Esperanza Base

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Esperanza Base
Base Esperanza
All-civilian Antarctic base
Hope Bay-2016-Trinity Peninsula–Esperanza Station 02.jpg
View of Esperanza Base, January 2016
Official Esperanza Base emblem
Emblem
Motto: Spanish: Permanencia, un acto de sacrificio
("Permanence, an act of sacrifice")
Location within Antarctica
Location within Antarctica
Esperanza Base
Location within Antarctica
Coordinates: 63°24′S 56°59′W / 63.400°S 56.983°W / -63.400; -56.983Coordinates: 63°24′S 56°59′W / 63.400°S 56.983°W / -63.400; -56.983
Country  Argentina
Region Graham Land, Antarctic Peninsula
Location Hope Bay, Trinity Peninsula
Established 1953 (1953)
Named for Spanish: Base Esperanza, ("Hope Base")
Government[a]
 • Type Directorate
 • Body Argentine National Antarctic Directorate
Area
 • Urban[b] 0.3744 ha (0.9252 acres)
Elevation 25 m (82 ft)
Population (2014) 55
Status Active and operational all year-round

Esperanza base (Spanish: Base Esperanza, "Hope Base") is a permanent, all year-round Argentine research station in Hope Bay, Trinity Peninsula (Graham Land, Antarctic Peninsula). It is one of only two civilian settlements on Antarctica (the other being the Chilean Villa Las Estrellas). The Base's motto is "Permanencia, un acto de sacrificio" ("Permanence, an act of sacrifice").

Description[edit]

Children, adolescents and teachers of the school of Esperanza Base receiving computers.

Built in 1953,[1][2][3] the base houses 55 inhabitants in winter, including 10 families and 2 school teachers. Provincial school #38 Presidente Raúl Ricardo Alfonsín (formerly named Julio Argentino Roca) was founded in 1978 and acquired independent status in 1997. It maintains the furthest South Scout troop. The base has some measure of fame because it is the birthplace of Emilio Marcos Palma, the first person to be born in Antarctica. There have been at least seven other children born at the base: María de las Nieves Delgado (born on March 27, 1978), Rubén Eduardo de Carli (21 September 1979), Francisco Javier Sosa (21 September 1979), Silvina Analía Arnouil (January 14, 1980), Jose Manuel Valladares Solis (24 January 1980), Lucas Daniel Posse (4 February 1980) and Maria Sol Cosenza (May 3, 1983).[4][5] The base has an Argentine civil registry office where there have been aforementioned births and weddings.[6]The base has tourist facilities that are visited by about 1,100 tourists each year. The LRA 36 Radio Nacional Arcángel San Gabriel radio station started transmitting in 1979. A wind generator was installed in 2008, mounted by INVAP. video

The 43 buildings of the station have a combined space of 3,744 square metres (40,300 sq ft) covered;[7] 18,000 litres (4,800 US gal) of fuel are used annually by the four generators to produce electricity for the station. Research projects include: glaciology, seismology, oceanography, coastal ecology, biology, geology, and limnology.

Historic site[edit]

A group of items or structures of historic significance at, or close to, the base have been designated a Historic Site or Monument (HSM 40), following a proposal by Argentina to the Antarctic Treaty Consultative Meeting. These comprise a bust of General San Martin, a grotto with a statue of the Virgin of Lujan, a flagpole erected in 1955, and a cemetery with a stele commemorating Argentine expedition members who died in the area.[8]

Climate[edit]

The mean temperatures are −5.5 °C (22.1 °F) and range throughout the year from −10.8 °C (12.6 °F) in winter to 0.2 °C (32.4 °F) in summer. The presence of two months with temperature means just barely above freezing means the climate is classified as a polar tundra (ET) climate in the Köppen system. The temperature trend since 1948 is +0.0315 °C/yr (+0.0567 °F/yr) (annual), +0.0413 °C/yr (+0.0743 °F/yr) (winter) and +0.0300 °C/yr (+0.0540 °F/yr) (summer). The highest temperature recorded was 17.5 °C (63.5 °F) on 24 March 2015.[9]

