Espíritu Santo antelope squirrel

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Espíritu Santo antelope squirrel
Scientific classification
Kingdom: Animalia
Phylum: Chordata
Class: Mammalia
Order: Rodentia
Family: Sciuridae
Genus: Ammospermophilus
Species: A. insularis
Binomial name
Ammospermophilus insularis
(Nelson & Goldman, 1909)
  • Ammospermophilus leucurus insularis
  • Citellus insularis

The Espíritu Santo antelope squirrel (Ammospermophilus insularis) is a species of antelope squirrel in the family Sciuridae.[1] It is endemic to Mexico, where it is known only from the island of Espíritu Santo in the Gulf of California. The species was originally described by Edward William Nelson and Edward Alphonso Goldman in 1909 as a subspecies of the white-tailed antelope squirrel (Ammospermophilus leucurus), a wide-ranging species in the southwestern U.S. and Mexico.[2] In 1938, Arthur H. Howell elevated the subspecies to full species status, on the basis of slightly larger skull proportions and the absence or reduction of the third upper premolar.[3] Studies of DNA and chromosomes have variously suggested close relationships with Harris's antelope squirrels (A. harrisii) or other subspecies of white-tailed antelope squirrel.[4] A 2007 comparison of DNA and morphological traits suggested the differences between Espíritu Santo squirrels and those on the Baja California peninsula and other islands were not enough to warrant distinct species but rather a subspecies of white-tailed antelope squirrels.[5] Since 2008 the IUCN has similarly recognized the Espíritu Santo antelope squirrel as a subspecies of white-tailed antelope squirrel.[6]


  1. ^ Thorington, R.W., Jr.; Hoffman, R.S. (2005). "Family Sciuridae". In Wilson, D.E.; Reeder, D.M. Mammal Species of the World: A Taxonomic and Geographic Reference (3rd ed.). Johns Hopkins University Press. p. 797. ISBN 978-0-8018-8221-0. OCLC 62265494. 
  2. ^ Nelson & Goldman (1909). "Eleven new mammals from Lower California". Proceedings of the Biological Society of Washington 22: 23–28. 
  3. ^ Howell, Arthur H. (1938). "Revision of the North American Ground Squirrels, with a Classification of the North American Sciuridae". North American Fauna 56: 1–256. doi:10.3996/nafa.56.0001. 
  4. ^ Best T. L., Caesar K., Trrus A. S., Lewis C. L. (1990). "Ammospermophilus insularis" (PDF). Mammalian Species (364): 1–4. 
  5. ^ Álvarez-Castañeda, Sergio T. (2007). "Systematics of the Antelope Ground Squirrel (Ammospermophilus) from Islands Adjacent to the Baja California Peninsula". Journal of Mammalogy 88 (5): 1160–1169. doi:10.1644/06-MAMM-A-065R3.1. 
  6. ^ Linzey, A.V., Timm, R., Álvarez-Castañeda, S.T., Castro-Arellano, I. & Lacher, T. (2008). "Ammospermophilus leucurus". IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Version 15.2. International Union for Conservation of Nature. Retrieved 23 June 2015. 

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