Escrava Isaura (1976 telenovela)
|Genre||Drama, romance, telenovela|
|Created by||Bernardo Guimarães|
|Developed by||Gilberto Braga|
Rubens de Falco
|Country of origin||Brazil|
|No. of episodes||100|
|Location(s)||Campos, Rio de Janeiro|
|Running time||60 min|
|Original network||Rede Globo|
|Original release||October 11, 1976 – February 5, 1977|
Escrava Isaura (Portuguese: Slave Isaura) is a 1976 Brazilian telenovela produced by Rede Globo, originally broadcast between October 11, 1976 and February 5, 1977 at 6 p.m. (UTC-3). Based on the novel of the same name by 19th century abolitionist writer Bernardo Guimarães, it tells the story of the struggles of Isaura, a white-skinned slave, to find happiness during the Brazilian Empire. It was starred by Lucélia Santos in the titular role, and Rubens de Falco as slave owner Leôncio Almeida, the main antagonist. It was adapted by Gilberto Braga, and directed by Herval Rossano and Milton Gonçalves, running 100 episodes.
Escrava Isaura became one of the most popular telenovelas in the world, being broadcast in over 80 countries. It was a major hit in South America, the Eastern Bloc, Italy, Greece, Turkey, Africa and the People's Republic of China. It was among the earliest foreign television series allowed to air in China, and the first with a foreign actress playing the main character. It was the first soap opera aired in the Soviet Union in 1988-1989 (reduced to 15 hour-long episodes), and in Poland in 1985. Escrava Isaura is one of the only foreign language telenovelas aired in the United Kingdom, being broadcast on Channel 4 in 1987 as Isaura the Slave Girl. It was also the first show broadcast dubbed into Galician when Galician-language channel TVG was launched in 1985.
The story is set in Brazil in the 1860s, 20 years before the emancipation of slaves. Isaura, a white-skinned slave (actually mixed race, but played by a white actress) lives in the house of Comendador Almeida and his wife Dona Ester, in Rio de Janeiro. Dona Ester raised her as her own daughter, she is educated and beautiful but very modest. Almost everyone likes her, especially Januaria the cook, who is a mother figure to her, but her master the Comendador is not particularly fond of her and he forbids Dona Ester to let Isaura dine with them as if she were a family member. Another person who hates her is the black slave Rosa who detests the privileged life Isaura leads.
At the beginning of the story Leoncio, the Comendador's son arrives home from Paris where he attended university but did not acquire a degree as he was more interested in debauchery. He takes a liking to Isaura and tries to seduce her but she resists. Dona Ester, Leoncio and Isaura soon move to the Almeidas' countryside residence in Campos, where we meet new characters: Francisco the cruel overseer who led the plantation in its owner's absence, André, the newly bought slave who incites Francisco's hatred by his dignity and bravery, and neighbour plantation owners Dona Alba and her children Tobias and Thais. Tobias and Leoncio start to hate each other when Tobias witnesses Leoncio's cruel treatment of a sick slave. Later Tobias meets Isaura who is taking a walk, and they fall in love, but Tobias doesn't know she is a slave. Also, Miguel, the overseer at Tobias's plantation confesses to Isaura that he is her father.
Almeida arrives and introduces Leoncio to Malvina, the daughter of a friend of his. Malvina doesn't know how evil Leoncio is, and she marries him. She is very kind to Isaura. Her maidservant Santa is happy because now she can be close to her beloved André. Dona Ester dies, her last wish is that the Comendador manumits Isaura, which he promises but then he doesn't keep his promise and doesn't give the signed document to Isaura. Tobias learns that Isaura is a slave, and offers to buy and marry her. Leoncio doesn't agree but Dona Carmen, the Comendador's new wife steals the emancipation document and gives it to him. Isaura is now free and preparing for her wedding, but Leoncio kidnaps Tobias and keeps him in an abandoned mill, planning to kill him, and he burns the document that granted Isaura's freedom. Later Malvina discovers Tobias in the mill and frees him, but before they could exit the mill, Leoncio and Francisco – who believe it's Isaura in the mill with Tobias – close the doors and set the mill on fire. Santa witnesses this, but is threatened by Francisco. Leoncio, pretending to be in mourning, goes on a travel, but not before condemning Isaura to regular slave work, in spite of the fact that his friends, including Malvina's brother Enrique, all believe he set her free.
When Leoncio comes back, he's still obsessed with Isaura and offers her a choice: either to become his mistress, or to go to a plantation, where she'll cut sugar cane 14 hours a day. Isaura repeatedly refuses, and Leoncio orders her to be tied out and orders her to be whipped in the morning. When André learns about this he attacks Leoncio, so they tie him out too. Santa alerts Miguel who helps Isaura and André escape.
