Carrier battle group
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A carrier battle group (CVBG) consists of an aircraft carrier (designated CV) and its large number of escorts, together defining the group. The first naval task forces built around carriers appeared just prior to and during World War II. The Imperial Japanese Navy, IJN, was the first to assemble a large number of carriers into a single task force, known as Kido Butai. This task force was used with devastating effect in the Imperial Japanese Navy's Attack on Pearl Harbor. Kido Butai operated as the IJN's main carrier battle group until four of its carriers were sunk at the Battle of Midway. In contrast, the United States Navy deployed its large carriers in separate formations, with each carrier assigned its own cruiser and destroyer escorts. These single-carrier formations would often be paired or grouped together for certain assignments, most notably the Battle of the Coral Sea and Midway. By 1943, however, large numbers of fleet and light carriers became available, which required larger formations of three or four carriers. These groups eventually formed the Fast Carrier Task Force, which became the primary battle unit of the U.S. Fifth and Third Fleets.
With the construction of the large super carriers of the Cold War era, the practice of operating each carrier in a single formation was revived. During the Cold War, the main role of the CVBG in case of conflict with the Soviet Union would have been to protect Atlantic supply routes between the United States and Europe, while the role of the Soviet Navy would have been to interrupt these sea lanes, a fundamentally easier task. Because the Soviet Union had no large carriers of its own, a situation of dueling aircraft carriers would have been unlikely. However, a primary mission of the Soviet Navy's attack submarines was to track every allied battle group and, on the outbreak of hostilities, sink the carriers. Understanding this threat, the CVBG expended enormous resources in its own anti-submarine warfare mission.
- 1 Carrier battle groups in crises
- 2 U.S. Navy Battle Groups
- 3 Carrier battle groups
- 4 Underway replenishment
- 5 Debate on future viability
- 6 See also
- 7 References
- 8 Sources
- 9 External links
Carrier battle groups in crises
In the late 20th and early 21st centuries, most of the uses of CVBGs by the United States as well as that of other nations have been in situations in which their use has been uncontested by other comparable forces.
Carriers in the 1956 Suez Crisis
British and French carrier battle groups were involved in the 1956 Suez Crisis.
Carriers in the 1982 Falklands War
The first attempted use of antiship missiles against a carrier battle group was part of Argentina's efforts against British Armed Forces during the Falklands War. This was the last conflict so far in which two belligerents employed aircraft carriers, although Argentina made little use of its sole carrier, originally built in the United Kingdom.
Bangladesh Liberation War (Indo-Pakistan war of 1971)
During the Indo-Pakistan war of 1971 India used its carrier strike group centered on INS Vikrant to impose a naval blockade upon East Pakistan. Air strikes were carried out initially on shipping in the Chittagong and Cox's Bazar harbours, sinking or incapacitating most ships there. Further strikes were carried out on Cox's Bazar from 60 nautical miles (110 km) offshore. On the evening of 4 December, the air group struck Chittagong Harbour. Later strikes targeted Khulna and the Port of Mongla. Air strikes continued until 10 December 1971.
The United States Sixth Fleet assembled a force of three carrier battle groups and a battleship during the Lebanese Civil War in 1983. Daily reconnaissance flights were flown over the Bekaa Valley and a strike was flown against targets in the area resulting in loss of an A-6 Intruder and an A-7 Corsair.
Gulf of Sidra
Carrier battle groups routinely operated in the Gulf of Sidra inside the "Line of Death" proclaimed by Libya resulting in aerial engagements in 1981, 1986 and 1989 between U.S. Navy Tomcats and Libyan Su-22 aircraft, SA-5 surface-to-air missiles and MiG-23 fighters. During the 1986 clashes, three carrier battle groups deployed to the Gulf of Sidra and ultimately two of them conducted strikes against Libya in Operation El Dorado Canyon.
During the international military intervention in the 2011 Libyan civil war, the French Navy deployed its aircraft carrier, Charles de Gaulle, off Libya. The Charles de Gaulle was accompanied by several frigates as Forbin, Dupleix, Aconit, the replenishment tanker Meuse and two Rubis-class nuclear attack submarines.
Carrier strike group
In modern United States Navy carrier air operations, the moniker of carrier strike group (CSG) has replaced the traditional term of carrier battle group (CVBG or CARBATGRU). The Navy maintains 11 carrier strike groups,[timeframe?] 9 of which are based in the United States and one that is forward deployed in Japan. CSG or CVBG normally consist of 1 Aircraft Carrier, 1 Guided Missile Cruiser (for Air Defense), 2 LAMPS (Light Airborne Multi-Purpose System) Capable Warships (focusing on Anti-Submarine and Surface Warfare), and 1–2 Anti Submarine Destroyers or Frigates. The large number of CSGs used by the United States reflects, in part, a division of roles and missions allotted during the Cold War, in which the United States assumed primary responsibility for blue water operations and for safeguarding supply lines between the United States and Europe, while the NATO allies assumed responsibility for brown and green water operations.