Climate data for Esperanza (1961–1990, extremes 1945–present)
Month Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Year
Record high °C (°F) 14.9
(58.8)
15.5
(59.9)
17.5
(63.5)
15.9
(60.6)
17.2
(63)
13.3
(55.9)
14.0
(57.2)
13.0
(55.4)
11.4
(52.5)
17.0
(62.6)
14.3
(57.7)
14.6
(58.3)
17.5
(63.5)
Average high °C (°F) 3.1
(37.6)
2.6
(36.7)
−0.4
(31.3)
−3.4
(25.9)
−5.6
(21.9)
−6.6
(20.1)
−6.4
(20.5)
−6.2
(20.8)
−2.7
(27.1)
0.3
(32.5)
1.3
(34.3)
3.2
(37.8)
−1.7
(28.9)
Daily mean °C (°F) 0.5
(32.9)
−0.5
(31.1)
−3.1
(26.4)
−7.3
(18.9)
−9.6
(14.7)
−10.9
(12.4)
−10.8
(12.6)
−10.5
(13.1)
−7.0
(19.4)
−3.6
(25.5)
−1.7
(28.9)
0.4
(32.7)
−5.3
(22.5)
Average low °C (°F) −1.8
(28.8)
−2.9
(26.8)
−6.4
(20.5)
−11.1
(12)
−13.4
(7.9)
−15.1
(4.8)
−15.0
(5)
−14.7
(5.5)
−11.1
(12)
−7.4
(18.7)
−4.6
(23.7)
−2.1
(28.2)
−8.8
(16.2)
Record low °C (°F) −8.5
(16.7)
−13.2
(8.2)
−20.9
(−5.6)
−26.0
(−14.8)
−29.6
(−21.3)
−30.0
(−22)
−38.4
(−37.1)
−32.0
(−25.6)
−32.6
(−26.7)
−23.2
(−9.8)
−18.0
(−0.4)
−9.7
(14.5)
−38.4
(−37.1)
Average precipitation mm (inches) 56.2
(2.213)
65.0
(2.559)
75.5
(2.972)
59.1
(2.327)
54.4
(2.142)
47.4
(1.866)
54.1
(2.13)
72.1
(2.839)
62.2
(2.449)
56.4
(2.22)
65.0
(2.559)
59.0
(2.323)
726.4
(28.598)
Average precipitation days (≥ 0.1 mm) 14 14 17 17 14 11 13 15 15 15 16 16 177
Average snowy days 16 15 16 16 14 13 14 14 16 15 16 16 181
Average relative humidity (%) 82 80 80 80 80 79 80 80 79 80 81 80 80
Mean monthly sunshine hours 93.0 127.1 89.9 60.0 31.0 12.0 21.7 43.4 87.0 136.4 144.0 161.2 1,006.7
Mean daily sunshine hours 3.0 4.5 2.9 2.0 1.0 0.4 0.7 1.4 2.9 4.4 4.8 5.2 2.8
Percent possible sunshine - - - - - - - - - - - - 22
Source #1: Weatherbase (temperatures),[10] NOAA (precipitation),[11] Servicio Meteorológico Nacional (precipitation and snowy days)[12][13]
Source #2: Meteo Climat (record highs and lows),[14] Deutscher Wetterdienst (sun, 1982–1990 and humidity, 1982–1995)[15]

Notes[edit]

  1. ^ Operated by Argentine Antarctic Institute
  2. ^ Indoors area

References[edit]

  1. ^ Interview with General Leal by the Meeting channel
  2. ^ official site
  3. ^ ESPERANZA at marambio.aq
  4. ^ 60 años de Base Esperanza - Fundación Marambio
  5. ^ El primer antártico es argentino - Fundación Marambio
  6. ^ Registro civil "Base Esperanza"
  7. ^ Google Earth satellite images
  8. ^ "List of Historic Sites and Monuments approved by the ATCM (2012)" (PDF). Antarctic Treaty Secretariat. 2012. Retrieved 2013-12-31. 
  9. ^ Mccarthy, Tom (31 March 2015). "Antarctica records unprecedented high temperatures in two new readings". The Guardian. Retrieved 8 July 2015. 
  10. ^ "Weatherbase: Historical Weather for Base Esperanza". Weatherbase. Retrieved February 4, 2013. 
  11. ^ "Base Esperanza Climate Normals 1961–1990". National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration. Retrieved January 23, 2016. 
  12. ^ "B. Espernza Statistical Data (1961-1990)" (in Spanish). Servicio Meteorológico Nacional. Retrieved January 23, 2016. 
  13. ^ "Valores Medios de Temperatura y Precipitación-Antártida: Base Esperanza" (in Spanish). Servicio Meteorológico Nacional. Retrieved January 23, 2016. 
  14. ^ "Station Base Esperanza" (in French). Meteo Climat. Retrieved June 6, 2016. 
  15. ^ "Klimatafel von Esperanza (Argentinien) / Antarkt. Halbinsel / Antarktis" (PDF). Baseline climate means (1961-1990) from stations all over the world (in German). Deutscher Wetterdienst. Retrieved January 23, 2016. 

Further reading[edit]

  • Antarctica. Sydney: Reader's Digest, 1985, p. 156-157.
  • Child, Jack. Antarctica and South American Geopolitics: Frozen Lebensraum. New York: Praeger Publishers, 1988, p. 73.
  • Lonely Planet, Antarctica: a Lonely Planet Travel Survival Kit, Oakland, CA: Lonely Planet Publications, 1996, 302-304.
  • Stewart, Andrew, Antarctica: An Encyclopedia. London: McFarland and Co., 1990 (2 volumes), p. 469.
  • U.S. National Science Foundation, Geographic Names of the Antarctic, Fred G. Alberts, ed. Washington: NSF, 1980.

External links[edit]