Page semi-protected

Eskimo

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Jump to navigation Jump to search

Eskimo
Inuit conf map.png
Total population
183,500
Regions with significant populations
Russia
- Chukotka Autonomous Okrug
- Sakha (Yakutia)

United States
- Alaska

Canada
- Newfoundland and Labrador
- Northwest Territories
- Nunavut
- Quebec
- Yukon (formerly)

Greenland
Languages
Eskimo–Aleut (Aleut, Greenlandic, Inuktut, Yupik), Russian, English, French, Danish,
Religion
Alaska Native religion, Inuit religion, Shamanism, Animism
Christianity (Russian Orthodox Church, Orthodox Church in America, Roman Catholicism, Anglican Church of Canada, Church of Denmark)
Related ethnic groups
Aleut
External video
video icon Eskimo Hunters in Alaska - The Traditional Inuit Way of Life 1949 Documentary on Native Americans

Eskimo (/ˈɛskɪm/ ESS-kih-moh) or Eskimos are the indigenous circumpolar peoples who have traditionally inhabited the northern circumpolar region from eastern Siberia (Russia) to Alaska (United States), Northern Canada, Nunavik, Nunatsiavut and Greenland.[1][2]

The two main peoples known as Eskimo are the Inuit (including the Alaskan Iñupiat, the Greenlandic Inuit, and the diverse Inuit of Canada) and the Yupik of eastern Siberia[3] and Alaska. A third northern group, the Aleut, is closely related to both. They share a relatively recent common ancestor and a language group, Eskimo-Aleut.

The non-Inuit sub-branch of the Eskimo branch of the Eskimo-Aleut language family consists of four distinct Yupik languages, two used in the Russian Far East and St. Lawrence Island, and two used in western Alaska, southwestern Alaska, and the western part of Southcentral Alaska. The extinct language of the Sirenik people is sometimes argued to be related to these.

According to recent genomic research, the Chukchi people of eastern Siberia are the closest living relatives of the Siberian Yupik and other the indigenous peoples of the Americas.[4]

There are more than 183,000 Eskimo people alive today,[5][6][7][8][9] of which 135,000 or more live in or near the traditional circumpolar regions.[10] The NGO known as the Inuit Circumpolar Council claims to represent 180,000 people.[11]

The governments in Canada[12][13][14] and the United States[15][16] have made moves to cease using the term Eskimo in official documents, but it has not been entirely eliminated, as the word is in some places written into tribal, and therefore national, legal terminology.[17] Canada officially uses the term Inuit to describe the Native people living in the country's northernmost sector.[12][13] The United States government legally uses Alaska Native[16] for the Yupik, Inuit, and Aleut, but also for non-Eskimo indigenous Alaskans including the Tlingit, the Haida, the Eyak, the Tsimshian, in addition to at least nine separate northern Athabaskan/Dene peoples. The designation Alaska Native applies to enrolled tribal members only,[18] in contrast to individual Eskimo/Aleut persons claiming descent from the world's "most widespread aboriginal group".[19][20][21]

History

A distinct Asian lineage exists for Siberian Yupik people and the North American speakers of the Eskimo-Aleut language group, who have up to 43% of their DNA in common with an ancient people or set of ancient peoples of otherwise unknown origin.[22] It is understood that some or all of these ancient people underwent a stream of migration from Asia to North America during the pre-paleolithic era, somewhere between 5,000 and 12,600 years ago.[23] It is believed that ancestors of the Aleut people inhabited the Aleutian Chain 10,000 years ago.[24]

Inuit building an iglu, by George Francis Lyon, 1824

The earliest positively identified Paleo-Eskimo cultures (Early Paleo-Eskimo) date to 5,000 years ago.[25] Several earlier indigenous peoples existed in the northern circumpolar regions of eastern Siberia, Alaska, and Canada (although probably not in Greenland).[26] The Paleo-Eskimo peoples appear to have developed in Alaska from people related to the Arctic small tool tradition in eastern Asia, whose ancestors had probably migrated to Alaska at least 3,000 to 5,000 years earlier. Similar artifacts have been found in Siberia that date to perhaps 18,000 years ago.

The Yupik languages and cultures in Alaska evolved in place, beginning with the original pre-Dorset Indigenous culture developed in Alaska. At least 4,000 years ago, the Unangan culture of the Aleut became distinct. It is not generally considered an Eskimo culture. However, there is some possibility of an Aleutian origin of the Dorset people,[25] who in turn are a likely ancestor of Inuit and Yupik people today.[23]

Approximately 1,500 to 2,000 years ago, apparently in northwestern Alaska,[citation needed] two other distinct variations appeared. Inuit language became distinct and, over a period of several centuries, its speakers migrated across northern Alaska, through Canada, and into Greenland. The distinct culture of the Thule people developed in northwestern Alaska and very quickly spread over the entire area occupied by Eskimo people, though it was not necessarily adopted by all of them.

