Essex

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Essex
County
Flag of Essex Arms of Essex County Council
Flag Coat of arms
Essex within England
Essex in England
Coordinates: 51°45′N 0°35′E / 51.750°N 0.583°E / 51.750; 0.583Coordinates: 51°45′N 0°35′E / 51.750°N 0.583°E / 51.750; 0.583
Sovereign state United Kingdom
Country England
Region East
Established Ancient
Ceremonial county
Lord Lieutenant John Petre
High Sheriff Mrs L J Rolfe [1] (2016-17)
Area 3,670 km2 (1,420 sq mi)
 • Ranked 11th of 48
Population (mid-2015 est.) 1,787,000
 • Ranked 7th of 48
Density 486/km2 (1,260/sq mi)
Ethnicity 90.8% White British
3.6% White Other
2.5% Asian
1.3% Black
1.5% Mixed
0.3% Other
Non-metropolitan county
County council Essex County Council
Executive Conservative
Admin HQ Chelmsford
Area 3,465 km2 (1,338 sq mi)
 • Ranked 11th of 27
Population 1,443,200
 • Ranked 2nd of 27
Density 416/km2 (1,080/sq mi)
ISO 3166-2 GB-ESS
ONS code 22
GSS code E10000012
NUTS UKH33
Website www.essex.gov.uk
Unitary authorities
Councils Southend-on-Sea Borough Council
Thurrock Council
Essex Ceremonial Numbered.png
Districts of Essex
Unitary County council area
Districts
  1. Harlow
  2. Epping Forest
  3. Brentwood
  4. Basildon
  5. Castle Point
  6. Rochford
  7. Maldon
  8. City of Chelmsford
  9. Uttlesford
  10. Braintree
  11. Colchester
  12. Tendring
  13. Thurrock
  14. Southend-on-Sea
Members of Parliament List of MPs
Police Essex Police
Time zone GMT (UTC)
 • Summer (DST) BST (UTC+1)

Essex /ˈɛsks/ is a county in England immediately north-east of London. It borders the counties of Suffolk and Cambridgeshire to the north, Hertfordshire to the west, Kent across the estuary of the River Thames to the south and London to the south-west. The county town is Chelmsford, which is the only city in the county.

Essex occupies the eastern part of the old Kingdom of Essex, before this and the other Anglian and Saxon kingdoms became united to make England a single nation state. As well as rural areas, the county also includes London Stansted Airport, the new towns of Basildon and Harlow, Lakeside Shopping Centre, the port of Tilbury and the town of Southend-on-Sea.

History[edit]

Main article: History of Essex

The name Essex originates in the Anglo-Saxon period of the Early Middle Ages and has its root in the Anglo-Saxon i.e. Old English name Ēastseaxe (i.e. the "East Saxons"), the eastern kingdom of the Saxons who had come from the continent and settled in Britain (cf. Middlesex, Sussex and Wessex) during the Heptarchy. Originally recorded in AD 527, Essex occupied territory to the north of the River Thames, incorporating all of what later became Middlesex (which probably included Surrey) and most of what later became Hertfordshire. Its territory was later restricted to lands east of the River Lea.[2]

Colchester in the northeast of the county is Britain's oldest recorded town, dating back to before the Roman conquest, when it was known as Camulodunum and was sufficiently well-developed to have its own mint. In AD 824, following the Battle of Ellandun, the kingdoms of the East Saxons, the South Saxons and the Jutes of Kent were absorbed into the kingdom of the West Saxons, uniting Saxland under King Alfred's grandfather Egberht. In changes before the Norman conquest the East Saxons were subsumed into the Kingdom of England and, following the Norman conquest, Essex became a county.

During the medieval period, much of the area was designated a Royal forest, including the entire county in a period to 1204, when the area "north of the Stanetreet" was disafforested.[3] Gradually, the areas subject to forest law diminished, but at various times included the forests of Becontree, Chelmsford, Epping, Hatfield, Ongar and Waltham.[4]

County-wide administration

Essex County Council was formed in 1889. However County Boroughs of West Ham (1889–1965), Southend-on-Sea (1914–1974)[5] and East Ham (1915–1965) formed part of the county but were unitary authorities (not under county council control).[6] 12 boroughs and districts provide more localised services such as rubbish and recycling collections, leisure and planning, as shown in the map on the right.