Expeditionary Strike Group
An Expeditionary Strike Group is composed of an Amphibious Assault Ship (LHA/LHD), a Dock Landing Ship (LSD), an Amphibious transport dock (LPD), a Marine expeditionary unit, AV-8B Harrier II aircraft, CH-53E Super Stallion helicopters and CH-46E Sea Knight helicopters or, more recently, MV-22B tiltrotors. Cruisers, destroyers and attack submarines are deployed with either an Expeditionary Strike Group or a Carrier Strike Group.
Battleship battle group
During the period when the American navy recommissioned all four of its Iowa-class battleships, it sometimes used a similar formation centered on a battleship, referred to as a battleship battle group (BBBG). It was alternately referred to as a Surface Action Group (SAG).
The battleship battle group typically consisted of one modernized battleship, one Ticonderoga-class cruiser, one Kidd-class destroyer or Arleigh Burke-class destroyer, one Spruance-class destroyer, three Oliver Hazard Perry-class frigates and one support ship, such as a fleet oiler.
Carrier battle groups
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The Algerian National Navy operates the San Giorgio-class amphibious assault ship Kalaat Béni Abbès. Kalaat Beni Abbes is not capable of operating fix-winged aircraft, but instead acts as the main part of Algeria's amphibious force. When at sea, she is typically escorted by an MEKO 200 frigate for anti-air defense, and two Koni-class frigates for anti-submarine defense. A Kilo-class submarine may also be added for anti-submarine patrols.
The Royal Australian Navy's recently built pair of Canberra-class amphibious assault ships have allowed Australia naval aviation capability not seen since HMAS Melbourne (R21) was decommissioned in 1982. Although they do not currently operate fixed-winged aircraft, they are capable of doing so thanks to their ski-jumps on their flight decks. VTOL fighter jets such as the F-35 Lightning II and the Harrier Jump Jet could be added in the future. Currently however, they are being used as amphibious landing ships by the 2nd Battalion, Royal Australian Regiment for amphibious assaults. When at sea, a typical escort group would likely consist of a Hobart-class destroyer for air-defense, two Anzac-class frigatesfor anti-submarine and anti-surface protection, a Collins-class submarine for anti-submarine patrols, and one of Australia's two replenishment ships, HMAS Sirius (O 266) or HMAS Success (OR 304).
The São Paulo forms Brazil's only carrier battle group, together with 4 frigates from Type-22/1 class frigates and Vosper Mk.10 class frigates (known as the Niteroi class), 1 or 2 Tupi-class submarines, and one replenishment oiler (Almirante Gastão Motta), with VF-1 "Falcão" Air Wing equipped with 6 to 9 Attack Aircraft AF-1 Skyhawk (A-4Ku), and 3 more Helicopters Squadrons for Attack, ASW and Multi-Mission (between AS332 Super Puma, AS532 Cougar, Super Lynx, Esquilo, EC 725 (16 ordered) SH-3 (being replaced by 6 new SH-60B)) and 2 more Fixed Wings Squadrons for AEW, COD, and REVO (C-1A Trader and S-2 Tracker ordered). The São Paulo was formerly the Clemenceau-class Foch, a design used by the French Navy until 1997.
The Royal Navy did maintain two task forces concurrently (one based on an aircraft carrier and one based on an Amphibious Command Ship). At least one task group would be deployed at any one time. The last of the Royal Navy Invincible-class aircraft carriers were decommissioned in 2014. The Royal Navy also utilises the Ocean-class LPH as well as the two Albion-class LPDs as Amphibious Command Ships at the centre of a task group. The two new Queen Elizabeth-class aircraft carriers are currently under construction and will operate the F-35, replacing the retired Invincible class in 2019. Plans for the Queen Elizabeth-class's escorts currently call for two Type 45 destroyers, an Astute-class submarine, and a Tide-class tanker. Plans also call for a Type 26 frigate to be added to extra protection.
The CNS Liaoning was recently spotted alongside 4 Type 052C/Type 052D destroyers, 2 Type 054A frigates, 1-2 Type 093 Shang nuclear submarine and 1 supply ship. Future carrier battle groups may include the Type 055 destroyer.
The Egyptian Navy recently acquired two Mistral-class amphibious assault ships from France. Although the ships cannot operate fixed-winged aircraft, they have taken up the role providing Egypt with their first naval aviation capability and a modernized amphibious force. When at sea, they are typically escorted by two Oliver Hazard Perry-class frigates or Knox-class frigates for anti-air defense. A Koni-class frigate is also included for anti-submarine defense. Sometimes the FREMM Aquitaine-class destroyer, ENS Tahya Misr (FFG-1001) is also included for additional protection.