Nomenclature

Illustration of a Greenlandic Inuit man

Etymology

There exists a scholarly consensus that the word Eskimo etymologically derives from the Innu-aimun (Montagnais) word ayas̆kimew meaning "a person who laces a snowshoe" (an origin proposed by Ives Goddard at the Smithsonian Institution),[27] is related to husky (a breed of dog), and does not have pejorative meaning in origin.[2][28][29][27] (The word assime·w means "she laces a snowshoe" in Innu, and Innu language speakers refer to the neighbouring Mi'kmaq people using words that sound like eskimo.[30][31])

In 1978, José Mailhot, a Quebec anthropologist who speaks Montagnais, published a paper suggesting that Eskimo meant "people who speak a different language".[32][33] French traders who encountered the Montagnais in the eastern areas, adopted their word for the more western peoples and spelled it as Esquimau in a transliteration.[citation needed]

Some people consider Eskimo offensive, because it is popularly perceived to mean[27][33][34][35] "eaters of raw meat" in Algonquian languages common to people along the Atlantic coast.[28][36][37] An unnamed Cree speaker suggested the original word that became corrupted to Eskimo might have been askamiciw (which means "he eats it raw"); the Inuit are referred to in some Cree texts as askipiw (which means "eats something raw").[36][37][38][39] Some people still believe that Eskimo translates to "eater of raw meat", which may be seen, or used, in a pejorative way.[12][40][41][36][42] However, this etymology has been discredited.[43]

One of the first printed uses of the French word Esquimaux comes from Samuel Hearne's A Journey from Prince of Wales's Fort in Hudson's Bay to the Northern Ocean in the Years 1769, 1770, 1771, 1772 first published in 1795.[44]

Usage

Laminar armour from hardened leather reinforced by wood and bones worn by native Siberians and Eskimos
Lamellar armour worn by native Siberians and Eskimos

The term Eskimo encompasses Inuit and Yupik, as well as other Indigenous Alaskan and Siberian peoples. Linguistic, ethnic, and cultural differences exist between Yupik and Inuit.

In Canada and Greenland, the term Eskimo is predominantly seen as offensive or "non-preferred", and has been widely replaced by the term Inuit[28][38][39][45] or terms specific to a particular group or community.[46][47][48] This has resulted in a trend whereby some Canadians and Americans believe that they should not use the word Eskimo and use the classifier Inuit instead, even for Yupik (non-Inuit) people.[49]

The Inuit of Greenland generally refer to themselves as Greenlanders ("Kalaallit" or "Grønlændere") and speak the Greenlandic language and Danish.[50][51] The Inuit of Greenland belong to three groups: the Kalaallit of west Greenland, who speak Kalaallisut;[50] the Tunumiit of Tunu (east Greenland), who speak Tunumiit oraasiat ("East Greenlandic"), and the Inughuit of north Greenland, who speak Inuktun.

The word "Eskimo" is a racially charged term in Canada.[52][53] In Canada's Central Arctic, Inuinnaq is the preferred,[54] and in the eastern Canadian Arctic Inuit. The language is often called Inuktitut, though other local designations are also used.

Section 25[55] of the Canadian Charter of Rights and Freedoms and section 35[56] of the Canadian Constitution Act of 1982 recognized the Inuit as a distinctive group of Aboriginal peoples in Canada. While Inuit can be applied to all of the Eskimo peoples in Canada and Greenland, that is not true in Alaska and Siberia. In Alaska, the term Eskimo is still used (has been commonly used but is decreasing in prevalence) because it includes both Iñupiat (singular: Iñupiaq), who are Inuit, and Yupik, who are not.[28]

Alaskans also use the term Alaska Native, which is inclusive of (and under U.S. and Alaskan law, as well as the linguistic and cultural legacy of Alaska, refers to) all Indigenous peoples of Alaska,[57] including not only the Iñupiat (Alaskan Inuit) and the Yupik, but also groups such as the Aleut, who share a recent ancestor, as well as the largely unrelated[58] indigenous peoples of the Pacific Northwest Coast and the Alaskan Athabaskans, such as the Eyak people. The term Alaska Native has important legal usage in Alaska and the rest of the United States as a result of the Alaska Native Claims Settlement Act of 1971. It does not apply to Inuit or Yupik originating outside the state. As a result, the term Eskimo is still in use in Alaska.[1] Alternative terms, such as Inuit-Yupik, have been proposed,[59] but none has gained widespread acceptance. Recent (early 21st century) population estimates registered more than 135,000 individuals of Eskimo descent, with approximately 85,000 living in North America, 50,000 in Greenland, and the rest residing in Siberia.[10]

Inuit Circumpolar Council

In 1977, the Inuit Circumpolar Conference (ICC) meeting in Utqiagvik, Alaska, officially adopted Inuit as a designation for all circumpolar Native peoples, regardless of their local view on an appropriate term. They voted to replace the word Eskimo with Inuit.[60][better source needed] Even at that time, such a designation was not accepted by all.[61][62] As a result, the Canadian government usage has replaced the term Eskimo with Inuit (Inuk in singular).

The ICC charter defines Inuit as including "the Inupiat, Yupik (Alaska), Inuit, Inuvialuit (Canada), Kalaallit (Greenland) and Yupik (Russia)".[63]

Despite the ICC's 1977 decision to adopt the term Inuit, this was never accepted by the Yupik, who likened it to calling all American Indians as Navajo simply because the Navajo felt that that's what all tribes should be called.[citation needed]

In 2010, the ICC passed a resolution in which they implored scientists to use Inuit and Paleo-Inuit instead of Eskimo or Paleo-Eskimo.[64]

Academic response

In a 2015 commentary in the journal Arctic, Canadian archaeologist Max Friesen argued fellow Arctic archaeologists should follow the ICC and use Paleo-Inuit instead of Paleo-Eskimo.[65] In 2016, Lisa Hodgetts and Arctic editor Patricia Wells wrote: "In the Canadian context, continued use of any term that incorporates Eskimo is potentially harmful to the relationships between archaeologists and the Inuit and Inuvialuit communities who are our hosts and increasingly our research partners."