Isaura, Miguel, André and Santa are on the run, and Leoncio sends slave hunters after them. They settle down on Dona Carmen's estate in a small town in Minas Gerais, Barbacena. Isaura, who now pretends to be a white lady named Dona Elvira, meets and falls in love with Don Alvaro, who is one of the richest men in Brazil. He is also very modern, and already set all his slaves free. But she knows she can't stay with him as they aren't safe in Brazil, Miguel already bought the ship tickets to the United States where slavery has been abolished three years before. Before they would leave, Isaura agrees to attend a ball with Alvaro. Here a man called Martinho, who read Leoncio's newspaper ads about his runaway slaves, recognizes her and makes a scandal. Despite help from Alvaro and his lawyer friend, Leoncio manages to take Isaura, André and Santa home, and sends Miguel to prison. He promises Isaura that he will let Miguel be released from prison and sets her free if she marries a man of his choosing – Beltrao, the hunchbacked gardener, whom she doesn't love. Isaura accepts, to set her father free, and also because Rosa wrote a fake letter that makes her believe Alvaro forgot her and married. At the wedding before she marries Beltrao, Alvaro arrives, and reveals that in the past months he managed to pay all those to whom Leoncio owed money, and since the money he owed was way more than his whole property, Leoncio is destitute, and the house, the plantation and everything belongs to Alvaro now. While Leoncio is trying to run away, he meets the overseer Francisco, who has decided to reveal how Leoncio murdered Malvina and Tobias. After a fight with Alavaro, desperate Leoncio shoots himself, and Alvaro, the new master frees all the slaves and asks for Isaura's hand. Rosa tries to poison Isaura but accidentally drinks the poisoned drink herself.
- Lucélia Santos - Isaura/Elvira the slave, main character
- Rubens de Falco - Leôncio Corea de Almeida, Isaura's master
- Edwin Luisi - Álvaro, Isaura's second beloved, finally her husband
- Léa Garcia - Rosa, a slave at the Almeidas who hates Isaura
- Gilberto Martinho - Comendador Almeida, Leoncio's father. He leaves his countryside mansion and plantation to Leoncio after his marriage, and retires in Rio. At first hostile to Isaura but later becomes sympathetic to her as he witnesses his son's cruel treatment of her.
- Roberto Pirillo - Tobias, Isaura's first love, from the nearby Ibituba Plantation. Killed by Leoncio.
- Norma Blum - Malvina, Leoncio's wife, who is very kind to Isaura. She is accidentally killed by Leoncio.
- Mário Cardoso - Henrique, Malvina's brother, who tries to help Isaura several times
- Haroldo de Oliveira - André, a slave who is cruelly treated, and later runs away with Miguel and Isaura
- Maria das Graças - Santa, Malvina's maidservant, later André's wife, runs away with him and Miguel and Isaura
- Isaac Bardavid - Francisco, the overseer of Leoncio's plantation. Cruel to slaves.
- Zeni Pereira - Januária, the cook. A friend of Isaura and Miguel, she convinced Miguel to reveal to Isaura that he is her father.
- Beatriz Lyra - Ester, Leoncio's mother. Isaura's godmother who raised her.
- Átila Iório - Miguel, the overseer at Ibituba Plantation, and Isaura's father.
- Elisa Fernandes - Taís, sister of Tobias. Later marries Henrique.
- Dary Reis - Conselheiro Fontoura, father of Malvina and Henrique. An old friend of the Comendador's.
- Ângela Leal - Carmen, the Comendador's second wife. Used to be an actress, and is despised by Leoncio.
- Ítalo Rossi - José Matoso, Leoncio's friend who is eager to marry off his sister Aninha, because until then he won't receive his inheritance which he needs because he's in debt.
- Francisco Dantas - Sr. Matoso, Aninha's uncle
- Myrian Rios - Aninha Matoso, Leoncio's second wife
- Carlos Duval - Beltrão, gardener, almost Isaura's husband
- André Valli - Martinho, who betrayed Isaura
- Clarisse Abujamra - Lúcia, a girl in Barbacena. Her parents wanted her to marry Alvaro and were angry at Isaura, but Lúcia married a doctor and was happy with him
- Henriette Morineau - Famous French actress who stages Racine's Phoedra in Rio. Gets to know Isaura and asks her if she wants to escape from Brazil with her help.