The only serving French carrier is the Charles de Gaulle, which also serves as the flagship of the Marine Nationale. The Carrier Battle Group (Groupe Aéronaval, GAN, in French) of the Force d'Action Navale is usually composed, in addition to the aircraft carrier, of:
- a carrier air wing (Groupe Aérien Embarqué, GAE, in French), a complement composed of about 60 aircraft:
- one Rubis-class submarine
- two anti-submarine destroyers (currently Tourville or Georges Leygues class)
- one or two anti-air destroyers (Horizon or Cassard class)
- one stealth frigate in forward patrol (usually a La Fayette class)
- one supply ship (currently a Durance-class tanker)
This group is commanded by a rear admiral (contre-amiral, in French) on board the aircraft carrier. The commanding officer of the air group (usually a capitaine de frégate—equivalent to commander) is subordinate to the commanding officer of the aircraft carrier, a senior captain. The escort destroyers (called frigates in the French denomination) are commanded by more junior captains.
France also operates three Mistral-class amphibious assault ships. While incapable of operating fixed-winged aircraft, they function as helicopter carriers and form the backbone of France's amphibious force. These ships are typically escorted by the same escorts the Charles De Gaulle uses.
The Indian Navy has been operating carrier battle groups since 1961, with its first carrier battle group formed around the now decommissioned INS Vikrant. As of 2014, the Indian Navy operates two carrier battle groups, one centered on INS Viraat and the other around INS Vikramaditya. Viraat is an updated Centaur-class light carrier originally built for the Royal Navy as HMS Hermes, which was laid down in 1944 and commissioned in 1959. It was purchased by India in 1986, and is expected to be decommissioned in 2016. India commissioned INS Vikramaditya in 2013 and will follow this with a third carrier, the new INS Vikrant in 2018. INS Vikramaditya is the modified Kiev-class aircraft carrier Admiral Gorshkov, INS Vikrant will be the first indigenous Indian aircraft carrier. India plans to have three carrier battle groups by 2025, each centered on Vikrant, Vikramaditya and Vishal, the second, larger and is expected to be nuclear-powered Vikrant-class carrier.
The Indian Navy's carrier battle group centered on Viraat consists of two destroyers, usually of the Delhi class (previously Rajputs were used), two or more frigates, usually of the Brahmaputra, Godavari or Nilgiri classes, and one support ship.
The navy's new carrier battle group centered on Vikramaditya consists of the modern Kolkata class destroyers, Shivalik and Talwar-class frigates, Kamorta-class anti-submarine warfare corvettes and new tankers. INS Chakra II is expected to fill the sub-surface component.
The CVS–ASW (Aircraft Carrier with Anti-Submarine Warfare) Italian aircraft carrier Giuseppe Garibaldi is Italy's first carrier. The battle group based in Taranto called COMFORAL is formed by the carrier Giuseppe Garibaldi, two Durand de la Penne-class destroyers, two support ships Etna and Elettra, and three amphibious/support ships (San Giusto, San Marco and San Giorgio).
After 2010, the Italian battle group will be formed by the new carrier Italian aircraft carrier Cavour, 5–6 new warships (including destroyers Horizon and frigates FREMM), one new support ship, some minehunters and new submarines (the COMFORAL will be a reserve group).
The Japan Maritime Self-Defense Force operates four helicopters destroyers (DDH), which are in fact light aircraft carriers (CVL) in all but name. Two Hyuga-class and two Izumo-class make up Japan's naval aviation wing. One of each ship is attached to one of the JMSDF escort flotilla's, and escorts consist of a guided-missile destroyer, usually an Atago-class, Kongo-class, or Hatakaze-class, and two other destroyers, usually a Akizuki-class, Takanami-class, or Murasame-class. While the Huyga and Izumo are not capable of operating fixed-winged aircraft, they could me modified to do so. Japan is also planning to build larger helicopter destroyers in the future that could operate aircraft such as the F-35.
Admiral Kuznetsov has been observed sailing together with a Kirov-class battlecruiser (CBGN), Slava-class cruiser (CG), Sovremenny-class destroyer (ASuW), Udaloy-class destroyer (ASW) and Krivak I/II FFG (ASW). These escorts, especially the heavily armed Kirov-class battlecruiser, use advanced sensors and carry a variety of weaponry. During Admiral Kuznetsov's deployment to Syria in November 2016 on her first combat tour, the carrier was escorted by a pair of Udaloy-class destroyers and a Kirov-class battlecruiser en route, while additional Russian Navy warships met her off Syria.