Hodgetts and Wells suggested using more specific terms when possible (e.g. Dorset and Groswater) and agreed with Frieson in using the Inuit tradition to replace Neo-Eskimo, although they noted replacement for Palaeoeskimo was still an open question and discuss Paleo-Inuit, Arctic Small Tool Tradition, and pre-Inuit, as well as Inuktitut loanwords like Tuniit and Sivullirmiut as possibilities.[66]

In 2020, Katelyn Braymer-Hayes and colleagues argued in the Journal of Anthropological Archaeology that there is a "clear need" to replace the terms Neo-Eskimo and Paleo-Eskimo, citing the ICC resolution, but finding a consensus within the Alaskan context particularly is difficult, since Alaska Natives do not use the word Inuit to describe themselves nor is the term legally applicable only to Iñupiat and Yupik in Alaska, and as such, terms used in Canada like Paleo Inuit and Ancestral Inuit would not be acceptable.[67]

American linguist Lenore Grenoble has also explicitly deferred to the ICC resolution and used Inuit–Yupik instead of Eskimo with regards to the language branch.[68]

Languages

English ("Welcome to Barrow") and Iñupiaq (Paġlagivsigiñ Utqiaġvigmun), Utqiagvik, Alaska, framed by whale jawbones

The Eskimo–Aleut family of languages includes two cognate branches: the Aleut (Unangan) branch and the Eskimo branch.

The number of cases varies, with Aleut languages having a greatly reduced case system compared to those of the Eskimo subfamily. Eskimo–Aleut languages possess voiceless plosives at the bilabial, coronal, velar and uvular positions in all languages except Aleut, which has lost the bilabial stops but retained the nasal. In the Eskimo subfamily a voiceless alveolar lateral fricative is also present.

The Eskimo sub-family consists of the Inuit language and Yupik language sub-groups.[69] The Sirenikski language, which is virtually extinct, is sometimes regarded as a third branch of the Eskimo language family. Other sources regard it as a group belonging to the Yupik branch.[69][70]

Inuit languages comprise a dialect continuum, or dialect chain, that stretches from Unalakleet and Norton Sound in Alaska, across northern Alaska and Canada, and east to Greenland. Changes from western (Iñupiaq) to eastern dialects are marked by the dropping of vestigial Yupik-related features, increasing consonant assimilation (e.g., kumlu, meaning "thumb", changes to kuvlu, changes to kublu,[71] changes to kulluk,[71] changes to kulluq[71]), and increased consonant lengthening, and lexical change. Thus, speakers of two adjacent Inuit dialects would usually be able to understand one another, but speakers from dialects distant from each other on the dialect continuum would have difficulty understanding one another.[70] Seward Peninsula dialects in western Alaska, where much of the Iñupiat culture has been in place for perhaps less than 500 years, are greatly affected by phonological influence from the Yupik languages. Eastern Greenlandic, at the opposite end of the Inuit range, has had significant word replacement due to a unique form of ritual name avoidance.[69][70]

Ethnographically, Inuit of Greenland belong to three groups: the Kalaallit of west Greenland, who speak Kalaallisut;[50] the Tunumiit of Tunu (east Greenland), who speak Tunumiit oraasiat ("East Greenlandic"), and the Inughuit of north Greenland, who speak Inuktun.

The four Yupik languages, by contrast, including Alutiiq (Sugpiaq), Central Alaskan Yup'ik, Naukan (Naukanski), and Siberian Yupik, are distinct languages with phonological, morphological, and lexical differences. They demonstrate limited mutual intelligibility.[69] Additionally, both Alutiiq and Central Yup'ik have considerable dialect diversity. The northernmost Yupik languages – Siberian Yupik and Naukan Yupik – are linguistically only slightly closer to Inuit than is Alutiiq, which is the southernmost of the Yupik languages. Although the grammatical structures of Yupik and Inuit languages are similar, they have pronounced differences phonologically. Differences of vocabulary between Inuit and any one of the Yupik languages are greater than between any two Yupik languages.[70] Even the dialectal differences within Alutiiq and Central Alaskan Yup'ik sometimes are relatively great for locations that are relatively close geographically.[70]

Despite the relatively small population of Naukan speakers, documentation of the language dates back to 1732. While Naukan is only spoken in Siberia, the language acts as an intermediate between two Alaskan languages: Siberian Yupik Eskimo and Central Yup'ik Eskimo.[72]

The Sirenikski language is sometimes regarded as a third branch of the Eskimo language family, but other sources regard it as a group belonging to the Yupik branch.[70]

Iñupiat woman, Alaska, circa 1907
An Inuit family, c.1917

An overview of the Eskimo–Aleut languages family is given below:

Aleut
Aleut language
Western-Central dialects: Atkan, Attuan, Unangan, Bering (60–80 speakers)
Eastern dialect: Unalaskan, Pribilof (400 speakers)
Eskimo (Yup'ik, Yuit, and Inuit)
Yupik
Central Alaskan Yup'ik (10,000 speakers)
Alutiiq or Pacific Gulf Yup'ik (400 speakers)
Central Siberian Yupik or Yuit (Chaplinon and St Lawrence Island, 1,400 speakers)
Naukan (700 speakers)
Inuit or Inupik (75,000 speakers)
Iñupiaq (northern Alaska, 3,500 speakers)
Inuvialuktun (western Canada; together with Siglitun, Natsilingmiutut, Inuinnaqtun and Uummarmiutun 765 speakers)
Inuktitut (eastern Canada; together with Inuktun and Inuinnaqtun, 30,000 speakers)
Kalaallisut (Greenlandic (Greenland, 47,000 speakers)
Inuktun (Avanersuarmiutut, Thule dialect or Polar Eskimo, approximately 1,000 speakers)
Tunumiit oraasiat (East Greenlandic known as Tunumiisut, 3,500 speakers)
Sirenik Eskimo language (Sirenikskiy) (extinct)

American linguist Lenore Grenoble has explicitly deferred to this resolution and used Inuit–Yupik instead of Eskimo with regards to the language branch.[68]

Inuit

Eskimo (Yup'ik of Nelson Island) fisherman's summer house

The Inuit inhabit the Arctic and northern Bering Sea coasts of Alaska in the United States, and Arctic coasts of the Northwest Territories, Nunavut, Quebec, and Labrador in Canada, and Greenland (associated with Denmark). Until fairly recent times, there has been a remarkable homogeneity in the culture throughout this area, which traditionally relied on fish, marine mammals, and land animals for food, heat, light, clothing, and tools. Their food sources primarily relied on seals, whales, whale blubber, walrus, and fish, all of which they hunted using harpoons on the ice.[10] Clothing consisted of robes made of wolfskin and reindeer skin to acclimate to the low temperatures.[73] They maintain a unique Inuit culture.

Greenland's Inuit

Greenlandic Inuit make up 90% of Greenland's population.[74] They belong to three major groups:

Inuit of Canada's eastern Arctic

Canadian Inuit live primarily in Nunavut (a territory of Canada), Nunavik (the northern part of Quebec) and in Nunatsiavut (the Inuit settlement region in Labrador).[citation needed]

Inuvialuit of Canada's western Arctic

An Iñupiat family from Noatak, Alaska, 1929

The Inuvialuit live in the western Canadian Arctic region. Their homeland – the Inuvialuit Settlement Region – covers the Arctic Ocean coastline area from the Alaskan border east to Amundsen Gulf and includes the western Canadian Arctic Islands. The land was demarked in 1984 by the Inuvialuit Final Agreement.[citation needed]

Alaska's Iñupiat

The Iñupiat are the Inuit of Alaska's Northwest Arctic and North Slope boroughs and the Bering Straits region, including the Seward Peninsula. Utqiagvik, the northernmost city in the United States, is above the Arctic Circle and in the Iñupiat region. Their language is known as Iñupiaq.[75]

Yupik

Alutiiq dancer during the biennial "Celebration" cultural event

The Yupik are indigenous or aboriginal peoples who live along the coast of western Alaska, especially on the Yukon-Kuskokwim delta and along the Kuskokwim River (Central Alaskan Yup'ik); in southern Alaska (the Alutiiq); and along the eastern coast of Chukotka in the Russian Far East and St. Lawrence Island in western Alaska (the Siberian Yupik).[76] The Yupik economy has traditionally been strongly dominated by the harvest of marine mammals, especially seals, walrus, and whales.[77]

Alutiiq

The Alutiiq, also called Pacific Yupik or Sugpiaq, are a southern, coastal branch of Yupik.[citation needed] They are not to be confused with the Aleut, who live further to the southwest, including along the Aleutian Islands. They traditionally lived a coastal lifestyle, subsisting primarily on ocean resources such as salmon, halibut, and whales, as well as rich land resources such as berries and land mammals.[citation needed] Alutiiq people today live in coastal fishing communities, where they work in all aspects of the modern economy. They also maintain the cultural value of a subsistence lifestyle.[citation needed]

The Alutiiq language is relatively close to that spoken by the Yupik in the Bethel, Alaska area. But, it is considered a distinct language with two major dialects: the Koniag dialect, spoken on the Alaska Peninsula and on Kodiak Island, and the Chugach dialect, spoken on the southern Kenai Peninsula and in Prince William Sound. Residents of Nanwalek, located on southern part of the Kenai Peninsula near Seldovia, speak what they call Sugpiaq. They are able to understand those who speak Yupik in Bethel. With a population of approximately 3,000, and the number of speakers in the hundreds, Alutiiq communities are working to revitalize their language.[78]

Central Alaskan Yup'ik

Yup'ik, with an apostrophe, denotes the speakers of the Central Alaskan Yup'ik language, who live in western Alaska and southwestern Alaska from southern Norton Sound to the north side of Bristol Bay, on the Yukon–Kuskokwim Delta, and on Nelson Island. The use of the apostrophe in the name Yup'ik is a written convention to denote the long pronunciation of the p sound; but it is spoken the same in other Yupik languages. Of all the Alaska Native languages, Central Alaskan Yup'ik has the most speakers, with about 10,000 of a total Yup'ik population of 21,000 still speaking the language. The five dialects of Central Alaskan Yup'ik include General Central Yup'ik, and the Egegik, Norton Sound, Hooper Bay-Chevak, and Nunivak dialects. In the latter two dialects, both the language and the people are called Cup'ik.[79]