Parish-level administration – changes

A few Essex parishes have been transferred to other counties. Before 1889, small areas were transferred to Hertfordshire near Bishops Stortford and Sawbridgeworth. At the time of the main changes around the turn of the 19th/20th centuries; parts of Helions Bumpstead, Sturmer, Kedington and Ballingdon-with-Brundon were transferred to Suffolk and Great Chishill, Little Chishill and Heydon were transferred to Cambridgeshire. Later, part of Hadstock, part of Ashton and part of Chrishall were transferred to Cambridgeshire and part of Great Horkesley went to Suffolk and several other small parcels of land were transferred to all those counties.

Boundaries

The boundary with Greater London was established in 1965 when East Ham and West Ham county boroughs and the Barking, Chingford, Dagenham, Hornchurch, Ilford, Leyton, Romford, Walthamstow and Wanstead and Woodford districts[6] were transferred to form the London boroughs of Barking and Dagenham, Havering, Newham, Redbridge and Waltham Forest. Essex became part of the East of England Government Office Region in 1994 and was statistically counted as part of that region from 1999, having previously been part of the South East England region.

Two unitary authorities

In 1998 the boroughs of Southend-on-Sea and Thurrock were granted autonomy from the administrative county of Essex after successful requests to become unitary authorities (numbered 13 and 14 on the map to the right).[7][8]

Essex Police covers the administrative county and the two unitary authorities.[9] The county council chamber and main headquarters is at the County Hall in Chelmsford. Before 1938 the council regularly met in London near Moorgate, which with significant parts closer to that point and the dominance of railways had been more convenient than any place in the county. It currently has 75 elected councillors. Before 1965, the number of councillors reached over 100. The County Hall, made a listed building in 2007, dates largely from the mid-1930s and is decorated with fine artworks of that period, mostly the gift of the family who owned the textile firm Courtaulds.

Geography[edit]

The highest point of the county of Essex is Chrishall Common near the village of Langley, close to the Hertfordshire border, which reaches 482 feet (147 m). The ceremonial county of Essex is bounded to the south by the River Thames and its estuary (a boundary shared with Kent); to the southwest by Greater London; to the west by Hertfordshire with the boundary largely defined by the River Lea and the Stort; to the northwest by Cambridgeshire; to the north by Suffolk, a boundary mainly defined by the River Stour; and to the east by the North Sea.

The pattern of settlement in the county is diverse. The Metropolitan Green Belt has effectively prevented the further sprawl of London into the county, although it contains the new towns of Basildon and Harlow, originally developed to resettle Londoners following the destruction of London housing in World War II, since which significantly developed and expanded. Epping Forest also acts as a protected barrier to the further spread of London. Because of its proximity to London and the economic magnetism which that city exerts, many of Essex's settlements, particularly those on or within short driving distance of railway stations, function as dormitory towns or villages where London workers raise their families.

The village of Finchingfield in north Essex

Part of the southeast of the county, already containing the major population centres of Basildon, Southend and Thurrock, is within the Thames Gateway and designated for further development. Parts of the southwest of the county such as Buckhurst Hill and Chigwell are contiguous with Greater London neighbourhoods and so for some purposes these are included in the statistical unit the Greater London Urban Area.

A small part of the southwest of the county (Sewardstone), is the only settlement outside Greater London to be covered by a postcode district of the London post town (E4). To the north of the green belt, with the exception of major towns such as Colchester and Chelmsford, the county is rural, with many small towns, villages and hamlets largely built in the traditional materials of timber and brick, with clay tile or thatched roofs. This region tends to have more similarities with East Anglia than the southern and western parts of the county.

Economy[edit]

Industry is largely limited to the south of the county, with the majority of the land elsewhere being given over to agriculture. Harlow is a centre for electronics, science and pharmaceutical companies. Chelmsford has been an important location for electronics companies, such as the Marconi Company, since the industry was born and is also the location for a number of insurance and financial services organisations, and until 2015 the home of the soft drinks producer Britvic. Basildon is home to New Holland Agriculture's European headquarters and Brentwood is home to the Ford Motor Company's British HQ. Debden near Loughton is home to a production facility for British and foreign banknotes.

