of high rank, Aude de Fanjeaux, Fays de Durfort, and Raymonde of Saint-Germain. The ceremony was conducted in the presence of her brother, Raymond-Roger de Foix, Count of Foix.
She settled in Pamiers and was probably involved in the initiative to rebuild the fortress of the Château de Montségur. She belonged to the conference of Pamiers (1207) which followed the "conference of Montreal" (1206). It was the last debate between the Cathars and the Roman Catholic Church, represented by Dominic Guzman, founder of the Dominican order and later known as Saint Dominic.
There is a debate about her life :
- For Catholics, she acted to spread heresy in the country and obliged people to adopt rules of life of the cathars.
- For others, she was responsible for the establishment of schools and hospitals in the region. For those reasons, she was known as "la Grande Esclarmonde".
- This article incorporates information from
- Michel Roquebert, The epopee cathare. 1198-1212: The invasion, Toulouse: Privat, 1970.
- Helene Luise Köppel, Die Ketzerin vom Montségur, Aufbau-TB-Verlag, Berlin, 2002, ISBN 3-7466-1869-X (in German)
- Glen Craney, "The Fire and The Light"
- Norma Lorre Goodrich, "The Holy Grail," Harper Perennial, 1993, ISBN 0-06-092204-4