Siberian Yupik

Siberian Yupik aboard the steamer Bowhead

Siberian Yupik reside along the Bering Sea coast of the Chukchi Peninsula in Siberia in the Russian Far East[70] and in the villages of Gambell and Savoonga on St. Lawrence Island in Alaska.[80] The Central Siberian Yupik spoken on the Chukchi Peninsula and on St. Lawrence Island is nearly identical. About 1,050 of a total Alaska population of 1,100 Siberian Yupik people in Alaska speak the language. It is the first language of the home for most St. Lawrence Island children. In Siberia, about 300 of a total of 900 Siberian Yupik people still learn and study the language, though it is no longer learned as a first language by children.[80]

Naukan

About 70 of 400 Naukan people still speak Naukanski. The Naukan originate on the Chukot Peninsula in Chukotka Autonomous Okrug in Siberia.[70] Despite the relatively small population of Naukan speakers, documentation of the language dates back to 1732. While Naukan is only spoken in Siberia, the language acts as an intermediate between two Alaskan languages: Siberian Yupik Eskimo and Central Yup'ik Eskimo.[72]

Sirenik Eskimos

Model of an Ice Scoop, Eskimo, 1900–1930, Brooklyn Museum

Some speakers of Siberian Yupik languages used to speak an Eskimo variant in the past, before they underwent a language shift. These former speakers of Sirenik Eskimo language inhabited the settlements of Sireniki, Imtuk, and some small villages stretching to the west from Sireniki along south-eastern coasts of Chukchi Peninsula.[81] They lived in neighborhoods with Siberian Yupik and Chukchi peoples.

As early as in 1895, Imtuk was a settlement with a mixed population of Sirenik Eskimos and Ungazigmit[82] (the latter belonging to Siberian Yupik). Sirenik Eskimo culture has been influenced by that of Chukchi, and the language shows Chukchi language influences.[83] Folktale motifs also show the influence of Chuckchi culture.[84]

The above peculiarities of this (already extinct) Eskimo language amounted to mutual unintelligibility even with its nearest language relatives:[85] in the past, Sirenik Eskimos had to use the unrelated Chukchi language as a lingua franca for communicating with Siberian Yupik.[83]

Many words are formed from entirely different roots from in Siberian Yupik,[86] but even the grammar has several peculiarities distinct not only among Eskimo languages, but even compared to Aleut. For example, dual number is not known in Sirenik Eskimo, while most Eskimo–Aleut languages have dual,[87] including its neighboring Siberian Yupikax relatives.[88]

Little is known about the origin of this diversity. The peculiarities of this language may be the result of a supposed long isolation from other Eskimo groups,[89][90] and being in contact only with speakers of unrelated languages for many centuries. The influence of the Chukchi language is clear.[83]

Because of all these factors, the classification of Sireniki Eskimo language is not settled yet:[91] Sireniki language is sometimes regarded as a third branch of Eskimo (at least, its possibility is mentioned).[91][92][93] Sometimes it is regarded rather as a group belonging to the Yupik branch.[94][95]