Other businesses in the county are dominated by mechanical engineering including but not limited to metalworking, glassmaking and plastics and the service sector. Colchester is a garrison town, and the local economy is helped by the Army's personnel living there. Basildon is the location of State Street Corporation's United Kingdom HQ International Financial Data Services, and remains heavily dependent on London for employment, due to its proximity and direct transport routes. Southend-on-Sea is home to the Adventure Island theme park and is one of the few still growing British Seaside resorts, benefiting from direct, modern rail links from Fenchurch Street railway station and Liverpool Street station (placing housing in high demand, especially for financial services commuters), which thereby maintains the town's commercial and general economy.

Parts of Eastern Essex suffer from high levels of deprivation, with one of the most highly deprived wards being in the seaside town of Clacton.[10] In the Indices of deprivation 2007, Jaywick was identified as the most deprived Lower Super Output Area in Southern England.[11] Unemployment was estimated at 44% and many homes were found to lack severely basic amenities. The Brooklands and Grasslands area of Jaywick were found to be the third most deprived area in England; two areas in Liverpool and Manchester rated higher. In contrast, however, West and South West Essex is one of the most affluent parts of Eastern England, forming part of the London commuter belt. Here there is a large middle class and the area is widely known for its private schools. In 2008, The Daily Telegraph found Brentwood and Ingatestone to be the 19th and 14th richest towns in the UK respectively.[12]

Politics[edit]

Westminster and the 2016 EU referendum[edit]

Essex has been a strongly Conservative county in the United Kingdom and 11 of its 18 constituency MPs have absolute majorities (over 50%). Despite the 17 Conservative MPs in Essex, the county has also witnessed several of its constituencies vote for the Labour Party: most recently, Thurrock, Harlow, Clacton, South Basildon and East Thurrock and Braintree, during Blair’s 1997 and 2001 landslides. The Liberal Democrats, until 2015 had a sizeable following in Essex, gaining Colchester in the 1997 General Election.

Results of the 2015 UK General Election in Essex

Following the 2015 General Election, Essex became a UKIP stronghold, with their only MP, Douglas Carswell gaining the seat of Clacton in 2014 in a by-election and other strong performances, notably in Thurrock and Castle Point.

In the EU referendum, Essex voted overwhelmingly to leave the EU, with all 14 District Councils voting to leave, the smallest margin being in Uttlesford.[13]

Essex County Council[edit]

This is the county council that governs the non-metropolitan county of Essex in England. It has 75 councillors, elected from 70 divisions, some of which elect more than one member, and is currently controlled by the Conservative Party.[2] The council meets at County Hall in the centre of Chelmsford.

At the time of the 2011 census it served a population of 1,393,600, which makes it one of the largest local authorities in England. As a non-metropolitan county council, responsibilities are shared between districts (including boroughs) and in many areas also between civil parish (including town) councils. Births, marriages/civil partnerships and death registration, roads, libraries and archives, refuse disposal, most of state education, of social services and of transport are provided at the county level.[3]

The county council was formed in 1889, governing the administrative county of Essex. The county council was reconstituted in 1974 as a non-metropolitan county council, regaining jurisdiction in Southend-on-Sea, however the non-metropolitan county was reduced in size in 1998 and the council passed responsibilities to Southend-on-Sea Borough Council and Thurrock Council in those districts. For certain services the three authorities co-operate through joint arrangements, such as the Essex fire authority.

Composition of the Essex County Council in 2013 after the county election

Following the 2013 County Council elections the Conservative Party retained overall control of the council, but their majority fell from twenty-two to four councillors. UKIP, Labour and the Liberal Democrats all won nine seats. Of the three second-placed parties who won nine seats, UKIP gained the largest share of the county-wide vote, more than 10% ahead of the Labour party.[3] The Liberal Democrats remain as the official Opposition, despite winning fewer votes.[3] The Green Party gained two seats on the Council, despite its overall share of the vote falling. The Independent Loughton Residents Association and the Canvey Island Independent Party both returned one member and an Independent candidate was also elected. The next election will be in 2017.