Admiral Kuznetsov is designed specifically to sail alone and carries greater firepower than her U.S. counterparts. This includes 12x SS-N-19 'Shipwreck' (long range, high speed, sea-skimming) SSMs, 24x VLS units loaded with 192 SA-N-9 'Gauntlet' SAMs, and 8x Kashtan CIWS with dual 30 mm guns, and 8x AK-630 CIWS. Compared to the 4x Phalanx CIWS and 4x Sea Sparrow launchers, each with 6 missiles carried by the Nimitz-class, Admiral Kuznetsov is well armed for both air-defence and offensive operations against hostile shipping.
The Spanish Navy currently operates the Buque de Proyección Estratégica (Strategic Projection Vessel) Spanish ship Juan Carlos I, which can be used as a light aircraft carrier. The group includes two escort squadrons: the 41st, with ASW Santa María-class frigates, and the 31st, with AEGIS Álvaro de Bazán-class AAW frigates.
The Republic of Korea Navy operates the ROKS Dokdo (LPH 6111), the lead ship in her class of amphibious assault ships. She is the flagship of the Republic of Korea Navy and is the country's only flat top ship. While Dokdo is incapable of operating fixed-wing aircraft, her sister ship, ROKS Marado (LPH-6112), will be equipped with a ski-jump bow and operated VTOL fighter jets. Dokdo is the main part of South Korea's rapid response fleet, which consists of: ROKS Dokdo, two Sejong the Great-class cruisers, four Chungmugong Yi Sun-sin-class destroyers, a Gwanggaeto the Great-class destroyer, and a Type 214 submarine. When ROKS Marado is commissioned, South Korea plans to operate her with the same escorts and possible throw in their new Incheon-class frigates, and increase submarine count to three.
HTMS Chakri Naruebet is Thailand's only aircraft carrier, and is based upon the Príncipe de Asturias of the Spanish Navy. The Thai Navy no longer operates Harrier fighters. Escorts, if it were to be deployed for non-humanitarian missions would likely consist of the mostly Chinese and US supplied frigates in the Thai fleet. It is not clear that the Thai navy has plans or ability to use the Chakri Naruebet in any fleet or power projection missions.
Since its origins, the viability of the carrier battle group has been dependent on its ability to remain at sea for extended periods. Specialized ships were developed to provide underway replenishment of fuel (for the carrier and its aircraft), ordnance, and other supplies necessary to sustain operations. Carrier battle groups devote a great deal of planning to efficiently conduct underway replenishment to minimize the time spent conducting replenishment. The carrier can also provide replenishment on a limited basis to its escorts, but typically a replenishment ship such as a fast combat support ship (AOE) or replenishment oiler (AOR) pulls alongside a carrier and conducts simultaneous operations with the carrier on its port side and one of the escorts on its starboard side. The advent of the helicopter provides the ability to speed replenishment by lifting supplies at the same time that fuelling hoses and lines are delivering other goods.
Debate on future viability
There is debate in naval warfare circles as to the viability of carrier battle groups in 21st century naval warfare. Proponents of the CVBG argue that it provides unmatched firepower and force projection capabilities. Opponents argue that CVBGs are increasingly vulnerable to arsenal ships and cruise missiles, especially those with supersonic or even hypersonic flight and the ability to perform radical trajectory changes to avoid anti-missile systems. It is also noted that CVBGs were designed for Cold War scenarios, and are less useful in establishing control of areas close to shore. It is argued however that such missiles and arsenal ships pose no serious threat as they would be eliminated due to increasing improvement in ship defenses such as Cooperative Engagement Capability (CEC), DEW technology and missile technology.
However, carriers have been called upon to be first responders even when conventional land based aircraft were employed. During Desert Shield, the U.S. Navy sortied additional carriers to augment the on station assets eventually maintaining six carriers for Desert Storm. Although the U.S. Air Force sent fighters such as the F-16 to theater in Desert Shield, they had to carry bombs with them as no stores were in place for sustained operations whereas the carriers arrived on scene with full magazines and had support ships to allow them to conduct strikes indefinitely.
The Global War on Terror has shown the flexibility and responsiveness of the carrier on multiple occasions when land based air was not feasible or able to respond in a timely fashion. After the September 11 terrorist attacks on the U.S., carriers immediately headed to the Arabian Sea to support Operation Enduring Freedom and took up station, building to a force of three carriers. Their steaming location was closer to the targets in Afghanistan than any land based assets and thereby more responsive. The USS Kitty Hawk was adapted to be a support base for special operations helicopters. Carriers were used again in Operation Iraqi Freedom and even provided aircraft to be based ashore on occasion and have done so periodically when special capabilities are needed. This precedent was established during World War II in the Battle of Guadalcanal.
Regardless of the debate over viability, the United States has made a major investment in the development of a new carrier class—the Gerald R. Ford-class aircraft carriers (formerly designated CVN-X, or the X Carrier)—to replace the existing Nimitz-class aircraft carriers. The new Ford-class carriers are designed to be modular and are easily adaptable as technology and equipment needed on board changes.
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