See also

References

  1. ^ a b Pamela R. Stern (2013). Historical Dictionary of the Inuit. Scarecrow Press. p. 2. ISBN 978-0-8108-7912-6.
  2. ^ a b "Eskimo | Definition, History, Culture, & Facts". Encyclopedia Britannica.
  3. ^ "Arctic Studies". alaska.si.edu.
  4. ^ Reich, David (2018). Who We Are and How We Got Here: Ancient DNA and the New Science of the Human Past. New York: Pantheon Books.
  5. ^ https://www150.statcan.gc.ca/n1/daily-quotidien/171025/mc-a001-eng.htm
  6. ^ https://www.cia.gov/library/publications/the-world-factbook/geos/gl.html
  7. ^ https://www.statistikbanken.dk/BEF5G
  8. ^ U.S. Census Bureau, Census 2000 PHC-T-18. American Indian and Alaska Native Tribes in the United States: 2000
  9. ^ https://www.census.gov/prod/cen2010/briefs/c2010br-10.pdf
  10. ^ a b c https://www.britannica.com/topic/Eskimo-people
  11. ^ https://www.inuitcircumpolar.com/
  12. ^ a b c "Words First An Evolving Terminology Relating to Aboriginal Peoples in Canada Communications Branch Indian and Northern Affairs Canada October 2002" (PDF). June 8, 2020. The term "Eskimo,"applied to Inuit by European explorers, is no longer used in Canada.
  13. ^ a b Inuit
  14. ^ MacDonald-Dupuis, Natasha (December 16, 2015). "The Little-Known History of How the Canadian Government Made Inuit Wear 'Eskimo Tags'".
  15. ^ "Obama signs measure to get rid of the word 'Eskimo' in federal laws". Anchorage Daily News. 2016-05-24. Retrieved 2020-07-14.
  16. ^ a b Meng, Grace (2016-05-20). "Text - H.R.4238 - 114th Congress (2015-2016): To amend the Department of Energy Organization Act and the Local Public Works Capital Development and Investment Act of 1976 to modernize terms relating to minorities". www.congress.gov. Retrieved 2020-07-14.
  17. ^ "Indian Entities Recognized by and Eligible To Receive Services From the United States Bureau of Indian Affairs". Federal Register. 85 (20): 5462–5467. 30 January 2020.
  18. ^ https://www.bia.gov/frequently-asked-questions
  19. ^ https://www.usaonrace.com/sticky-wicket-questions/1462/is-the-term-eskimo-a-racial-or-ethnic-insult.html
  20. ^ https://www.nationalgeographic.com/news/2014/8/140828-arctic-migration-genome-genetics-dna-eskimos-inuit-dorset/
  21. ^ "Eskimos". FactMonster.
  22. ^ Reich, D.; Patterson, N.; Campbell, D.; Tandon, A.; Mazieres, S.; Ray, N.; Parra, M. V.; Rojas, W.; Duque, C.; Mesa, N.; García, L. F.; Triana, O.; Blair, S.; Maestre, A.; Dib, J. C.; Bravi, C. M.; Bailliet, G.; Corach, D.; Hünemeier, T.; Bortolini, M. C.; Salzano, F. M.; Petzl-Erler, M. L.; Acuña-Alonzo, V.; Aguilar-Salinas, C.; Canizales-Quinteros, S.; Tusié-Luna, T.; Riba, L.; Rodríguez-Cruz, M.; Lopez-Alarcón, M.; et al. (2012). "Reconstructing Native American Population History". Nature. 488 (7411): 370–374. Bibcode:2012Natur.488..370R. doi:10.1038/nature11258. PMC 3615710. PMID 22801491.
  23. ^ a b Flegontov, Pavel; Altinişik, N. Ezgi; Changmai, Piya; Rohland, Nadin; Mallick, Swapan; Bolnick, Deborah A.; Candilio, Francesca; Flegontova, Olga; Jeong, Choongwon; Harper, Thomas K.; Keating, Denise; Kennett, Douglas J.; Kim, Alexander M.; Lamnidis, Thiseas C.; Olalde, Iñigo; Raff, Jennifer; Sattler, Robert A.; Skoglund, Pontus; Vajda, Edward J.; Vasilyev, Sergey; Veselovskaya, Elizaveta; Hayes, M. Geoffrey; O’Rourke, Dennis H.; Pinhasi, Ron; Krause, Johannes; Reich, David; Schiffels, Stephan (13 October 2017). "Paleo-Eskimo genetic legacy across North America". doi:10.1101/203018. S2CID 90288469. Cite journal requires |journal= (help)
  24. ^ Dunne, J. A.; Maschner, H.; Betts, M. W.; Huntly, N.; Russell, R.; Williams, R. J.; Wood, S. A. (2016). "The roles and impacts of human hunter-gatherers in North Pacific marine food webs". Scientific Reports. 6: 21179. Bibcode:2016NatSR...621179D. doi:10.1038/srep21179. PMC 4756680. PMID 26884149.
  25. ^ a b Raghavan, Maanasa; DeGiorgio, Michael; Albrechtsen, Anders; Moltke, Ida; Skoglund, Pontus; Korneliussen, Thorfinn S.; Grønnow, Bjarne; Appelt, Martin; Gulløv, Hans Christian; Friesen, T. Max; Fitzhugh, William; Malmström, Helena; Rasmussen, Simon; Olsen, Jesper; Melchior, Linea; Fuller, Benjamin T.; Fahrni, Simon M.; Stafford, Thomas; Grimes, Vaughan; Renouf, M. A. Priscilla; Cybulski, Jerome; Lynnerup, Niels; Lahr, Marta Mirazon; Britton, Kate; Knecht, Rick; Arneborg, Jette; Metspalu, Mait; Cornejo, Omar E.; Malaspinas, Anna-Sapfo; Wang, Yong; Rasmussen, Morten; Raghavan, Vibha; Hansen, Thomas V. O.; Khusnutdinova, Elza; Pierre, Tracey; Dneprovsky, Kirill; Andreasen, Claus; Lange, Hans; Hayes, M. Geoffrey; Coltrain, Joan; Spitsyn, Victor A.; Götherström, Anders; Orlando, Ludovic; Kivisild, Toomas; Villems, Richard; Crawford, Michael H.; Nielsen, Finn C.; Dissing, Jørgen; Heinemeier, Jan; Meldgaard, Morten; Bustamante, Carlos; O’Rourke, Dennis H.; Jakobsson, Mattias; Gilbert, M. Thomas P.; Nielsen, Rasmus; Willerslev, Eske (29 August 2014). "The genetic prehistory of the New World Arctic". Science. 345 (6200). doi:10.1126/science.1255832. PMID 25170159. S2CID 353853.