The county of Essex is divided into 12 district and borough councils with 2 unitary authorities (Southend on Sea and Thurrock). The 12 councils manage housing, local planning, refuse collection, street cleaning, elections and meet in their respective civic offices. The local representatives are elected in parts in local elections, held every year.[14]

In regards to the 2 unitary authorities, the county council isn’t used to conduct business, but works closely with the unitary authorites to deliver the “best value service” to all residents.

Youth councils[edit]

The Essex County Council also has a Youth Assembly, 75 members aged between 11 and 19 who aim to represent all young people in their districts across Essex. They decide on the priorities for young people and campaign to make a difference.[15] With this, some district and unitary authorities may have their own youth councils, such as Epping Forest,[16] Uttlesford[17] and Harlow.[18]

All these councilors are elected by their schools. The elections to the Young Essex Assembly occur in the respective schools in which the candidates are standing, likewise for the youth councils at a district and unitary level. These young people will then go on to represent their school and their parish/ward or (in the case of the Young Essex Assembly) their entire district.

The initiative seeks to engage younger people in the county and rely on the youth councilors of all status to work closely with schools and youth centers to improve youth services in Essex and help promote the opinions of the Essex youth generation.

Local government[edit]

Town and parish councils vary in size from those with a population of around 200 to those with a population of over 30,000. Annual expenditure can vary greatly, depending on the circumstances of the individual council. Parish and town councils (local councils) have the same powers and duties, but a town council may elect a town mayor, rather than a chairman, each year in May.

There are just under 300 town and parish councils within Essex.[14]

Local councils play a vital role in representing the interests of their communities and improving the quality of life and the local environment. They can also influence other decision makers and can deliver services to meet local needs. Their powers and duties range from maintaining allotments and open spaces to crime prevention and providing recreation facilities.

Local councils have the right to become statutory consultees at both district and county level and, although the decision remains with the planning authorities, local councils can influence the decision-making process by making informed comments and recommendations.[14]

e • d  2015 UK General Election in Essex
Party 2010 votes 2015 votes ± 2010% 2015% ± 2010 seats 2015 seats ±
Conservative 417,156 436,758 Increase 19,602 49.2 49.6 Increase 0.4 17 17 Steady
UKIP 35,150 177,756 Increase 142,606 4.1 20.2 Increase 16.1 0 1 Increase 1
Labour 157,134 171,026 Increase 13,892 18.5 19.4 Increase 0.9 0 0 Steady
Liberal Democrat 180,391 58,592 Decrease 121,799 21.3 6.6 Decrease 14.7 1 0 Decrease 1
Green 8,080 25,993 Increase 17,913 1.0 3.0 Increase 2.0 0 0 Steady
Other 15,651 6,919 Decrease 8,732 1.8 0.7 Decrease 1.1 0 0 Steady
Residents for Uttlesford N/A 1,658 Increase 1,658 N/A 0.1 Increase 0.1 0 0 Steady
Liberal N/A 665 Increase 665 N/A 0.07 Increase 0.07 0 0 Steady
English Democrats 4,130 453 Decrease 3,677 0.4 0.05 Decrease 0.35 0 0 Steady
CISTA N/A 244 Increase 244 N/A 0.02 Increase 0.02 0 0 Steady
Christian People's 267 189 Decrease 78 0.03 0.02 Decrease 0.01 0 0 Steady
TUSC N/A 174 Increase 174 N/A 0.02 Increase 0.02 0 0 Steady
BNP 29,030 108 Decrease 28,922 3.4 0.01 Decrease 3.39 0 0 Steady
Young People's N/A 80 Increase 80 N/A 0 Increase 0 0 0 Steady
All People's N/A 31 Increase 31 N/A 0 Increase 0 0 0 Steady
Total 847,090 879,918 100% 100% 18 18

Transport[edit]

London Stansted Airport, in the north west of the county

The main airport in Essex is London Stansted Airport, serving destinations in Europe, North Africa and Asia.[19] The Conservative-Liberal Democrat coalition government formed in May 2010 agreed not to allow a further runway until a set time period,[when?] so curtailing the operator's ambitions for expansion. London Southend Airport, once one of Britain's busiest airports, opened a new runway extension, terminal building and railway station in March 2012.[20] The station is on the Shenfield to Southend Line, with a direct link to the capital.