- "Prisioneira" - Elizeth Cardoso (Isaura's theme)
- "Amor Sem Medo" - Francis Hime (Álvaro's theme)
- "Retirantes" - Dorival Caymmi (opening theme)
- "Nanã" - Orquestra Som Livre
- "Banzo" - Tincoãs
- "Mãe Preta" - Coral Som Livre
Escrava Isaura around the world
It was the first telenovela broadcast in Hungary under the title Rabszolgasors (English: Fate of the slaves). It was picked up by János Horvát, a Magyar Televízió executive, who started the telenovela craze with Escrava Isaura. According to an urban legend, Hungarian viewers collected money before the happy ending of the telenovela to free Isaura. Later Lucélia Santos visited the country. After the success of the series in Hungary, other communist countries also aired the show. In 1984, it became the most popular program in the history of Polish television, achieving an 81 share. Since then, it was aired at least two other times in the country.
Lucélia Santos became the first non-Chinese leading actress of a television show broadcast in the People's Republic of China, in addition to being the first telenovela shown in the Soviet Union, where it had a broad appeal. The word "fazenda" (Portuguese: farm) jokingly became a synonym for the small land plots used for dachas. In the show, "fazenda" is used as a synonym for plantation.
It was broadcast in communist Albania in the eighties, many parts of the series put together. Izaura is a famous name among babies born at that time, and so are few more names from the cast. Small FIAT police vans were for a while called "Isaura", a reference to the slave-like treatment that awaited most of those that were unlucky enough to ever be dragged into one. A running joke was that Tefta Cami, the minister of public instruction, went to the national TV station to see the last part of the series, in order to see it before the others.
Escrava Isaura was also first telenovela broadcast in former Yugoslavia - It was broadcast with unexpected success in Serbia, Slovenia and Croatia in second half of the 1980s. Although the series has been extremely successful, the telenovela craze in former Yugoslavian countries did not continue until ten years later with Esmeralda.
- Austria - Die Sklavin Isaura
- Argentina - La esclava Isaura - First broadcast on Canal 13 in 1983
- Brasil - Escrava Isaura - First worldwide broadcast on October 11, 1976 on Rede Globo
- Bulgaria - Робинята Изаура - First broadcast in 1986
- Chile - La esclava Isaura - First broadcast on Teleonce in 1980
- China - 女奴 - First broadcast in 1984 on Beijing Media Network
- Colombia - La esclava Isaura - First broadcast on Colombiana TV
- Costa Rica - La esclava Isaura - First broadcast on Univisión Canal 2
- Cuba - La esclava Isaura
- Germany - Die Sklavin Isaura - First broadcast on November 24, 1986 on ARD
- France - Isaura - First broadcast on November 5, 1984 on Canal+
- Hungary - Rabszolgasors - First broadcast on MTV-1 on 1986
- Italy - La schiava Isaura - First broadcast on Rete 4 in 1982
- México - La esclava Isaura - First broadcast on Canal de las Estrellas
- New Zealand
- Paraguay - La esclava Isaura - First broadcast on El 13
- Peru - La esclava Isaura - First broadcast on Panamericana TV
- Poland - Niewolnica Isaura - First broadcast on February 19, 1985
- Portugal - Escrava Isaura - First broadcast on RTP1
- Romania - Sclava Izaura
- Slovenia - La esclava Isaura - First broadcast on RTVSLO
- South Africa
- South Korea
- Soviet Union - Рабыня Изаура - First broadcast in 1988
- Sri Lanka
- Spain - La esclava Isaura (castillano) / A escrava Isaura (gallego) - First broadcast on Televisión de Galicia on July 24, 1985
- Switzerland - Die Sklavin Isaura
- Turkey - Köle Isaura - First broadcast in 1985
- United Kingdom - Isaura the Slave Girl , First broadcast on Channel 4 in 1987
- Ukraine - Рабиня Ізаура
- Venezuela - La esclava Isaura - First broadcast on TVN Canal 5
- Yugoslavia - Робиња Исаура - First broadcast on ТВ Београд 1 on September 19, 1988
The novela was criticised by the Afro-Brazilian movement for the decision of director Herval Rossano to cast a white actress to play the leading role. Later in an interview, writer Gilberto Braga declared that he wished to cast Louise Cardoso to play Isaura, also a white actress. It was, however, one of the first telenovelas to feature a large black ensemble cast.
- "Brazilian telenovela actor Rubens de Falco, star of The Slave Isaura, dies at 76". Associated Press. International Herald Tribune. 2008-02-22. Retrieved 2008-02-24.
- "Escrava Isaura (1976) - Trivia" at the IMDb.
- Lucélia Santos article at the Portuguese version of Wikipedia.
- "Release dates for "Escrava Isaura" (1976)" at IMDB.