  26. ^ "- Saqqaq". April 19, 2011. Archived from the original on April 19, 2011.
  27. ^ a b c stason.org, Stas Bekman: stas (at). "91 "Eskimo" (Word origins - alt.usage.english)". stason.org.
  28. ^ a b c d Kaplan, Lawrence. "Inuit or Eskimo: Which name to use?" Alaskan Native Language Center, UAF. Retrieved 14 Feb 2015.
  29. ^ R. H. Ives Goddard, "Synonymy". In David Damas (ed.) Handbook of North American Indians: Volume 5 Arctic (Washington, DC: Smithsonian Institution, 1985, 978-0874741858), pages 5–7.
  30. ^ Goddard, Ives (1984). "Synonymy", In Arctic, ed. David Damas. Handbook of North American Indians, vol. 5, ed. William C. Sturtevant, pp. 5–7. Washington, DC: Smithsonian Institution. Cited in Campbell 1997
  31. ^ Campbell, Lyle (1997). American Indian Languages: The Historical Linguistics of Native America, pg. 394. New York: Oxford University Press
  32. ^ Mailhot, J. (1978). "L'étymologie de «Esquimau» revue et corrigée", Études Inuit/Inuit Studies 2-2:59–70.
  33. ^ a b "Cree Mailing List Digest November 1997". Retrieved 2012-06-13.
  34. ^ Mailhot, Jose (1978). "L'etymologie de "esquimau" revue et corrigée". Études/Inuit/Studies. 2 (2).
  35. ^ Goddard, Ives (1984). Handbook of North American Indians, Vol. 5 (Arctic). Smithsonian Institution. ISBN 978-0-16-004580-6.
  36. ^ a b c "Setting the Record Straight About Native Languages: What Does "Eskimo" Mean In Cree?". Native-languages.org. Retrieved 2012-06-13.
  37. ^ a b "Eskimo". American Heritage Dictionary of the English Language: Fourth Edition, 2000. Bartleby. Archived from the original on 2001-04-12. Retrieved 2008-01-13.
  38. ^ a b Pamela R. Stern (2004-07-27). Historical Dictionary of the Inuit. ISBN 9780810865563. Retrieved 2012-06-13.
  39. ^ a b Robert Peroni and Birgit Veith. "Ostgroenland-Hilfe Project". Ostgroenland-hilfe.de. Archived from the original on 2012-03-18. Retrieved 2012-06-13.
  40. ^ Why You Probably Shouldn't Say 'Eskimo'
  41. ^ Expert says ‘meat-eater’ name Eskimo an offensive term placed on Inuit
  42. ^ Alexander, Colin (2013-12-13). "Where does the word "Eskimo" come from?". Nunatsiaq News. Retrieved 2020-07-21. "In spite of the tenacity of the belief, both among Algonquian speakers and in the anthropological and general literature…that Eskimo means ‘raw-meat eaters’
  43. ^ https://www.lexico.com/en/definition/eskimo
  44. ^ The Project Gutenberg eBook of A Journey from Prince of Wales's Fort in Hudson's Bay to the Northern Ocean, by Samuel Hearne. www.gutenberg.org.
  45. ^ Usage note, "Inuit", American Heritage Dictionary of the English Language: Fourth Edition, 2000
  46. ^ Maurice Waite (2013). Pocket Oxford English Dictionary. OUP Oxford. p. 305. ISBN 978-0-19-966615-7. Some people regard the word Eskimo as offensive, and the peoples inhabiting the regions of northern Canada and parts of Greenland and Alaska prefer to call themselves Inuit
  47. ^ Jan Svartvik; Geoffrey Leech (2016). English – One Tongue, Many Voices. Palgrave Macmillan UK. p. 97. ISBN 978-1-137-16007-2. Today, the term "Eskimo" is viewed as the "non preferred term". Some Inuit find the term offensive or derogatory.
  48. ^ "Inuit or Eskimo? - Alaska Native Language Center". Archived from the original on 2015-05-18. Retrieved 2017-04-19. Although the name 'Eskimo' is commonly used in Alaska to refer to all Inuit and Yupik of the world, this name is considered derogatory in many other places because it was given by non-Inuit people and was said to mean 'eater of raw meat'.
  49. ^ "Obama signs measure to get rid of the word 'Eskimo' in federal laws". 24 May 2016.
  50. ^ a b c d "Inuktitut, Greenlandic". Ethnologue. Retrieved 6 Aug 2012.
  51. ^ https://www.uaf.edu/anlc/resources/inuit_or_eskimo.php
  52. ^ "Eskimo Pie owner to change ice cream's name, acknowledging derogatory term". CBC News. June 19, 2020. Retrieved September 25, 2020. The U.S. owner of Eskimo Pie ice cream will change the product's brand name and marketing, it told Reuters on Friday, becoming the latest company to rethink racially charged brand imagery amid a broad debate on racial injustice.
  53. ^ "Edmonton CFL team heeds sponsors' calls, accelerates review of potential name change". CBC News. July 8, 2020. Retrieved September 25, 2020. Edmonton's team has seen repeated calls for a name change in the past, and faces renewed criticism as sports teams in Canada, the United States and elsewhere are urged to remove outdated and sometimes racist names and images.
  54. ^ Ohokak, G.; M. Kadlun; B. Harnum. Inuinnaqtun-English Dictionary. Kitikmeot Heritage Society.
  55. ^ "Canadian Charter of Rights and Freedoms". Department of Justice Canada. Retrieved August 30, 2012.
  56. ^ "Rights of the Aboriginal Peoples of Canada". Department of Justice Canada. Retrieved August 30, 2012.