Southend Airport offers scheduled flights to Ireland, the Channel Islands and multiple destinations in Europe. Essex has several smaller airfields, some of which owe their origins to military bases built during World War I or World War II, giving pleasure flights or flying lessons; examples include Clacton Airfield, Earls Colne Airfield, and Stapleford Aerodrome.

The Port of Tilbury is one of Britain's three major ports, while the port of Harwich links the county, with a passenger and freight service to the Hook of Holland and a freight service to Europoort. A service to Esbjerg, Denmark ceased in September 2014[21] and earlier a service to Cuxhaven, a port on the Elbe estuary in Germany, was discontinued in December 2005. The UK's largest container terminal London Gateway at Shell Haven in Thurrock partly opened in November 2013, Final completion date is yet to be confirmed.[22] The port was opposed by the local authority and environmental and wildlife organisations.[23][24][25]

Queen Elizabeth II Bridge spanning the Thames from West Thurrock, Essex, to Dartford, Kent

East of the Dartford Road Crossing to Dartford, Kent, across the Thames Estuary a ferry for pedestrians to Gravesend, Kent operates from Tilbury during limited daily hours, and ferries for pedestrians operate across some of Essex's rivers and estuaries during spring and summer. The M25 and M11 motorway both cross the county in the extreme south and west, enabling regular commuting to/from parts of the county with Kent, Hertfordshire and Cambridge. The A127 and A13 trunk roads are important radial routes connecting London and the M25 to the south of Essex. The A12 runs across the county from the south west to the north east and carries traffic not just within Essex but also between London and Suffolk, east Norfolk and the ports of Felixstowe and Harwich.

Rail goods have several ports and dedicated lines.[26]

Much of Essex lies within the London commuter belt. Abellio Greater Anglia (run by Abellio, the international arm of Nederlandse Spoorwegen) is the key railway operator in the county, providing commuter services into London Liverpool Street and regional services throughout the East of England. The main railway routes in Essex include:

The southernmost part of Epping Forest district is served by the London Underground Central line. The routes operated by Abellio Greater Anglia were operated by National Express East Anglia and were previously branded as 'One'. Branch lines include:

South Essex Rapid Transit is a proposed public transport scheme which would provide a fast, reliable public transport service in and between Thurrock, Basildon and Southend.[28]

Education[edit]

Education in Essex is substantially provided by three authorities being Essex County Council and the two unitary authorities, Southend-on-Sea and Thurrock. In all there are some 90 state secondary schools provided by these authorities, the majority of which are comprehensive, although one in Uttlesford, two in Chelmsford, two in Colchester and four in Southend-on-Sea are selective grammar schools. There are also various independent schools particularly, as mentioned above, in rural parts and the west of the county.[29][30]

The University of Essex, which was established in 1963, is located just outside Colchester, with two further campuses in Loughton and Southend-on-Sea. University Campus Suffolk, with a main campus in Ipswich and five centres in the counties of Norfolk and Suffolk, is a joint venture between University of Essex and East Anglia polytechnic.

Culture[edit]

Depiction of the first king of the East Saxons, Æscwine, his shield showing the three seaxes emblem attributed to him (from John Speed's 1611 Saxon Heptarchy)

The county's coat of arms comprises three Saxon seax knives (although looking rather more like scimitars) arranged on a red background (Gules three Seaxes fessewise in pale Argent pomels and hilts Or points to the sinister and cutting edges upwards); the three-seax device is also used as the official logo of Essex County Council having been granted as such in 1932.[31] The emblem was attributed to Anglo-Saxon Essex in Early Modern historiography. The earliest reference the arms of the East Saxon kings was by Richard Verstegan, the author of A Restitution of Decayed Intelligence (Antwerp, 1605), claiming that "Erkenwyne king of the East-Saxons did beare for his armes, three [seaxes] argent, in a field gules". There is no earlier evidence substantiating Verstegan's claim, which is an anachronism for the Anglo-Saxon period seeing that heraldry only evolved in the 12th century, well after the Norman conquest. John Speed in his Historie of Great Britaine (1611) follows Verstegan in his descriptions of the arms of Erkenwyne, but he qualifies the statement by adding "as some or our heralds have emblazed".[31]

The Hay Wain by John Constable shows the Essex landscape on the right bank.