  57. ^ Houghton Mifflin Company (2005). The American Heritage Guide to Contemporary Usage and Style. Houghton Mifflin Harcourt. p. 313. ISBN 0-618-60499-5.
  58. ^ "Native American populations descend from three key migrations". UCL News. University College London. 2012-07-12. Retrieved 2018-12-12.
  59. ^ Holton, Gary (2018). "Place naming strategies in Inuit-Yupik and Dene languages in Alaska". In Pratt, Kenneth L.; Heyes, Scott (eds.). Language, memory and landscape: Experiences from the boreal forest to the tundra. Calgary: University of Calgary Press. pp. 1–27.
  60. ^ Padilla, Lissette (July 13, 2015). "Are There Still Eskimos?". Seeker. Retrieved June 18, 2020.
  61. ^ "Inuit or Eskimo: Which name to use?". Alaska Native Language Center.
  62. ^ "Eskimo, Inuit, and Inupiaq: Do these terms mean the same thing?".
  63. ^ Inuit Circumpolar Council. (2006). Charter Archived March 5, 2010, at the Wayback Machine Retrieved on 2007-04-06.
  64. ^ Inuit Circumpolar Council (2010). "On the use of the term Inuit in scientific and other circles" (PDF) (Resolution 2010-01).
  65. ^ Friesen, T. Max (2015). "On the Naming of Arctic Archaeological Traditions: The Case for Paleo-Inuit". Arctic. 68 (3): iii–iv. doi:10.14430/arctic4504. hdl:10515/sy5sj1b75.
  66. ^ Hodgetts, Lisa; Wells, Patricia (2016). "Priscilla Renouf Remembered: An Introduction to the Special Issue with a Note on Renaming the Palaeoeskimo Tradition". Arctic. 69 (5). doi:10.14430/arctic4678.
  67. ^ Braymer-Hayes, Katelyn; Anderson, Shelby L.; Alix, Claire; Darwent, Christyann M.; Darwent, John; Mason, Owen K.; Norman, Lauren Y.E. (2020). "Studying pre-colonial gendered use of space in the Arctic: Spatial analysis of ceramics in Northwestern Alaska". Journal of Anthropological Archaeology. 58: 101165. doi:10.1016/j.jaa.2020.101165.
  68. ^ a b Grenoble, Lenore A. (2016). "Kalaallisut: The Language of Greenland". In Day, Delyn; Rewi, Poia; Higgins, Rawinia (eds.). The Journeys of Besieged Languages. Cambridge Scholars. p. 284. ISBN 978-1-4438-9943-7.
  69. ^ a b c d Michael Fortescue; Steven Jacobson; Lawance Kaplan. Comparative Eskimo Dictionary with Aleut Cognates. Alaska Native Language Center, University of Alaska Fairbanks.
  70. ^ a b c d e f g h Kaplan, Lawrence. (2001-12-10). "Comparative Yupik and Inuit" Archived 2015-05-16 at the Wayback Machine. Alaska Native Language Center, University of Alaska Fairbanks. Retrieved on August 30, 2012.
  71. ^ a b c "thumb". Asuilaak Living Dictionary. Retrieved 2007-11-25.
  72. ^ a b Jacobson, Steven A. (13 November 2006). "History of the Naukan Yupik Eskimo dictionary with implications for a future Siberian Yupik dictionary". Études/Inuit/Studies. 29 (1–2): 149–161. doi:10.7202/013937ar.
  73. ^ Nelson, Edward William. The Eskimo about Bering Strait. U.S. G.P.O., 1899.
  74. ^ "Greenland". CIA World Factbook. Accessed 14 May 2014.
  75. ^ "Inupiatun". Alaska Native Languages. Alaska Humanities Forum. n.d. Retrieved 19 June 2020. Iñupiaq is spoken by the Iñupiat on the Seward Peninsula, the Northwest Arctic and the North Slope of Alaska
  76. ^ "Facts for Kids: Yup'ik People (Yupik)". www.bigorrin.org. Retrieved 2020-06-20.
  77. ^ "Yupik". (2008). In Encyclopædia Britannica. Retrieved January 13, 2008, from: Encyclopædia Britannica Online Retrieved August 30, 2012.
  78. ^ "Language Loss & Revitalization". alutiiqmuseum.org. Retrieved 2018-06-12.
  79. ^ "Central Alaskan Yup'ik". Alaska Native Language Center. University of Alaska Fairbanks. Archived from the original on February 6, 2007. Retrieved 2007-04-06.
  80. ^ a b Alaska Native Language Center. (2001-12-07).St. Lawrence Island Yupik (Siberian Yupik). Alaska Native Language Center, University of Alaska Fairbanks. Retrieved on August 30, 2012.
  81. ^ Vakhtin 1998: 162
  82. ^ Menovshchikov 1964: 7
  83. ^ a b c Menovshchikov 1990: 70
  84. ^ Menovshchikov 1964: 132
  85. ^ Menovshchikov 1964: 6–7
  86. ^ Menovshchikov 1964: 42
  87. ^ Menovshchikov 1964: 38
  88. ^ Menovshchikov 1964: 81
  89. ^ Menovshchikov 1962: 11
  90. ^ Menovshchikov 1964: 9
  91. ^ a b Vakhtin 1998: 161
  92. ^ Linguist List's description about Nikolai Vakhtin's book: The Old Sirinek Language: Texts, Lexicon, Grammatical Notes. The author's untransliterated (original) name is "Н.Б. Вахтин Archived September 10, 2007, at the Wayback Machine".
  93. ^ Языки эскимосов. ICC Chukotka (in Russian). Inuit Circumpolar Council. Archived from the original on 2014-10-26.
  94. ^ "Ethnologue Report for Eskimo–Aleut". Ethnologue.com. Retrieved 2012-06-13.
  95. ^ Kaplan 1990: 136

Sources

Cyrillic

  • Menovshchikov, Georgy (1964). Язык сиреникских эскимосов. Фонетика, очерк морфологии, тексты и словарь [Language of Sireniki Eskimos. Phonetics, morphology, texts and vocabulary] (in Russian). Москва, Ленинград: Академия Наук СССР. Институт языкознания.

Further reading

External links