Essex is also home to the Dunmow Flitch Trials, a traditional ceremony that takes place every four years and consists of a test of a married couple's devotion to one another. A common claim of the origin of the Dunmow Flitch dates back to 1104 and the Augustinian priory of Little Dunmow, founded by Lady Juga Baynard. Lord of the Manor Reginald Fitzwalter and his wife dressed themselves as humble folk and begged blessing of the Prior a year and a day after marriage. The prior, impressed by their devotion bestowed upon them a flitch of bacon. Upon revealing his true identity, Fitzwalter gave his land to the priory on the condition a flitch should be awarded to any couple who could claim they were similarly devoted. By the 14th century, the Dunmow Flitch Trials appear to have achieved a significant reputation outside the local area. The author William Langland, who lived on the Welsh borders, mentions it in his 1362 book The Vision of Piers Plowman in a manner that implies general knowledge of the custom among his readers.[32]

Essex has become associated with the derogatory stereotype, 'Essex girl' and the political stereotype 'Essex man'. The association has been amplified in popular culture through the reality television series 'TOWIE' (The Only Way Is Essex), which has attracted criticism for its stereotyping.

The Essex dialect, an accent related to the Suffolk dialect, was formerly prevalent in the county but is now mostly replaced by Estuary English.

Sport[edit]

Essex is home to two English Football League teams in Southend United and Colchester United, with both teams playing in the league as high as the Championship during their history. As of 2016-17 Southend United are in League One, while Colchester United are in League Two. Braintree Town are the next highest placed football team playing in the National League, while the highest domestic trophy for non league teams, the FA Trophy has been won on four occasions by Essex teams with the last coming in 2005-06 season with Grays Athletic.

Essex County Cricket Club became a First Class County in 1894. The county has won 6 County Championship league titles which occurred during the dominant period between 1979 and 1992. The team won promotion to Division One by winning the 2016 Division Two title.

The County is also home to the Lakeside Hammers speedway team (formerly Arena Essex Hammers), the Chelmsford Chieftains Ice Hockey team and the Essex Leopards basketball team. It has previously been home to the Essex Eels Rugby League team, as well as the Essex Pirates basketball team.

During the 2012 London Olympics, Hadleigh played host to the Mountain Bike races.

Many world renown sport stars have come from or trained in Essex. These have included swimmer Mark Foster; cricket stars Trevor Bailey and Graham Gooch; footballers Peter Taylor, James Tomkins, Justin Edinburgh, Nigel Spink; tennis stars John Lloyd and David Lloyd; Olympic Gold winning gymnast Max Whitlock; Olympic sailing champion Saskia Clark; World Champion snooker stars Stuart Bingham & Steve Davis; World champion boxers Terry Marsh & Frank Bruno; London Marathon winner Eamonn Martin; International rugby players Malcolm O'Kelly and Stuart Barnes; Formula 1 and Sports car drivers Johnny Herbert & Perry McCarthy.

Landmarks[edit]

Over 14,000 buildings have listed status in the county, and around 1000 of those are recognised as of Grade I or II* importance.[33] The buildings range from the 7th century Saxon church of St Peter-on-the-Wall, to the Royal Corinthian Yacht Club which was the United Kingdom's entry in the "International Exhibition of Modern Architecture" held at the Museum of Modern Art in New York City in 1932. Southend Pier is in the Guinness Book of Records as the longest pleasure pier in the world.

Places of interest[edit]

See full article, List of places of interest in Essex.

Key
AP Icon.svg Abbey/Priory/Cathedral
Accessible open space Accessible open space
Themepark uk icon.png Amusement/Theme Park
CL icon.svg Castle
Country Park Country Park
EH icon.svg English Heritage
Forestry commission logo.svg Forestry Commission
Heritage railway Heritage railway
Historic house Historic House
Museum (free)
Museum
Museum (free/not free)
National Trust National Trust
Drama-icon.svg Theatre
Zoo icon.jpg Zoo
Skyline of Southend-on-Sea

Notable persons[edit]

Sister counties and regions[edit]

See also[edit]

Notes and references[edit]

Notes
  1. ^ "Essex 2016/2017". High Sheriff's Association of England and Wales. Retrieved 5 December 2016. 
  2. ^ Vision of Britain – Essex ancient county boundaries map
  3. ^ The Free Dictionary – definition
  4. ^ Raymond Grant (1991). The royal forests of England. Wolfeboro Falls, NH: Alan Sutton. ISBN 0-86299-781-X. 086299781X.  see table, p224 for Essex Stanestreet and p221-229 for details of each forest
  5. ^ Vision of Britain – Southend-on-Sea MB/CB
  6. ^ a b Vision of Britain – Essex admin county (historic map)
  7. ^ Essex County Council – District or Borough Councils
  8. ^ OPSI – The Essex (Boroughs of Colchester, Southend-on-Sea and Thurrock and District of Tendring) (Structural, Boundary and Electoral Changes) Order 1996
  9. ^ OPSI – The Essex (Police Area and Authority) Order 1997
  10. ^ "Did you know deprivation in Chelmsford Diocese". Archived from the original on 8 March 2012. Retrieved 4 February 2016. 
  11. ^ "Jackwich: Village 'third most deprived area in UK'". Archived from the original on 9 October 2011. Retrieved 4 February 2016. 
  12. ^ "Britain's richest towns: 20 – 11". The Daily Telegraph. London. 18 April 2008. Archived from the original on 3 February 2014. 
  13. ^ "Recap: EU referendum 2016 Essex reaction to historic Brexit vote". Essex Live. 2016-06-23. Retrieved 2017-02-14. 
  14. ^ a b c "Local government structure". www.essex.gov.uk. Retrieved 2017-02-14. 
  15. ^ "About us". www.young-essex-assembly.org.uk. Retrieved 2017-02-14. 
  16. ^ Warr, Mike. "Youth Council". www.eppingforestdc.gov.uk. Retrieved 2017-02-14. 
  17. ^ R4U (2016-12-14). "Residents for Uttlesford [R4U] | R4U's Uttlesford Youth Council initiative gets green light". Residents for Uttlesford. Retrieved 2017-02-14. 
  18. ^ "Youth Council | Harlow Council". www.harlow.gov.uk. Retrieved 2017-02-14. 
  19. ^ Cheap flights from London Stansted to Sharm El Sheikh. easyJet.com (17 February 2013). Retrieved on 17 July 2013.
  20. ^ Topham, Gwyn (5 March 2012). "London Southend airport: flying under the radar (and to the left of the pier)". The Guardian. London. Retrieved 5 March 2012. 
  21. ^ http://www.bbc.co.uk/news/uk-england-essex-29353171
  22. ^ "London Gateway : Home". www.londongateway.com. Retrieved 2016-06-18. 
  23. ^ Portswatch: Current Port Proposals: London Gateway (Shell Haven). Retrieved 15 April 2009.
  24. ^ Thurrock Council. (26 February 2003). Shell Haven public inquiry opens. Retrieved 15 April 2009.
  25. ^ Dredging News Online. (18 May 2008). Harbour Development, Shell Haven, UK. Retrieved 15 April 2009.
  26. ^ "OS Maps - online and App mapping system | Ordnance Survey Shop". getamap.ordnancesurvey.co.uk. Retrieved 2016-06-18. 
  27. ^ "National Rail Enquiries - Official source for UK train times and timetables". www.nationalrail.co.uk. Retrieved 2016-06-18. 
  28. ^ "FAQs". www.sert.org.uk. Archived from the original on 2 September 2009. Retrieved 2016-06-18. 
  29. ^ Essex County Council. (2006). Secondary School Information. Retrieved 15 April 2009.
  30. ^ independent schools Directory. (2009). Independent Schools in Essex. Retrieved 15 April 2009.
  31. ^ a b Robert Young. (2009). Civic Heraldry of England and Wales. Essex. Retrieved 16 April 2009.
  32. ^ "Dunmow Flitch Trials - History - Background". www.dunmowflitchtrials.co.uk. Retrieved 2016-06-18. 
  33. ^ Bettley, James. (2008). Essex Explored: Essex Architecture. Essex County Council. Retrieved 15 April 2009.
  34. ^ "Colchester Castle Museum-Index". Colchestermuseums.org.uk. Retrieved 23 April 2010. 

[23] Essex Coast Walk. Peter Caton 2009. ISBN 978-1848761162

External links[edit]